In Their Own Words, online at https://ilikemyteeth.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/RespectedOrgs-noPics_v2a.pdf
From the website of the Campaign for Dental Health
© 2018 American Academy of Pediatrics
Academy of General Dentistry:
“Fluoride makes the entire tooth structure more resistant to decay and promotes remineralization, which aids in repairing early decay before damage is even visible. Studies have confirmed the most effective source of fluoride to be water fluoridation.”
“Instead of drilling holes to fix cavities, dentists would rather educate the public on how to avoid developing tooth decay in the first place. Drinking tap water to receive fluoride is safe, and it’s easier on your wallet than going to the dentist for a filling.”
Reference 1: Academy of General Dentistry. Drinking tap water may help you avoid dentist’s drill, study says. ScienceDaily website. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100413121328.htm. Published April 13, 2010. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Academy of Family Physicians:
“Fluoridation of public water supplies is a safe, economical, and effective measure to prevent dental caries.”
Reference 5: Fluoridation of public water supplies. American Academy of Family Physicians website. http://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/fluoride.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Academy of Pediatrics:
“Water fluoridation is a cost-effective means of preventing dental caries, with the lifetime cost per person equaling less than the cost of 1 dental restoration. In short, fluoridated water is the cheapest and most effective way to deliver anticaries benefits to communities.”2
“Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood, and water fluoridation is one of the most important public health initiatives in the 20th century. The AAP agrees that water fluoridation is beneficial for reducing and controlling tooth decay and promoting oral health in children and adults.”3
Reference 2: American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Pediatric Dentistry and Oral Health. Preventive oral health intervention for pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2008;122(6):1387-1394. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/122/6/1387.full.pdf+html . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Reference 3: American Academy of Pediatrics. AAP Press Statement on HHS & EPA Recommended Change in Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water. https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/AAP-Press-Statement-on-HHS–EPA-Recommended-Change-in-Fluoride-Levels-in-Drinking-Water.aspx. Accessed June 19,2018.
American Academy of Pediatrics (New York State Chapter):
“Community water fluoridation is safe, effective and necessary to prevent chronic dental disease in pediatric populations.”
“Dental decay is a common but preventable, chronic disease. It is our youngest children who are at the greatest risk for developing early dental disease while not having access to a dental care home. … Without community water fluoridation the incidence of this disease and its attendant complications will increase.”
Reference 4: American Academy of Pediatrics New York Chapters 2 and 3. Letter to New York City Council Member Peter Vallone Jr. http://www.bu.edu/mcoh/files/2009/06/AAPNY3-Fluoride20111.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons:
“Community water fluoridation, which adjusts the fluoride in water to a level sufficient for preventing and controlling tooth decay, reduces tooth decay by 30–50%.”
“Although great progress has been made, nearly 28% of public water systems do not have the capacity to deliver—and approximately 100 million Americans do not have access to—optimally fluoridated water. Many communities need support to upgrade or purchase new water systems and fluoridation equipment.”
Reference 6: American Dental Association, et al. Letter to Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. June 3, 2010. http://www.aaoms.org/docs/govt_affairs/issue_letters/ppaca.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Association of Public Health Dentistry:
“… it has been shown that children with the greatest dental need and who are at highest risk for tooth decay benefit the most from water fluoridation.”
The resolution also stated: “The Association recommends that federal, state, and local agencies and organizations promote water fluoridation as the foundation for better oral health.”
Reference 7: Resolution on community water fluoridation. American Association of Public Health Dentistry website. http://www.aaphd.org/resolution-on-community-water-fluoridation–cwf- . Published March, 2010. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Council on Science and Health:
“Fluoride is harmless at the levels necessary for maximum (dental) benefits. Thousands of studies on fluorides and fluoridation have been completed in the last 50 years — more than 3,700 since 1970 alone. Over 50 peer-reviewed epidemiological studies have dealt with the claim that fluoridation increases cancer risk. None has substantiated the claim.”
Reference 8: Easley MW. Fluoridation: a triumph of science over propaganda. Priorities. 1996;8(4):35-39. http://fluoridealert.org/news/fluoridation-a-triumph-of-science-over-propaganda/. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Dental Association:
“More than 70 years of scientific research has consistently shown that an optimal level of fluoride in community water is safe and effective in preventing tooth decay by at least 25% in both children and adults. Simply by drinking water, Americans can benefit from fluoride’s cavity protection whether they are at home, work or school.”9
“Fluoride in water is the most efficient way to prevent one of the most common childhood diseases – tooth decay. An estimated 51 million school hours and 164 million work hours are lost each year due to dental-related illness. Community water fluoridation is so effective at preventing tooth decay that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention named it one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century.”10
Reference 9: Fluoride in Water. American Dental Association website http://www.ada.org/en/public-programs/advocating-for-the-public/fluoride-and-fluoridation. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Reference 10: American Dental Association. 5 Reasons Why Fluoride in Water is Good for Communities. https://www.ada.org/en/public-programs/advocating-for-the-public/fluoride-and-fluoridation/5-reasons-why-fluoride-in-water-is-good-for-communities. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Dental Education Association:
“It has been called one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century, yet 70 years after its introduction in the United States, community water fluoridation can no longer be taken for granted.”
“ADEA supports and encourages fluoridation of community water supplies and the use of topical fluoride.”
Reference 11: Setting the record straight about fluoride. American Dental Education Association website. Ocober 15, 2014. https://adeachartingprogress.wordpress.com/2014/10/15/setting-the-record-straight-on-fluoride/. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Dental Hygienists’ Association:
“Good scientific evidence supports the use of community water fluoridation and the use of fluoride dental products for preventing tooth decay for both children and adults.
