Fluoride Action Network

Part 2. FAN’s list of fluoride studies (by author) submitted to SCHER. April 2009.

By Ellen Connett | April 26, 2009

PART 2. List of fluoride studies by AUTHOR, published since 2004, and submitted to SCHER.

The following is part 2 of the submission from the Fluoride Action Network to the European Commissions’ Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) in response to their solicitation for a “Call for Information” for scientific papers, reports, etc., on fluoride and fluoridation chemicals published since 2004.

-Submitted April 26, 2009, revised May 4, 2009.


(See Part 1 – Fluoride studies listed by subject)

ADA (American Dental Association).  2006.  Interim Guidance on Reconstituted Infant Formula.  2006.  ADA, eGRAM.  November 9.

Adamek E, Pawlowska-Goral K, Bober K..  2005.  In vitro and in vivo effects of fluoride ions on enzyme activity. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 51(2):69-85.

Agalakova NI, Gusev GP. 2008. Diverse effects of fluoride on NA+ and K+ transport across the rat erythrocyte membrane. Fluoride 41(1)28–39. January-March.

An JA, Mei SZ, Liu AP et al.  1992. Effect of high level of fluoride on children’s intelligence. [Article in Chinese]. Zhong Guo Di Fang Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 7(2):93–94.
[IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

Andreatini R, Chioca LR, Rauppp IM, Da Cunha, Losso EM.  2007. Memory impairment induced by chronic sodium fluoride intake. Neurotoxicol Teratol 24, 751–757. In:  Neuropharmacology page S247, P.1.c.009.

Ayoob S, Gupta AK.  2006. Fluoride in drinking water: a review on the status and stress effects.  Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36:433–487.

Bansal R, Tiwari SC.  2006. Back pain in chronic renal failure. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 21:2331-2332.

Baskaradoss JK, Clement RB, Narayanan A.  2008. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: a cross sectional survey. Indian J Dent Res. 19(4):297-303. Oct-Dec.

Bassin EB, Wypij D, Davis RB, Mittleman MM. 2006. Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 17(4):421-8. May.

Bataineh HN, Nusierb MK. 2006. Impact of 12-week ingestion of sodium fluoride on agression, sexual behavior, and fertility in adult male rats. Fluoride 39(4):293-301. October-December.

Beltran-Aguilar ED et al. 2005. Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999—2002.  MMWR.  Surveillance Summaries. 54(03);1-44.  August 26.

Bharati P, Kubakaddi A, Rao M, Naik RK.  2005.  Clinical Symptoms of Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis in Gadag and Bagalkot Districts of Karnataka. J. Hum. Ecol., 18(2): 105-107.

Bhatnagar M, Rao P, Saxena A, Bhatnagar R, Meena P, Barbar S, Chouhan A, Vimal S.  2006.  Biochemical changes in brain and other tissues of female mice from F in their drinking water.  Fluoride 39(4): 280–284.  October-December.

Birkeland JM, Ibrahim YE, Ghandour IA, Haugejorden O.  2005. Severity of dental caries among 12-year-old Sudanese children with different fluoride exposure. Clin Oral Invest 9: 46–51. March.

Birkner E, Grucka-Mamczar E, Stawiarska-Pieta B, Birkner K, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Kasperczyk S, Kasperczyk A.  2009. The Influence of Rich-in-Cholesterol Diet and Fluoride Ions Contained in Potable Water Upon the Concentration of Malondialdehyde and the Activity of Selected Antioxidative Enzymes in Rabbit Liver. Biol Trace Elem Res. Jan 22. Epub ahead of print]

Bober J, Kwiatkowska E, Kedzierska K, Olszewska M,  Estachowska E, Ciechanowski K, Chlubek D.  2006. Fluoride aggravation of oxidative stress in patients with chronic renal failure.  Fluoride 39(4):302–309. October-December.

Bouaziz H, Soussia L, Guermazi F, Zeghal N. 2005. Fluoride-induced thyroid proliferative changes and their reversal in female mice and their pups. Fluoride 38(3):185–192.

Bouaziz H, Ghorbel H, Ketata S, Guermazi F, Zeghala N.  2005b.  Toxic effects of fluoride by maternal ingestion on kidney function of adult mice and their suckling pups. Fluoride 38(1):23–31.

