To see the Professionals Statement, click here
American Dental Association (ADA). 2006. Interim Guidance on Fluoride Intake for Infants and Young Children. November 8. – Online
Armfield JM, Spencer AJ. 2004. Consumption of nonpublic water: implications for children’s caries experience. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 32:283-296.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1999. Achievements in Public Health, 1900- 1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) 48(41);933-940. October 22.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2001. Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) 50(RR14);1-42. August 17. – Online
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis–United States, 1988-1994 and 1999- 2002. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) Surveill Summ 54(3):1-43. August 26. – Online
Colquhoun J. 1984. New evidence on fluoridation. Social Science & Medicine 19:1239-46.
Colquhoun J. 1985. Influence of social class and fluoridation on child dental health. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 13:37-41.
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Fluoride Action Network (FAN). Online. Statements from European Health, Water, & Environment Authorities on Water Fluoridation. – Online
Fox 25 News, Boston, Massachusetts. 2006. Harvard Professor: Hiding a Link? February 14. Transcript and video online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/fox-transcript.html
Fox JC, (1999), Assistant Administrator, USEPA, Office of Water. Letter to Honorable Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science, House of Representatives, Washington DC 20515. June 23. – Online
“Question 2. What chronic toxicity test data are there on sodium fluorosilicate? On hydrofluorosilicic acid?
[Response]: … In collecting the data for the fact sheet, EPA was not able to identify chronic studies for these chemicals…”
Grass Roots and Global Video (GRGV). 2006. The Fluoride Deception. An interview with Christopher Bryson. – Online
Gray AS. 1987. Fluoridation: time for a new base line? Journal of the Canadian Dental Association. 53(10)763-5.
Haneke KE, Carson BL. 2001. Sodium hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and fluorosilicic acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Review of toxicological literature. Prepared for Scott Masten, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Contract No. N01-ES-65402. October. – Online
Hazan S, (2000), General Manager, Drinking Water Additives Certification Program, NSF (National Sanitation Foundation International). Letter to The Honorable Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington DC 20515. July 7. – Online
[PAGE 6] “Question 2. Under General Requirements 3.2.1, formulation submission and review, ANSI/NSF 60 -1999, are manufacturers of hydrofluosilicic acid and silicofluorides required to “submit for each product, when available, a list of published and unpublished toxicological studies relevant to the treatment chemical and the chemicals and impurities present in the treatment chemical?”
[Response]: The standard requires that the manufacturer of a product submitted for certification provide toxicological information, if available. NSF requires that manufacturers seeking certification to the standard submit this information as part of their formulation or ingredient supplier submission.”
[PAGE 8] “Question 3. Have any studies on hydrofluosilicic acid or silicofluorides been submitted to NSF under claimed Confidential Business Information protection?
[Response] There have not been any studies on hydrofluosilicic acid or silicofluorides submitted to NSF under claimed Confidential Business Information protection.”
Leverett DH. 1982. Fluorides and the changing prevalence of dental caries. Science. 217(4554):26-30.
Locker D. 1999. Benefits and Risks of Water Fluoridation. An Update of the 1996 Federal- Provincial Sub-committee Report. Prepared for Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Online
McDonagh M, Whiting PF, Wilson PM, Sutton AJ, Chestnutt, Cooper J, Misso K, Treasure E, Kleijnen J. 2000. A systematic review of public water fluoridation. British Medical Journal 321:855-859. October 7. – Online
National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC). 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. – Online
Neurath C. 2005. Tooth decay trends for 12 year olds in nonfluoridated and fluoridated countries. Fluoride 38(4)324–325. November. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/384/files/384324-325.pdf
Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G. 2007. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review. Clinical Oral Investigations. Feb 27.
Plaisier MK, (2000), Associate Commissioner for Legislation, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Richville MD 20857. Letter to Honorable Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science, House of Representatives, Washington DC 20515. December 21. – Online
[PAGE 1] “Fluoride, when used in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or animal, is a drug that is subject to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation.” and then
[PAGE 2] “No NDAs [New Drug Applications] have been approved or rejected for fluoride drugs meant for ingestion.”
[PAGE 2] “Drugs in use prior to 1962 are being reviewed under a process known as the drug efficacy study implementation (DESI). The DESI review of fluoride-containing products has not been completed.”
Spencer AJ, Slade GD, Davies M. 1996. Water Fluoridation in Australia. Community Dental Health. 13(Suppl 2)27-37. September.
Thurnau RC, (2000), Chief Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Office of Research and Development, USEPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory. Letter to Roger D. Masters Research Professor of Government Dartmouth College Department of Government 6108 Silsby Hall Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-3547. November 16. – Online
“To answer your first question on whether we have in our possession empirical scientific data on the effects of fluosilicic acid or sodium silicofluoride on health and behavior, our answer is no. Health effects research is primarily conducted by our National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). We have contacted our colleagues at NHEERL and they report that with the exception of some acute toxicity data, they were unable to find any information on the effects of silicofluorides on health and behavior…”