“Adjusting the level of fluoride in drinking water first used fluoride as a preventative for tooth decay in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used successfully in the United States for more than 50 years.”
Reference 12: Fluoride facts. American Dental Hygienists’ Association website. https://www.adha.org/resources-docs/7253_Fluoride_Facts.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Dietetic Association:
“The American Dietetic Association reaffirms that fluoride is an important element for all mineralized tissues in the body. Appropriate fluoride exposure and usage is beneficial to bone and tooth integrity and, as such, has an important, positive impact on health throughout life.”
Reference 13: Palmer C, Wolfe SH; for American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: the impact of fluoride on health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(10):1620-1628.
American Federation of Teachers:
“The good news is that tooth decay and other oral diseases are preventable. The combination of dental sealants and fluoride has the potential to nearly eliminate tooth decay in school-age children.”
Reference 14: Linking children’s health to education. American Federation of Teachers website.http://www.aft.org/childrens-health. Accessed on June 19, 2019.
American Medical Association:
“The AMA recognizes the important public health benefits of drinking properly fluoridated water and encourages its member physicians and medical societies to work with local and state health departments, dental societies, and concerned citizens to assure the optimal fluoridation of community drinking water supplies”
Reference 15: Medical Testimonials about Fluoridation. AMA Letter to the American Dental Association, March 10, 1995. https://www.ada.org/en/public-programs/advocating-for-the-public/fluoride-and-fluoridation/medical-testimonials-about-fluoridation. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Osteopathic Association:
“The American Osteopathic Association supports the fluoridation of fluoride-deficient public water supply.”
Reference 16: AOA House of Delegates. Resolution H268-A/04 Fluoridation. Approved 2004. Reaffirmed 2009. American Osteopathic Association website. http://www.osteopathic.org/inside-aoa/about/leadership/Documents/policy-compendium.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Public Health Association:
“Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be the most common chronic disease of childhood, and dental caries incidence for adults exceeds that of children. Although there are gross oral health disparities for minorities, eliminating health disparities is an overarching priority area for APHA. Community water fluoridation has been shown to be the most cost-effective public health measure for the primary prevention of dental caries and has been shown to be the most effective public health strategy to reduce disparities in dental caries between ethnic and racial groups. … APHA Reiterates its strong endorsement and recommendation for the fluoridation of all community water systems as a safe and effective public health measure for the prevention of tooth decay”17
“Much of the credit for the nation’s better oral health can be attributed to the decision in the 1940s to begin adding fluoride to public drinking water systems.”18
Reference 17: Community Water Fluoridation in the United States. American Public Health Association October 28, 2008. https://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2014/07/24/13/36/community-water-fluoridation-in-the-united-states . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Reference 18: Tucker C. Health advocates fighting myths about fluoridation with science: misinformation endangers oral health. The Nation’s Health. 2011;41(5):1-15. http://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/content/41/5/1.3.full. Accessed June 19, 2018.
American Society for Clinical Nutrition:
“… the American Society for Clinical Nutrition agrees that fluoridation of community water supplies to an optimum level wherever the natural level is less than optimum is a safe, economical, and effective measure to improve dental health by improving nutrition.”
Reference 19: Knox KL, McNutt KW, Monsen ER, Rivlin RS, Ross AC, Sandstead HH. Resolution on fluoridation of drinking water. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;43(3):480. http://www.ajcn.org/content/43/3/480.full.pdf. Accessed June 18, 2018.
American Water Works Association:
“The American Water Works Association supports the recommendations of the World Health Organization, American Medical Association, Canadian Medical Association, Centers for Disease Control, American Dental Association, Canadian Dental Association, and other national organizations in the medical community, for the fluoridation of public water supplies as a public health benefit.”
Reference 20: American Water Works Association. Policy statement: fluoridation of public water supplies. January 22, 2012. http://www.awwa.org/about-us/policy-statements/policystatement/articleid/202/fluoridation-of-public-water-supplies.aspx . Accessed on June 19, 2018.
Andrew Burnham, Secretary of State for Health (2009-10), United Kingdom:
“Let’s press ahead with fluoridation of water supplies, given the clear evidence that it can improve children’s dental health.”
Reference 21: Smith R. Health Secretary calls for universal water fluoridation. The Telegraph. June 12, 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/5515269/Health-Secretary-calls-for-universal-water-fluoridation.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Association of State & Territorial Dental Directors:
“The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD) fully supports and endorses community water fluoridation in all public water systems at the optimal level recommended by the US Public Health Service”
Reference 22 : Community water fluoridation policy statement. Amended June 2015. Association of State & Territorial Dental Directors. https://www.astdd.org/www/docs/community-water-fluoridation.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Audrey F. Manley, MD, MPH, Surgeon General under President Bill Clinton:
“Water fluoridation continues to be the cornerstone of community oral disease prevention. The benefits of fluoridation are available, on average, for little more than $0.50 per person per year, and even less, in large communities.”
Reference 23: Surgeons General’s Statements on Community Water Fluoridation, June 9, 2017. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/guidelines/surgeons-general-statements.html . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Australian Dental Association:
“Drinking fluoridated water several times a day is the ideal way to give your teeth a quick fluoride treatment.”
“… Fluoride from fluoridated water is found in saliva and provides a wonderful, low concentration fluoride treatment for your teeth.”
Reference 24: Fluoride FAQ’s. Australian Dental Association, Inc. website. http://www.ada.org.au/oralhealth/fln/flfaqs.aspx#FLdismedcon. Accessed November 3, 2014.
British Dental Association:
“The BDA is pleased with [a program to expand fluoridation in southwest England] because it is likely to encourage consultation on similar schemes in other parts of the country where fluoride could help address the poor dental health of the population.”