Bouaziz H, Croute F, Boudawara T, Soleilhavoup JP, Zeghal N.  2007.  Oxidative stress induced by fluoride in adult mice and their suckling pups. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 58(5):339-349.  April 26.

Bouletreau PH, Bost M, Fontanges E, Lauverjat M, Gutknecht C, Ecochard R, Delmas PD, Chambrier C.  2006.  Fluoride exposure and bone status in patients with chronic intestinal  failure who are receiving home parenteral nutrition1–3. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1429 –37.

Burgstahler AW, Freeman RF, Jacobs PN.  2008. Toxic effects of silicofluoridated water in chinchillas, caimans, alligators, and rats held in captivity. Fluoride 41(1): 83–88.  January-March.

Burt BA, Kolker JL, Sandretto AM, Yuan Y, Sohn W, Ismail AI. 2006. Dietary patterns related to caries in a low-income adult population. Caries Res. 2006 ; 40(6): 473–480.

CA EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane ®). Risk Characterization Document. Volume I. Exposure Assessment. Worker Health and Safety Branch, California Environmental Protection Agency. June 1.

CA EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane ®). Risk Characterization Document. Volume I. Health Risk Assessment. Medical Toxicology Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation,California Environmental Protection Agency. July.

Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment (CAPE). 2008. Statement on drinking water fluoridation. September. Online.

Cao J, Zhao Y, Li Y, Deng HJ, Yi J, Liu JW. 2006. Fluoride levels in various black tea commodities: Measurement and safety evaluation. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44:1131–1137.

Carton RJ. 2006. Review of the 2006 United States National Research Council report: Fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride 39(3)163-172. July-September. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/393/files/FJ2006_v39_n3_p163-172.pdf

Chavassieux P, Seeman E, Delmas PD. 2007. Insights into material and structural basis of bone fragility from diseases associated with fractures: how determinants of the biomechanical properties of bone are compromised by disease. Endocrine Reviews 28(2):151–164.

Chehoud KA, Chiba FY, Sassaki KT, Garbin CAS, Sumida DH. 2008. Effects of fluoride intake on insulin sensitivity and insulin signal transduction. Fluoride 41(4)270-275. October-December.

Chen Y, Han F, Zhou Z, Zhang H, Jiao X, Zhang S, Huang M, Chang T, Dong Y. 2008. Research on the intellectual development of childen in high fluoride areas. Fluoride 41(2)120–124. April-June.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

Cheng KK, Chalmers,I, Sheldon,A. 2007. Analysis: Adding fluoride to water supplies BMJ 2007;335:699-702. October 6. Online

Chioca LR, Raupp IM, Da Cunha C, Losso EM, Andreatini R. 2008. Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 579(1-3):196-201. January 28.

Chirumari K, Reddy PK. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of fluoride on neurochemical milieu in the hippocampus and neocortex of rat brain. Fluoride 40(2):101-110. April-June.

Choi A, Grandjean P. 2007. Potentials for developmental fluoride neurotoxicity. Abstract Number 15. XXVII Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research, October 9-12, 2007, Beijing, China. Online.

Chouhan S, Flora SJ. 2008. Effects of fluoride on the tissue oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats: biochemical assays supported by IR spectroscopy data. Toxicology. 2008 Dec 5;254(1-2):61-7.

Cicek E, Aydin G, Akdogan M, Okutan H. 2005. Effects of chronic ingestion of sodium fluoride on myocardium in a second generation of rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 24(2):79-87. February.

Claassen H, Cellarius C, Scholz-Ahrens KE, Schrezenmeir J, Gluer CC, Schun M, Kurz B. 2006. Extracellular matrix changes in knee joint cartilage following bone-active drug treatment. Cell Tissue Res Cell Tissue Res. 324(2):279-89. May.

Connett E, Connett M, Connett P, Neurath C, Wiles R, Feldman J. e-2005. Issues for an evidentiary hearing concerning sulfuryl fluoride tolerances. Submission to USEPA by Fluoride Action Network, Environmental Working Group and Beyond Pesticides. December 15. Online.