“A recent European summary of the latest scientific evidence reiterated the view that water fluoridation is a safe and effective method of reducing oral health inequalities.”
Reference 26: Walmsley D. BDA commends go-ahead for fluoridation [press release]. London, England: British Dental Association; February 14, 2011. http://www.bda.org/news-centre/press-releases/30700-bda-commends-go-ahead-for-fluoridation.aspx. Accessed November 5, 2014.
British Dental Health Foundation:
“Fluoride was added to the Birmingham supply in 1964 and the difference in dental health compared to the neighbouring population in non-fluoridated Sandwell was stark. When Sandwell’s water was fluoridated in 1987 it transformed levels of oral health, putting a poor borough amongst the top ten areas for dental health in the country.”
Reference 27: British Dental Health Foundation. Foundation urges more water fluoridation after High Court ruling, UK. Medical News Today. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/216530.php. Published February 15, 2011. Accessed November 3, 2014.
British Medical Association:
“The BMA remains committed to the fluoridation of mains water supplies, after appropriate public consultation, on the grounds of effectiveness, safety and equity.”
Reference 28: Medical Association Board of Science. Fluoridation of water. British Medical Association website. http://bma.org.uk/-/media/files/pdfs/news%20views%20analysis/bma_fluoride.pdf. Published February 2009. Accessed November 3, 2014.
British Working Party on the Fluoridation of Water and Cancer:
“There is ample evidence, from many places and over many years, that fluoridation of the public water supply leads to a substantial reduction in dental caries, with all that means in prevention of suffering, inconvenience and unnecessary cost. It can be shown that the beneficial effect of fluoride is significant, whatever other measures are taken in relation to sound nutrition and preventive dental practice.
“… We have reviewed studies of cancer rates in relation to fluoride naturally present in drinking water and in relation to fluoridation of water supplies. We have found no evidence in these studies to suggest that fluoride or fluoridation is associated with increased cancer rates. … Indeed, the populations with greater exposure to fluoride in water tended to have slightly lower rates of cancer mortality and incidence.
“… We have found nothing in any of the major classes of epidemiological evidence which could lead us to conclude that either fluoride occurring naturally in water, or fluoride added to water supplies, is capable of inducing cancer, or of increasing the mortality from cancer.”
Reference 29: Knox EG; for Working Party on Fluoridation of Water and Cancer. Summary and conclusions. In: Fluoridation of Water and Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office; 1985. http://www.dentalwatch.org/fl/knox.pdf. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Canadian Dental Association:
“Fluoride is added to public drinking water to protect all members of the community from tooth decay. Community water fluoridation is a safe and effective way of preventing tooth decay at a low cost.”
Reference 30: Your Oral Health: Fluoride FAQs. Canadian Dental Association website. http://www.cda-adc.ca/en/oral_health/faqs_resources/faqs/fluoride_faqs.asp. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Canadian Public Health Association
“In 1945, Brantford, Ontario became the first Canadian community to test water fluoridation, thereby achieving a 54% reduction in decay experienced by 8-year-olds.”
“In Quebec, for instance, less than 7% of the population has access to fluoridated water. A study of the oral health of children between 1990 and 1999 found that kindergarten children in Quebec had 40% more cavities than children in Ontario and the United States, and that tooth decay affects 56% of Quebec children in Grade 2.”
Reference 31: Fighting the Good Fight: Fluoridation of Drinking Water. Canadian Public Health Association website. http://www.cpha.ca/en/programs/history/achievements/05he/fluoridation.aspx. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
The CDC named the “fluoridation of drinking water” as one of “10 great public health achievements” of the 20th century.
Reference 32: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten great public health achievements –United States, 1900-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48(12):241-243. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm. Accessed November 3, 2014.
C. Everett Koop, MD, Surgeon General under President Ronald Reagan:
“… I encourage the dental profession in communities which do not enjoy the benefits of an optimally fluoridated drinking water supply to exercise effective leadership in bringing the concentration to within an optimum level.”
Reference 33: Letter from C. Everett Koop, MD, to John W. Hernandez, Jr, deputy administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, July 30, 1982. https://s3-us-west2.amazonaws.com/cdhp-fluoridation/Koop+(1982)+Letter+to+EPA+on+Fluoride.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2014.
Children’s Dental Health Project:
“Water fluoridation is particularly beneficial during childhood and in adolescence when cavity experience first begins. Not only do children who drink fluoridated water have fewer cavities but their cavities are smaller and less deep when they do occur.”
Reference 34: Public health officials reconfirm value of water fluoridation while adjusting recommended levels. Children’s Dental Health Project website. http://www.cdhp.org/resources/219-public-health-officials-reconfirm-value-of-water-fluoridation-while-adjusting-recommended-levels. January 10, 2011. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh
“Just how effective is fluoridated water? Thanks to it, dentists say half of kids between 5 and 17 have never had a cavity in their permanent teeth.”
Reference 35: How does fluoride work? Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh website. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=chp&lic=48&cat_id=118&article_set=29003&ps=304. Accessed November 13, 2014.
Council of State Governments:
“… states need to reduce expenditures in Medicaid budgets and studies have proven that communities benefiting from fluoridated water use fewer Medicaid dollars to treat dental decay.
“… simply by drinking water, everyone, especially those without access to regular dental care, can benefit from fluoridation’s cavity protection whether they are at home, work or school.”
Reference 36: Council of State Governments. Resolution on community water fluoridation. Adopted May 10, 2006. Council of State Governments website. http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/CommunityWaterFluoridation.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2014.
David Butler Jones, Chief Public Health Officer of Canada (2004-2014)
“The Public Health Agency of Canada supports water fluoridation for our oral health. Simply put, it is a safe and cost effective public health measure which has the potential to benefit everyone, regardless of age, socioeconomic status, education, or employment.”
Reference 37: A Message from the Chief Public Health Officer. Public Health Agency of Canada website. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cpho-acsp/statements/20110913-eng.php. Accessed November 14, 2014.
David Satcher, MD, PhD, Surgeon General under President Bill Clinton:
“Of the 50 largest cities in the country, 43 are fluoridated. A significant advantage of water fluoridation is that anyone, regardless of socioeconomic level, can enjoy these health benefits during their daily lives—at home, work, or at school or play—simply by drinking fluoridated water or beverages prepared with fluoridated water.”38
“Other evidence of the benefits of fluoridation comes from studies of populations where fluoridation has ceased. Examples in the United States, Germany, and Scotland have shown that when fluoridation is withdrawn and there are few other fluoride exposures, the prevalence of caries increases.”
Reference 38: Surgeons General’s Statements on Community Water Fluoridation, June 9, 2017. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/guidelines/surgeons-general-statements.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Deborah Blum – Pulitzer Prize-winning science writer:
“… fluoridation protects, rather than harms, public health. … I want to take a moment to further discuss — or perhaps I mean debunk — the notion that anti-fluoride groups are heroically battling some evil industrial compound. Because what they are really battling is compounds that derive from the naturally occurring element fluorine (F).”
Reference 39: Blum D. A natural history of fluoride. Wired. May 23, 2013. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/05/a-natural-history-of-fluoride/ Accessed June 19, 2018.
U.S. Department of Defense
“Dental decay continues to be a major problem for military personnel and is a significant reason for personnel to be classified as non-deployable. … By far, the most effective preventive program for preventing dental decay is water fluoridation. I request that your office ensure that all DoD facilities operating a water treatment facility that services over 3,300 personnel provide optimally fluoridated water …”
Reference 40: Woodson J. Memorandum for Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense. July 18, 2011. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/cdhp-fluoridation/Dept+of+Defense+Fluoridation+Memo+(2013).pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
“Europe and Latin America have successful programs of salt fluoridation. The automatic prevention of dental caries using fluoridated salt commenced in 1955 in Switzerland. Currently, the number of users of such salt is approaching 300 million, almost 200 million in Latin America and 70-80 million in Europe.”
Reference 41: Marthaler TM, Gillespie GM, Goetzfried F. Salt fluoridation in Europe and in Latin America –with potential worldwide. Kali und Steinsalz Heft. 2011. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/cdhp-fluoridation/Marthaler+(2011)+Salt+Fluoridation.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry:
“Water fluoridation is the controlled adjustment of the natural fluoride concentration in drinking water to that recommended for optimal dental health. Water fluoridation is effective at reducing [decay] . . . It is socially equitable, in that it is available to all social groups and ages.
“The EAPD reaffirms its support for the use of water fluoridation as a community-based intervention to prevent dental caries.”
“Two evidence-based reviews indicate that there is limited support that fluoridated milk has a [cavity]-preventive effect. … fluoridated salt is probably less effective among small children due to the low salt diet now recommended for this age group.”
Reference 42: European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Guidelines on the use of fluoride in children: an EAPD policy document. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2009;10(3):129-135. https://www.eapd.eu/uploads/82C0BD03_file.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Florida Institute for Health Innovation:
”Community water fluoridation is safe, effective, economical and available to all consumers of a fluoridated community water supply regardless of age, income, education, or socioeconomic status. Income and the ability to access regular dental care are not barriers to receiving fluoride’s protective benefits”
Reference 43: Florida’s roadmap for oral health: A results-based strategic plan. Oral Health Fl. https://cod-oralhealthflorida.sites.medinfo.ufl.edu/files/2017/11/ORALHEALTHROADMAP.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
“The numerous studies carried out in many countries on populations consuming fluoridated drinking water did not show any consistent evidence of an association between the consumption of controlled fluoridated drinking water and increased frequency of cancer.”
Reference 44: 5.1 Has fluoride exposure caused cancer? GreenFacts website. http://www.greenfacts.org/en/fluoride/fluorides-2/05-effects-humans.htm#1 . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Hispanic Dental Association:
“… it is the position of the Hispanic Dental Association to:}
“Endorse community water fluoridation in all communities—especially the Hispanic and underserved communities—as a safe, beneficial and cost-effective public health measure based on science for preventing dental caries and to aid in the reduction of oral health disparities.
“… Encourage local dental and/or oral health societies and the community at-large, to work with state and local governments and their agencies, in support of community water fluoridation.”
Reference 45: Hispanic Dental Association endorses community fluoridation policy position.https://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Public%20Programs/Files/FLResources_Hispanic_Dental_Association_Endorses_Water_Fluoridation_2012.pdf?la=en. Published January 15, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Idaho Medical Association:
“The IMA has historically taken a leadership role in public health and safety issues. Its proactive support for polio immunization, public water fluoridation, civil defense planning, cigarette warning labels, use of seat belts, child abuse reporting, motorcycle helmet use, day care licensing, cigarette taxes, minimum drinking age, and immunization of schoolchildren has positively impacted the quality of life and health of all Idahoans.”
Reference 46: IMA’s History: A Legacy of Leadership. Idaho Medical Association website. http://www.idmed.org/IDAHO/Idaho_Public/About_Us/History/Idaho_Public/About_Us/History.aspx. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Indiana State Department of Health:
“Despite the fact that thousands of studies, analyses, and experiments have shown fluoridation to be safe and effective, some insist that it cease until all doubts about its safety have been resolved. Of course, it is impossible to prove the absolute safety of anything. But in the case of fluoridation, opponents are constantly making new allegations, none of which are supported by science.”