Connett M. 2005. Blood fluoride levels as a tool for assessing risk of fluoride toxicity. Abstract 9. Paper presented at the XXVIth. ISFR conference in Wiesbaden, Germany, Sept. Fluoride 38(3):226.

Connett M, Limeback H. 2008. Fluoride and its effect on human intelligence. A systematic review. Poster 2205. International Association for Dental Research 83rd General Session and Exhibition. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. July 4.

Connnett P, Connett E, Connett M, Neurath C. 2005. Submission to: National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water; BEST-K-02-05-A. March 30.

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005a. Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection the context of Elise Bassin’s findings: Part I. Submitted to the National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC) review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water. March 2. Online.

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005b. Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection in context of Elise Bassin’s findings: Part II. Submitted to the NRC review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water March 21, 2005 (revised April 8, 2005). Online.

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005c. Osteosarcoma Revisited. Abstract 10. Paper presented at the XXVIth. ISFR conference in Wiesbaden, Germany, Sept. Fluoride 38(3):227.

Connett P. 2008. The arguments against the proposal to fluoridate Southampton UK. Submission to South Central Strategic Health Authority (SHA). December 18. Online.

Coplan MJ, Patch SC, Masters RD, Bachman MS. 2007. Confirmation of and explanations for elevated blood lead and other disorders in children exposed to water disinfection and fluoridation chemicals. Neurotoxicology. 28(5):1032-42. September.

Cotton M, Claing A. 2009. G protein-coupled receptors stimulation and the control of cell migration. Cellular Signalling 21(7):1045-1053. July.

County of San Diego (California). 2005. Office of the Medical Examiner. Amended Autopsy Report of Linh Da Willams. August 23.

Cunha-Cruz J, Nadanovsky P. 2005. Dental fluorosis increases caries risk. Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice 5:170-171.

Dabrowska E, Letko R, Balunowska M. 2006. Effect of sodium fluoride on the morphological picture of the rat liver exposed to NaF in drinking water. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51 Suppl1:91-5.

Dhillon AS, Tarbutton GL, Levin JL, Plotkin GM, Lowry LK, Nalbone JT, Shepherd S. 2008. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson’s disease in East Texas. J Agromedicine. 13(1):37-48.

Du L,Wan C, Cao X, Liu J. 2008. The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain. Fluoride 41(4):327-330. October-December.

Dvorakova-Hortova K, Sandera M, Jursova M, Vasinova J, Peknicova J.  2008. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation. Anim Reprod Sci. 108(1-2):157-70. October.

Eichmiller FC, Eidelman N, Carey CM. 2005. Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function. Journal of the American Dental Association 136:67-70.

Environmental Working Group. 2005. Petition to National Toxicology Program nominating fluoride in tap water for inclusion in the Report on Carcinogens. June 6.

Erdal S, Buchanan SN. 2005. A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:111-7. Online.

Fan ZX, Dai HX, Bai AM et al. 2007. Effect of high fluoride exposure on children intelligence. [Article in Chinese]. Huan Jing Yu Jian Kang Za Zhi 24(10):802–803.
[IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 2005. Fluoride pesticide residue food tolerances approved by US EPA as of July 15. Online.

Fordyce FM, Vrana K, Zhovinsky E, Povoroznuk V, Toth G, Hope BC, Iljinsky U, Baker J. 2007. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environ Geochem Health. 29(2):83-102. April.

Foulkes RG. 2007. The Precautionary Principle and “evidence-based dentistry.” Fluoride 40(1):4-6. January-March. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/401/files/FJ2007_v40_n1_p004-006.pdf

Gao Q, Liu Y-J, Guan Z-Z. 2008. Oxidative stress might be a mechanism connected with the decreased alpha 7 nicotinic receptor influenced by high-concentration of fluoride in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 22(4):837-43. June.
Corrigendum at — “In the above article, the concentrations of fluoride should have been given as mM, instead of lM.”