Reference 47: Questions and answers about fluoridation. Indiana State Department of Health website. http://www.in.gov/isdh/24525.htm. Accessed June 18, 2018.
Indian Health Service (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services):
“An effective community water fluoridation program should be the cornerstone of all public oral health programs.”
“Recent studies have found a smaller difference in the caries prevalence between optimally fluoridated and fluoride-deficient communities. In American Indian/Alaska Native populations the expected reductions in disease may be even greater, given the high caries rates.”
Reference 48: Community water fluoridation, Oral Health Program Guide; 2007. Indian Health Service website. http://www.ihs.gov/doh/clinicmanagement/ohpgdocs/chapter4/community%20water%20fluoridation.doc. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Institute of Medicine
“Evidence continues to reaffirm that community water fluoridation is effective, safe, inexpensive, and is associated with significant cost savings.”
Reference 49: US Institute of Medicine Committee on Oral Health Access to Services. Improving Access to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable and Underserved Populations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13116. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Institute for Science in Medicine:
“The scientific consensus over fluoridation’s health benefits, safety, social justice, and economies has been firmly established over six decades of widespread use in the United States and elsewhere. Nevertheless, anti-science critics have never relented in their opposition — recycling previously disproven charges of harm, inventing new ones out of whole cloth, misrepresenting scientific facts and research, exaggerating risks, understating benefits, inappropriately invoking the precautionary principle, and accusing public health officials of corruption, conspiracy, and ‘mass medication’ of whole populations.”
Reference 50: Dodes JE, Easley MW. The Anti-fluoridationist threaten top public health: a white paper. Institute for Science in Medicine website. http://www.scienceinmedicine.org/policy/papers/AntiFluoridationist.pdf. Published April 2012. Accessed June 19, 2018.
International Agency for Research on Cancer:
“Fluoridation of drinking-water was introduced in the USA in 1950, and thus the studies in the USA encompass periods of observation of 20 years or more. … The studies have shown no consistent tendency for people living in areas with high concentrations of fluoride in the water to have higher cancer rates than those living in areas with low concentrations or for cancer mortality rates to increase following fluoridation.”
“Since a large number of comparisons were made, some would be expected by chance alone to show differences. However, no consistent difference has been seen, and there have been as many significant negative associations between fluoridated water supplies and cancer incidence or mortality as there have been positive associations.”
“… Epidemiological studies have shown no association between the presence of fluorides in drinking-water and the incidence of Down’s syndrome.”
Reference 51: Fluorides (Inorganic, used in drinking-water), (Group 3). International Agency for Research on Cancer website. http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/suppl7/fluorides.html . Published 1987. Accessed June 19, 2018.
International Association of Dental Research:
“The International Association for Dental Research (IADR), considering that dental caries (tooth decay) ranks among the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide . . . and taking into account that over 50 years of research have clearly demonstrated its efficacy and safety; and noting that numerous national and international health-related organizations endorse fluoridation of water supplies; fully endorses and strongly recommends the practice of water fluoridation for improving the oral health of nations.”
Reference 52: Fluoridation of water supplies policy statement. Adopted 1979. Updated 1999. International Association for Dental Research website. http://www.iadr.org/IADR/AboutUs/Policy-Statements. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Iowa Nurses Association:
“Extensive scientific documentation over the past half-century has established and consistently reaffirmed that fluoridation of community water supplies is the safest and the most cost-effective community based method of preventing dental caries, regardless of socio-economic status.”
Reference 53: Deichmann R. 2014 INA Resolution #7. INA Resolution on Community Water Fluoridation. http://www.iowanurses.org/Portals/11/2014%20Resolutions%20Final.pdf?ver=214-11-08-140019-693 . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Iowa Public Health Association:
“The combination of daily oral hygiene practices in the home, regular dental care, and community water fluoridation has the potential to significantly reduce tooth decay and gum disease in children and adults.”
Reference 54: Promote Oral Health. Iowa Public Health Association website. http://iowapha.org/Resources/Documents/Promote%20Oral%20Health.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Irish Forum on Fluoridation:
Note: The Forum on Fluoridation was appointed by Ireland’s government to study the impact of water fluoridation on the Irish people. The Forum published its report in September 2002. The very first conclusion of this report is below:
“Water fluoridation has been very effective in improving the oral health of the Irish population, especially of children, but also of adults and the elderly.”
Reference 55: Fottrell PF. Forum on Fluoridation 2002. Dublin, Ireland: Stationary Office; 2002. http://www.fluoridesandhealth.ie/download/documents/fluoridation_forum.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
John H. Armstrong, MD, Surgeon General of the State of Florida:
“Today, fluoridation is still the most cost-effective way to prevent dental cavities. It is an ideal public health measure where everyone benefits, whether rich or poor, no matter the age, without requiring any conscious effort of the individual.
“Beginning in Gainesville in 1949, Florida cities have embraced the concept of fluoridation for their citizens. Approximately 13 million people are currently benefiting from fluoridation in Florida. … National surveys of oral health dating back several decades document the continued benefit of fluoride in decreasing tooth decay in children and adults. It is doubtful that any other public health procedure has undergone more research, epidemiological study and intense public scrutiny than water fluoridation.”
Reference 56: Armstrong JH. Policy statement on community water fluoridation. Florida Department of Health website. http://www.floridahealth.gov/programs-and-services/community-health/dental-health/fluoridation/_documents/policy-text.pdf . Published September 2012. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Linus Pauling, winner of the Nobel Prize (1954) and National Medal of Science (1974):
Note: Opponents of water fluoridation often label fluoride as “toxic” or “poison.” Linus Pauling debunked this assertion in a 1967 article, writing:
“In this respect, fluoride ion is similar to many other substances, such as vitamin D, that are harmful in large amounts but are required in small amounts for life and good health of human beings.”
Reference 57: Pauling L. The fluoridation of drinking water. https://paulingblog.wordpress.com/2010/08/25/on-the-fluoridation-of-water/. Published November 29, 1967. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Massachusetts Dental Society:
“…we also have come to realize that the issue of fluoride, to some, is less about science and more about emotion. The groups and individuals questioning the safety of fluoride tend to forget that many dentists are parents, too. Why would we advocate for water fluoridation if we believed that it would be compromising our own children’s health in any way?”
Reference 58: Fisher JP. Block to preventive health is discouraging to dentists. The Boston Globe. October 10, 2010. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/letters/articles/2010/10/10/springfield_suffers_without_fluoridated_water_supply/. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Massachusetts Medical Society:
In 2014, the Society created a video and web page that promoted “the importance of dental insurance, how poor oral health can lead to oral cancers, the role of diet in oral health, and the benefits of fluoridation.”
Reference 59: Physicians focus: oral health. Massachusetts Medical Society website. http://www.massmed.org/News-and-Publications/Physician-Focus/Physician-Focus–Oral-Health/#.VGUyc_nF8WI. Accessed June 19, 2018.
The Mayo Clinic:
“Fluoride, a naturally occurring mineral, helps prevent cavities and can even reverse the earliest stages of tooth damage. Because of its benefits for teeth, fluoride is added to many public water supplies. It’s also a common ingredient in toothpaste and mouth rinses. But bottled water usually does not contain fluoride.”
Reference 60: Cavities/tooth decay: symptoms & causes. Mayo Clinic website. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cavities/symptoms-causes/syc-20352892. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Michigan Department of Community Health:
“Community water fluoridation has proven to be safe through both practical experience and research. During the past 40 years, over 4,000 studies have measured and confirmed the safety of fluoride. Community water fluoridation has been studied more thoroughly than any other public health measure.”
Reference 61: Deming S. Community water fluoridation fact sheet. Michigan Department of Community Health Oral Health Program website. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/Microsoft_Word_-_Community_Water_Fluoridation_Fact_Sheetedit_218186_7.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Mississippi State Department of Health:
“Water fluoridation is an effective, safe and inexpensive way to prevent tooth decay. … In Mississippi, the cost of water fluoridation is usually between one and two dollars per person per year and saves $16-$19 per person per year in dental treatment costs.”
Reference 62: Mississippi fact sheet: Community water fluoridation and oral health Mississippi State Department of Health website. http://www.msdh.state.ms.us/msdhsite/_static/resources/1067.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
National Black Caucus of State Legislators:
“… Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the National Black Caucus of State Legislators (NBCSL) recognizes the importance of community water fluoridation as a safe, cost-effective public health intervention proven to prevent tooth decay and reduce oral health disparities;
“Be It Further Resolved, that the NBCSL urges state and local governments to implement and maintain optimal levels of water fluoridation in public water supplies.”
Reference 64: Energy, Transportation, and Environment: Resolution ETE-13-02 Recognizing the importance of community water fluoridation. National Black Caucus of State Legislators website. http://nbcsl.org/public-policy/docs/file/137-2013_resolutions.html . Published December 7, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2018.
National Consumers League:
“Bottled water consumption has doubled over the past decade and as a result, the exposure to fluoride from tap water, which can not only prevent tooth decay, it can repair tooth decay, has been reduced as well.”
“Oral health is a critical component of overall health, and we need to spread the word about the importance of brushing with fluoridated toothpaste twice a day, drinking tap water wherever possible, and seeing the dentist twice a year. The benefits will pay off exponentially.”
Reference 63: Greenberg S. Drink up! Tap water key to dental health. National Consumers League. http://www.nclnet.org/drink_up_tap_water_key_to_dental_health. Published January 19, 2011. Accessed June 19, 2018.
National Dental Association:
“As a result of water fluoridation half of all children ages 5 to 17 have never had a cavity in their permanent teeth. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the value of water fluoridation 34% of the population still does not have access to fluoridated water. Water fluoridation would save over $1.5 billion per year.”
Reference 65: Position on water fluoridation. National Dental Association website http://ndaonline.org/position-on-water-fluoridation/. Updated June 28, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2018.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research:
“Although dental caries remains a public health worry, it is no longer the unbridled problem it once was, thanks to fluoride.”
Reference 66: The story of fluoridation. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/topics/fluoride/thestoryoffluoridation.htm . Accessed June 19, 2018.
National Network for Oral Health Access
“Tooth decay is an infectious disease, and a lack of prevention can result in high dental costs for tooth restoration, extraction, and emergency room visits. This represents significant societal costs in avoidable dental and medical bills, lost productivity and missed educational opportunities. Fortunately, community water fluoridation — adjusting the fluoride concentration in the water supply to a level beneficial to reduce tooth decay and promote good oral health — prevents cavities and saves money.”
“…There has always been a small, but vocal, opposition to community fluoridation. Some opponents to community fluoridation point to toothpaste, mouth rinse and certain bottled waters as adequate for good oral health, in spite of evidence to the contrary.”
Reference 67: Policy statement: community water fluoridation. National Network for Oral Health Access website. http://www.nnoha.org/nnoha-content/uploads/2013/07/fluoride.statement.june2011final.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Nevada State Medical Association
“… the NSMA and its component medical societies support legislative efforts to promote community water fluoridation at optimal levels to decrease the incidence of dental caries.”