Gas’kov AIu, Savchenkov MF, Iushkov NN. 2005. [The specific features of the development of iodine deficiencies in children living under environmental pollution with fluorine compounds] [Article in Russian]. Gig Sanit. Nov-Dec;(6):53-5.
gaskov-2005.english.trans.pdf [English Translation]

Ge Y, et al. 2005. Comet assay of DNA damage in brain cells of adult rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 38(3):209-214. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/383/files/383209-214.pdf

Ge Y, Ning H, Wang S, Wang J. 2005b. DNA damage in thyroid gland cells of rats exposed to long-term intake of high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 38(4)318–323. November. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/384/files/384318-323.pdf

Ge Y, Ning H, Feng C, Wang H, Yan X, Wang S, Wang J. 2006. Apoptosis in brain cells of offspring rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 39(3)173-178. July-September. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/393/files/FJ2006_v39_n3_p173-178.pdf

Gerth UG. 2005. Nothing to smile about. Fosters Daily Democrat (New Hampshire). May 22. Online.
Note: Concord, NH, has been fluoridated since 1978.

Gilbert SG. 2008. Scientific consensus statement on environmental agents associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Developed by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment’s Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative (LDDI Consensus Statement). November 7. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/gilbert-2008.pdf

Green K. 2005. Fault is disputed in death, gassing. Woman was inside a tented building. The San Diego Union-Tribune (California). March 10. Available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/vkane.march.10.san.diego.html

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Machoy Z. 2005. Disturbances of kidney function in rats with fluoride-induced hyperglycemia after acute poisoning by sodium fluoride. Fluoride 38(1):48–51.

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Machoy Z, Kasperczyk S, Blaszcyk I. 2007. Influence of exgtended exposure to sodium fluoride and caffeine on the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in rat blood serum and liver. Fluoride 40(1)62–66. January-March.

Guney M, Oral B, Take G, Giray SG, Mungan T. 2007. Effect of fluoride intoxication on endometrial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in rats: role of vitamins E and C. Toxicology. 231(2-3):215-23. March 7.

Guo X, Wang R, Cheng C, Wei W, Tang L, Wang Q, Tang D, Liu G, He G, Li S. 2008. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. Fluoride 41(2)125–128. April-June.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

Guo X, Sun Y, Sun G. 2005. [Effect of fluoride on activities of enzyme and ultrastructure in primary cultured rat hepatocytes] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(1):35-7. January.

Guo Z, He Y, Zhu Q. 2008. Research on the neurobehavioral function of workers occupationally exposed to fluoride. Fluoride 41(2)152-155. April-June 2008.

Gupta RS, Khan TI, Agrawal D, Kachhawa JB. 2007. The toxic effects of sodium fluoride on the reproductive system of male rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 23(9):507-13. October.

Gupta RC, Kumar AN, Bandhu S, Gupta S. 2007. Skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 36:2:154-155.

Gutowska I, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Rybicka M, Wioletta Dudzinska W, Marchlewicz M, Nocen I, Slawinski G, Wiszniewska B, Chlubek D. 2009. Changes in the concentration of fluoride and biogenic elements in the serum and bones of female rats with stretozotocin-induced diabetes. Fluoride 42(1):9-16. January-March.

Hallanger Johnson JEH, Kearns AE, Doran PM, Khoo TK, Wermers RA. 2007, Fluoride-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption. Mayo Clin Proc. 82(6):719-24. June.
• Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Aug;82(8):1017. dosage error in text.

Harinarayan CV, Kochupillai N, Madhu SV, Gupta N, Meunier PJ.. 2006. Fluorotoxic metabolic bone disease: an osteo-renal syndrome caused by excess fluoride ingestion in the tropics. Bone. 39(4):907-14. October.

He H, Cheng Z, Liu W. 2008. The effects of fluorine on human fetus. Fluoride 41(4):321-328. October-December.

He LF, Chen JG. 2006. DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. World J Gastroenterol. 12(7):1144-8. February 21.

Heikens A, Sumarti S, van Bergen M, Widianarko B, Fokkert L, van Leeuwen K, Seinen W. 2005. The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: risks of excess fluoride to human health. Sci Total Environ. 346(1-3):56-69. June 15.

Helal M, El Dakdoky M. 2006. Fetotoxicity of fluoride in rats alleviated by some antioxidants. Fluoride 39(3):202–210. July-September.

Herai M, Yaegaki K, Murata T, Sato T, Imai T, Tanaka T, Itai K. 2009. Induction of apoptosis in human gingival epithelial cells by sodium fluoride. Fluoride 42(1):3-8. January –March.