Reference 68: Nevada State Medical Association. Resolution 1997-28 Water fluoridation. Adopted 1997. Reaffirmed in 2003 and 2009. Reno, NV: Nevada State Medical Association: Policy Compendium 2014-2015. http://www.nsmadocs.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/NSMA-Policy-Compendium-2014-20151.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2014.
Office on Head Start – The National Center on Health
“Fluoride is the safest and best way to prevent tooth decay. … it’s important to drink tap water instead of bottled water because bottled water may not have fluoride.”
Reference 69: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, National Center on Health. Brush up on oral health. http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/health/oral-health/PDFs/brushup-news-201304.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Oklahoma State Department of Health:
“It is recommended that all public water systems in Oklahoma be fluoridated to provide this cost-effective oral disease prevention measure to residents throughout Oklahoma.”
Reference 70: Community Water Fluoridation Program. Oklahoma State Department of Health website. https://www.ok.gov/health/Community_&_Family_Health/Dental_Health_Service/Community_Water_Fluoridation_Program/index.html . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Oral Health America:
“Preventing and controlling diseases includes adequate financing of organized activities to promote and ensure the public’s oral health through education, applied dental research, and the implementation of cost effective measures such as community water fluoridation and school dental sealant programs. … Every dollar invested in community water fluoridation yields approximately $38 in savings on dental treatment costs.”71
“On average, those who have lived in a community with fluoridated water have fewer decayed teeth than those living in non-fluoridated communities. Even if your water isn’t fluoridated, you can still benefit from daily use of a fluoridated toothpaste and from in-office fluoride treatments from a dentist.”72
Reference 71: Oral Health America policy statement: Oral health and healthcare reform. April 2011. http://oralhealthamerica.org/wp-content/uploads/Oral-Health-America-Policy-Statement-Updated-4-2011.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Reference 72: The Benefits of Fluoride for Older Adults. Tooth Wisdom– Oral Health America website. http://www.toothwisdom.org/resources/entry/fluoride-for-older-adults. Accessed June 19, 2018
Oregon Medical Association:
“OMA recognizes the health benefits of fluoridation and has long stood in support of fluoridating public water supplies.”
“OMA reaffirms its support for fluoridation of all public water supply systems …”
Reference 73: Fluoridation. Oregon Medical Association website. http://www.theoma.org/media/public-health-fact-sheets-2. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Parent-Teacher Association (PTA):
“PTA involvement laid the groundwork for cooperative partnerships with medical associations and health organizations in the decades to come. … [PTA also worked] to educate members about other immunizations and treating water with fluoride to prevent rampant dental problems.”
Reference 74: Statements on Community Water Fluoridation. American Dental Association website. http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Member%20Center/FIles/fluoridation_article03_statements.ashx. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Pew Charitable Trusts:
“The Pew Charitable Trusts supports water fluoridation because it’s one of the most cost-effective strategies for states and communities to improve the oral health of their residents. Although a number of communities in the U.S. have been fluoridating their public water systems for more than 60 years, this strategy has been called into question by anti-fluoride activists who have posted many online attacks against this health practice.”
“…People of all ages benefit from drinking water that is optimally fluoridated. Oral health is important throughout a person’s life. In the 1950s, before water fluoridation was common, most people over the age of 65 had lost their teeth. Now, after decades of widespread fluoridation, more seniors are keeping most or all of their teeth. Between 1972 and 2001, the rate of edentulism — losing all of one’s teeth — dropped 26 percent among lower-income seniors and fell 70 percent among upper-income seniors.”
Reference 75: Water fluoridation: Frequently Asked Questions. Pew Charitable Trusts website. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/q-and-a/2011/11/11/water-fluoridation-frequently-asked-questions. Published November 11, 2011. Accessed June 19, 2018.
The Platform for Better Oral Health in Europe
“It is safe, cost-effective and has a demonstrable benefit … Water fluoridation is consequently one of the few public health interventions that directly reduces disparities in dental decay between high and low socioeconomic status groups.”
Reference 76: Patel R. The State of Oral Health in Europe. The Platform for Better Oral Health in Europe. September 2012;13,38. http://www.oralhealthplatform.eu/wpcontent/uploads/2015/09/Report-the-State-of-Oral-Health-in-Europe.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Public Health England
This British health agency examined the scientific evidence related to fluoridation’s effectiveness and safety, and then issued a 2014 report with its conclusions.
“The report provides further reassurance that water fluoridation is a safe and effective public health measure.”
Reference 77: Water fluoridation: health monitoring report for England 2014. London: Public Health England; March 2014;6. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/300202/Water_fluoridation_health_monitoring_for_england__full_report_1Apr2014.pdf . Accessed June 19, 2018.
Public Health Law Research (Temple University):
“Fluoride is a mineral that has been proven effective at preventing tooth decay.”
“… In the judgment of a Community Guide expert panel, there is significant evidence to support water fluoridation as an effective public health intervention aimed at reducing tooth decay.”
Reference 78: Water fluoridation. Public Health Law Research website. http://publichealthlawresearch.org/product/water-fluoridation . Published November 14, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Richard H. Carmona, MD, Surgeon General under President George W. Bush:
“Water fluoridation is a powerful strategy in our efforts to eliminate differences in health among people and is consistent with my emphasis on the importance of prevention.”
“… Fluoridation is the single most effective public health measure to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health over a lifetime, for both children and adults.”