Hirzy JW. 2006. Letter to US EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson from The National Treasury Employees Union, Washington DC. July 25.

Hong F, Cao Y, Yang D, Wang H. 2008. Research on the effects of fluoride on child intellectual development under different environmental conditions. Fluoride 41(2)156-160. April-June.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

Hong L, Levy SM, et al. 2006. Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 34(4):299-309.

Howard V. 2009. Commentary on the Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food concerning sodium monofluorophosphate as a source of fluoride added for nutritional purposes to food supplements (Question No EFSA-Q-2006-277, EFSA-Q-2006-295). Adopted on 27th November 2008. January 21.
Available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/howard.mfp.jan.2009.html

Huang C, Niu R, Wang J. 2007. Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in male mice. Fluoride 40(3):162-168. July-September.

Huang C, Yang H, Niu R, Sun Z, Wang J. 2008. Effects of sodium fluoride on androgen receptor expression in male mice. Fluoride 41(1):10-17. January-March.

Hussain J, Hussain I, Sharma KC. 2009. Fluoride and health hazards: community perception in a fluorotic area of central Rajasthan (India): an arid environment. Environ Monit Assess. Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Inkielewicz I, Czarnowskia W. 2008. Oxidative stress parameters in rats exposed to fluoride and aspirin. Fluoride 41(1):76–82. January-March.

Ito M, Nakagawa H, Okada T, Miyazaki S, Matsuo S. 2009. ER-stress caused by accumulated intracistanal granules activates autophagy through a different signal pathway from unfolded protein response in exocrine pancreas cells of rats exposed to fluoride. Arch Toxicol. 83(2):151-9. February.

Iyaruu DM, BervoetsTJM, Bronckers ALJJ. 2006. Short exposure to high levels of fluoride induces stage-dependent structural changes in ameloblasts and enamel mineralization. Eur J Oral Sci 114 (Suppl. 1): 111–115.

Izquierdo-Vega JA, Sánchez-Gutiérrez M, Del Razo LM. 2008. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Aug 1;230(3):352-7.

Jeon SB, Jin F, Kim JI, Kim SH, Suk K, Chae SC, Jun JE, Park WH, Kim IK. 2006. A role for Rho kinase in vascular contraction evoked by sodium fluoride. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications – Feb 28.

Jia L, Zhang Z, Zhai L, Zhang Y, Sun G. 2008. DNA damage induced by fluoride in rat kidney cells. Fluoride 41(4):297-300. October-December.

Jiang CX, Fan QT, Cheng XM, Cui LX. 2005. [Relationship between spermatogenic cell apoptosis and serum estradiol level in rats exposed to fluoride] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(1):32-4. January.

Jiang Q, Song XK, Cui QH, Chen LJ. 2007. [Effect of fluoride on expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in germ cells of rats’ testes] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 25(2):96-9. February.

Jin XQ, Xu H, Shi HY, Zhang JM, Zhang HQ. 2007. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress of osteoblasts and protective effects of baicalein against fluoride toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res. 116(1):81-90. April.

Kakei M, Sakae T, Yoshikawa M, Tamura N. 2007. Effect of fluoride ions on apatite crystal formation in rat hard tissues. Ann Anat. 189(2):175-81.

Kalyanalakshmi P, Vijayabhaskar M, Naidua MD. 2007. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status of adult males with skeletal fluorosis in Andhra Pradesh, India, Fluoride 40(1)42–45 . January-March.

Kanbak M, Karagoz AH, Erdem N, Oc B, Saricaoglu F, Ertas N, Berkkan A, Abbasoglu O, Aypar U. 2007. Renal safety and extrahepatic defluorination of sevoflurane in hepatic transplantations. Transplant Proc. 39(5):1544-8. June.

Karaoz E, Oncu M, Gulle K, Kanter M, Gultekin F, Karaoz S, Mumcu E. 2004. Effect of chronic fluorosis on lipid peroxidation and histology of kidney tissues in first- and second-generation rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 102(1-3):199-208. Winter. NOTE: This article was not available until early 2005.

Kaufmann KR, Schreiber JS, Stasack J. 2006. Comments in support of motion for stay of effectiveness of tolerances for sulfuryl fluoride and fluoride [EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0174 and EPA-HQ-OPP-2003-0373]. Submission to US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs from New State Attorney General’s Office. Federal Register docket number EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0174-0085.1. August 4.

Khandare L, Harikumar R, Sivakumar B. 2005. Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India. Calcif Tissue Int 76:412–418.

Kobayashi CAN, Leite AL, Silva TL, Santos LD, Nogueira FCS, Oliveira RC, Palma MS, Domont GB, Buzalaf MAR. 2009. Proteomic analysis of kidney in rats chronically exposed to fluoride. Chemico-Biological Interactions [Epub ahead of print]

Komarek A, LeSaffre E, Harkanen T, Declerck D, Virtanen JI.. 2005. A Bayesian analysis of multivariate doubly-interval-censored dental data. Biostatistics 6, 1, pp. 145–155.

Krechniak J, Inkielewicz I. 2005. Correlations between fluoride concentrations and free radical parameters in soft tissues of rats. Fluoride 38(4)293–296. November.

Krook LP, Justus C. 2006. Fluoride poisoning of horses from artifically fluoridated drinking water. Fluoride 39(1)3-10. January-March.

Krupanidhi S, Cherry KN. 2005. Teratogenicity due to fluoride. FASEB J 2005 19(4):A58. March.

Law V. 2005. Sink your teeth into health care. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Pennsylvania). February 13. Available at http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_303168.html

Lee JH, Jung JY, Jeong YJ, Park JH, Yang KH, Choi NK, Kim SH, Kim WJ. 2008. Involvement of both mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways regulated by Bcl-2 family in sodium fluoride-induced apoptosis of the human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicology. 243(3):340-7. January 20.

Li J, Yao L, Shao Q, Wu C. 2008. Effects of high fluoride on neonatal neurobehavioural development. Fluoride 41(2)165–170.

Li W, Yang L, Ren Y, Yan X, Wang J. 2007. Quantification of rib COL1A2 gene expression in healthy and fluorosed Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. Fluoride 40(1)13-18. January-March.

Li XS, Zhi JL, Gao RO. 1995. Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children. Fluoride 28:189-192.

Li Y, Li X, Wei S. 2008. Effects of high fluoride intake on child metal work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved. Fluoride 41(4):331-335. October-December.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

Li Y, Jing X, Chen D, Lin L, Wang Z. 2008. Effects of endemic fluoride poisoning on the intellectual development of children in Baotou. Fluoride 41(2)161–164. April-June.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

Li Y, Zhu JY, Zhuang DG, Cheng XM. 2006. [Research in the relation between telomerase reverse transcriptase expression in spermatogenic cells and serum levels of estradiol of fluorotic rats] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006 35(5):546-8. September.

Limeback H, Thiessen K, Isaacson R, Hirzy W. 2007. The EPA MCLG for fluoride in drinking water: new recommendations.

Limeback H. 2007. How should I diagnose dental fluorosis? JCDA 73(9):809-812. November.

Lin FF, Aihaiti, Zhao HX, Lin J, Jiang JY, Maimaiti, and Aiken. 1991. The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7(3):24-25.

Liu H, Niu R, Wang J, He Y, Wang J. 2008. Changes caused by fluoride and lead in energy metabolic enzyme activities in the reproductive system of male offspring rats. Fluoride 41(3):184-191. July-September.

Liu JL, Xia T, Yu YY, Sun XZ, Zhu Q, He W, Zhang M, Wang A. 2005. [The dose-effect relationship of water fluoride levels and renal damage in children] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(3):287-8. May.

Liu K, Ma L, Yao H, Zhang Y, Li, Wang G. 2007. Fluoride-mediated apoptosis and disordering of cell cycle distributions during in vitro organ culture of mouse fetal long bones. Fluoride 40(1):19–23. January-March.

Liu M, Qian C. 2008. [Effect of endemic fluorosis on children’s intelligence development: a Meta analysis] [Article in Chinese]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. Dec;10(6):723-5.

Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN, Wang X, Lu W, Liu SS. 2000. Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence of children. Fluoride 33(2):74-78.

Luke J. 1997. The effect of fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/luke-1997.pdf

Maas RP, Patch SC, Christian AM, Coplan MJ. 2007. Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts. Neurotoxicology. 28(5):1023-31. September.

Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Mathers JC, Steen IN, Hindmarch PN, Moynihan PJ. 2005. Bioavailability of fluoride in drinking water: a human experimental study. J Dent Res 84(11)989-993.

Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Hindmarch PN, Hatts J, Moynihan PJ. 2007. Fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 6- to 7-year-old children living in optimally, sub-optimally and non-fluoridated areas. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35: 479–488.

Malinowska E, Inkielewicz I, Czarnowski W, Szefera P. 2008. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:1055–1061.

Mandinic Z, Marijana Curcic M, Antonijevic B, Lekic CP, Carevic M. 2009. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:1080–1084.

Martínez MA, Ballesteros S, Piga FJ, Sánchez de la Torre C, Cubero CA. 2007. The tissue distribution of fluoride in a fatal case of self-poisoning. J Anal Toxicol. 31(8):526-33. October.

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Available to read and search online for free, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11571

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Qu W, Zhong D, Wu P, Wang J, Han B.. 2008. Sodium fluoride modulates caprine osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 26(4):328-334. July.

Qin L, Huo S, Chen R, Chang Y, Zhao M. 2008. Using the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to determine the effects of the level of fluoride in drinking water on the intellectual ability of school-age children. Fluoride 41(2)115–119. April-June.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

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[IQ STUDY: English translation]

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seraj-2007.trans.pdf – [English translation forwarded by lead author.]
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

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Wang G, Yang D, Jia, Wang H. 2008. A study of the IQ levels of four- to seven-year old children in high fluoride areas. Fluoride 41(4)340–343. October-December.
[IQ STUDY: English translation]

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[IQ STUDY: English translation]

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Xiang Q, Liang J, Zhou M, Zang H. 2003b. Blood lead of children in Wamiao-Xinhuai intelligence study. Letter to the Editor. Fluoride 36: 198-199.
[IQ STUDY: follow-up letter detailing lead levels in children’s blood]

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[IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

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Yan X, Feng C, Chen Q, Li W, Wang H, Lv L, Smith GW, Wang J. 2008. Effects of sodium fluoride treatment in vitro on cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression by neonatal rat osteoblasts. Arch Toxicol. Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]

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[IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

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Yu RA, Xia T, Wang AG, Chen XM. 2006. Effects of selenium and zinc on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rats. Biomed Environ Sci. 19(6):439-44. December.

Yu Y, Yang W, Dong Z, Wan C, Zhang J, Liu J, Xiao K, Huang Y, Lu B. 2008. Neurotransmitter and receptor changes in the brains of fetuses from areas of endemic fluorosis. Fluoride 41(2)134–138. April-June.

Zhan X, Li J, Wang M, Xu Z. 2006. Effects of fluoride on growth and thyroid function in young pigs. Fluoride 39(2)95–100. April-June.

Zhang JW, Yao H, Chen Y. 1998. Effect of high level of fluoride and arsenium on children’s intelligence. [Article in Chinese]. Zhong Guo Gong Gong Wei Sheng Xue Bao 17(2):119.
[IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

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Zhang J, Liang C, Ma J, Zhou B, Wang J. 2006. Changes in testes protein and metabolic enzyme activities in rats induced by sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide. Fluoride 39(3)179-184. July-September.

Zhang M, Wang A, He W, He P, Xu B, Xia T, Chen X, Yang K. 2007. Effects of fluoride on the expression of NCAM, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Toxicology. 236(3):208-216. July 17.

Zhang M, Wang A, Xis T, He P. 2008. Effects of fluoride on DNA damage, S-phase cell-cycle arrest and the expression of NF- B in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicology Letters 179:1–5.

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Zhang Y, Yan Q, Li W, DenBesten PK. 2006b. Fluoride down-regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-20 in human fetal tooth ameloblast-lineage cells in vitro. Eur J Oral Sci 2006; 114 (Suppl. 1): 105–110.

Zhang Z, Xu X, Shen X, Xu X. 2008. Effect of fluoride exposure on synaptic structure of brain areas related to learning-memory in mice. Fluoride 41(2)139–143. April-June.

Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR. 1996. Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 29:190-192. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/294/files/FJ1996_v29_n4_p190-192.pdf

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