Reference 79: Surgeons General’s Statements on Community Water Fluoridation, June 9, 2017. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/guidelines/surgeons-general-statements.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation:
“… H. Trendley Dean, a dentist working for the National Institutes of Health, began to study the dental health status of children and adults living in more than a dozen communities with differing levels of fluorides. … During the late 1930s and the early 1940s Dean published his findings in reports issued by the Public Health Service. Subsequently, controlled experiments comparing the incidence of dental decay in children living in communities having fluoridated water with that of children living in non-fluoridated communities showed that the addition of fluoride to public drinking water supplies could reduce dental caries in children by more than 50 percent.”
“It was the single greatest discovery in the history of dental medicine, and the resulting fluoridation of drinking water supplies in many communities in the nation (starting with Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1945) is estimated to have saved hundreds of millions of dollars a year in dental restorations.”
Reference 80: Brodeur P. Improving dental care. In: Isaacs SL, Knickman JR, eds. To Improve Health and Health Care 2001: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Anthology. Princeton, NJ: Jossey-Bass; 2001. http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/books/books/2001/rwjf37199. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Royal Society of New Zealand:
“Naturally occurring concentrations of fluoride in water in some parts of the world (e.g. parts of China, Africa, and India) are much higher than those found in fluoridated water, and in some of these regions high fluoride intakes are known to cause problems in teeth and bones (dental and skeletal fluorosis). It is important to distinguish between effects of apparent fluoride toxicity at very high intakes, and effects that may occur at the much lower intakes from CWF. Some studies have failed to do so, giving rise to potentially misleading statements and confusion.”
Reference 81: Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor and Royal Society of New Zealand. Health Effects of Water Fluoridation: A Review of the Scientific Evidence. Wellington, NZ: Royal Society of New Zealand; August 2014. http://www.pmcsa.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/Health-effects-of-water-fluoridation-Aug2014.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Tennessee Department of Health:
“Tooth decay is the most common infectious disease among our children and it is preventable. Good oral health can heighten self-esteem, affect social interactions, impact learning success, reduce medical costs and enhance employability. Community water fluoridation is the most natural and cost-effective means of protecting residents in a community from tooth decay. Fluoride is naturally present in all water; water fluoridation is the adjustment of fluoride to a recommended level for preventing tooth decay.”
Reference 82: Community Water Fluoridation. Tennessee Department of Health website.https://www.tn.gov/health/health-program-areas/oralhealth/professionals/oralhealth-cwf.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Texas Department of State Health Services:
“The wide implementation of community water fluoridation in Texas has resulted in substantial savings in publicly financed dental care under the Texas Healthy Steps (EPSDT-Medicaid) program. Further savings may be made by implementing community water fluoridation in areas where it is lacking and feasible.”
Reference 83: Water Fluoridation Costs in Texas: Texas Healthy Steps (EPSDT-Medicaid). A study authorized by House Concurrent Resolution 145 of the 75th Texas Legislature. Texas Department of Health website. https://www.dshs.texas.gov/dental/Fluoride-Cost.shtm. Published May 2000. Accessed June 19, 2018.
U.S. Task Force on Community Preventive Services:
“The Task Force on Community Preventive Services recommends community water fluoridation based on strong evidence of effectiveness in reducing tooth decay.”
Reference 84: Community Preventive Services Task Force. Preventing dental caries: community water fluoridation. The Community Guide website. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/oral/fluoridation.html. Published April 2013. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Utah Health Department:
“The nationwide goal to prevent cavities through community water fluoridation is similar to previous public health efforts to prevent other common health problems. These include adding iodide to salt to prevent thyroid problems, adding iron to infant formula to prevent anemia, adding Vitamin D to milk to prevent rickets, adding niacin to flour and other foods to prevent pellagra, and adding folic acid to cereal grains products to prevent birth defects.”
“Each of these public health efforts represents situations where a nutritional additive is provided to everyone or to large target populations since it is impossible to individually identify and effectively treat the significant number of people who are at risk.”
Reference 85: Statement on community water fluoridation. Utah Department of Health website. http://health.utah.gov/oralhealth/resources/Statement%20on%20Community%20Water%20Fluoridation%201-2010.pdf. Published January 2010. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Vermont Medical Society:
“… frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride enhances developing enamel and encourages remineralization, replacing minerals that bacteria dissolve from the enamel surface of teeth.”
“… the Vermont Medical Society endorses fluoridation as an important community commitment to the oral health of its children and adults and it affirms the value of continuing fluoridation in community water systems.”
Reference 86: Fluoridation in community water systems. VMS resolution. Vermont Medical Society website.http://www.vtmd.org/sites/all/themes/vms/documents/policies/2005/dental.pdf. Published February 2, 2006. Accessed June 19, 2018.
“Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid attacks from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth. It also reverses early decay. In children under six years of age, fluoride becomes incorporated into the development of permanent teeth, making it difficult for acids to demineralize the teeth. Fluoride also helps speed remineralization as well as disrupts acid production in already erupted teeth of both children and adults.”
Reference 87: Dental health and fluoride treatment. WebMD website. http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/fluoride-treatment. Accessed June 19, 2018.
Wisconsin Oral Health Coalition:
“Community water fluoridation is an evidence-based method for the prevention of dental decay throughout life. It has improved the oral health of Wisconsin residents since 1946.”
Reference 88: Community Water Fluoridation. Tap Into Health website. https://tapintohealthyteeth.org/home/. Accessed June 19, 2018.
World Health Organization:
“Fluoride is being widely used on a global scale, with much benefit. Millions of people worldwide use fluoridated toothpaste. They benefit from fluoridated water, salt fluoridation or other forms of fluoride applications …”
Reference 89: Risks to oral health and intervention: fluorides. World Health Organization website. http://www.who.int/oral_health/action/risks/en/index1.html. Accessed June 19, 2018.