The following are some, not all, of the documents dealing with the study, review, approval, and law suits of the insecticide Sulfoxaflor (CAS No. 946578-00-3). The product names for Sulfoxaflor are Transform and Closer. More documents will be added.
|Oct 25, 2019||EPA||Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule. Federal Register.
Avocado, 0.15 ppm
|Aug 20, 2019||9th Circuit Court||Center for Food Safety, et al v. Andrew Wheeler, et al.
Petition for Review of the orders of the EPA to grant “the unconditional registration for new uses of the active ingredient sulfoxaflor and amending the registration of existing uses to remove restrictions.” [see US EPA for July 12, 2019, below)
|July 27, 2019||The National Law Review||EPA Registers Long-Term Uses for Sulfoxaflor|
|July 22, 2019||Business Mirror (Australia)||EPA restores use of pesticide opposed by beekeepers|
|July 12, 2019||Beyond Pesticides||USDA Shuts Down Data Collection on Honey Bees|
|July 12, 2019||US EPA||Decision Memorandum Supporting the Registration Decision for New Uses of the Active Ingredient Sulfoxaflor on Alfalfa, Cacao, Citrus, Corn, Cotton, Cucurbits, Grains, Pineapple, Sorghum, Soybeans, Strawberries and Tree Plantations and Amendments to the Labels|
|July 10, 2019||US EPA||Ecological Risk Assessment for Section 3 Registration for Various Proposed New Uses|
|June 19, 2019||National Sorghum Producers||Statement of their need for Sulfoxaflor.|
|June 17, 2019||US EPA||Pesticide Emergency Exemptions: Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations. These states received exemptions for use of Sulfoxaflor: AL, AR, CA, GA, KS, LA, MS, MO, TN, TX, VA|
|June 17, 2019||Center for Biological Diversity||Trump EPA OKs ‘Emergency’ Use of Bee-killing Pesticide on 13.9 Million Acres|
|May 2, 2019||Mongabay||Brazil: Bolsonaro administration authorizes 150+ pesticides in first 100 days|
|Oct 29, 2018||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
|Lethal Toxicity and Sublethal Metabolic Interference Effects of Sulfoxaflor on the Earthworm ( Eisenia fetida). Authors: Fang S, Zhang Y, You X, Sun P, Qiu J, Kong F.|
|Oct 17, 2018||Consumer Affairs||Dow is trying to expand use of another pesticide linked to bee deaths|
|Sept 15, 2018||Agroecology and Rural Economics Research Corps||New Sulfoxaflor Insecticide Harms Bees, by Doug Gurian-Sherman, Ph.D|
|Aug 15, 2018||Nature
|Sulfoxaflor exposure reduces bumblebee reproductive success, by Siviter H, Brown MJF, and Leadbeater E.|
|Aug 15, 2018||Nature||An alternative to controversial pesticides still harms bumblebees, by Nigel E. Raine|
|Dec 18, 2017||Dow AgroSciences||GF-2032 (Sulfoxaflor – Closer SC): Assessment of Effects on Development of the Brood and Adult Workers of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) in a Semi-Field Tunnel Study After One Application on Buckwheat (F. esculentum).|
|Sept 30, 2016||Journal of Insect Science||Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults. Authors: Wanumen AC, Sánchez-Ramos I, Viñuela E, Medina P, Adán Á.
Excerpt: “Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity.”
|May 12, 2016||US EPA||Label for Sulfoxaflor insecticide Transform® WG.
For control or suppression of aphids, fleahoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, whiteflies and certain psyllids, scales, and thrips in barley, Brassica (cole) leafy vegetables, bulb vegetables, canola (rapeseed), , fruiting vegetables, leafy vegetables (except Brassica), leaves of root and tuber vegetables, low growing berry (except strawberry), okra, ornamentals (herbaceous and woody), pistachio, pome fruits, root and tuber vegetables, potatoes, small fruit vine climbing (except fuzzy kiwifruit), stone fruits, succulent, edible podded, and dry beans, tree nuts, triticale, turfgrass, watercress, and wheat.
|May 12, 2016||US EPA||Label for Sulfoxaflor insecticide Closer® SC.
For control or suppression of aphids, fleahoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, whiteflies and certain psyllids, scales, and thrips in barley, Brassica (cole) leafy vegetables, bulb vegetables, canola (rapeseed), fruiting vegetables, leafy vegetables (except Brassica), leaves of root and tuber vegetables, low growing berry (except strawberry), okra, ornamentals (herbaceous and woody), pistachio, pome fruits, root and tuber vegetables, potatoes, small fruit vine climbing (except fuzzy kiwifruit), stone fruits, succulent, edible podded, and dry beans, tree nuts, triticale, turfgrass, watercress, and wheat.
|Nov 12,. 2015||US EPA||Sulfoxaflor – Final Cancellation Order|
|Sept 11, 2015||Fluoride Action Network||The Toxicity of Sulfoxaflor.
Excerpts from: Registration Decision for the New Active Ingredient Sulfoxaflor
|Sept 11, 2015||Los Angeles Times||Court revokes approval of insecticide, citing ‘alarming’ decline in bees|
|2015||Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO)||FAO-WHO Maximum Residue Levels for food commodities|
|Sept 10, 2015||9th Circuit Court||Court’s decision on: Pollinator Stewardship Council vs U.S. EPA
“Because the EPA’s decision to unconditionally register sulfoxaflor was based on flawed and limited data, we conclude that the unconditional approval was not supported by substantial evidence. We therefore vacate the EPA’s registration of sulfoxaflor and remand.
|March 2015||Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology||Paper by Dow scientists (Terry C, Rasoulpour RJ, Knowles S, Billington R). 2015. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: A case study, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 71(2):301-317.|
|March 7, 2014||9th Circuit Court||Brief for Respondent-Intervenor Dow AgroSciences LLC in Pollinator Stewardship Council s U.S. EPA.
Petition for review of an order of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
|Dec 6, 2013||9th Circuit Court||Petitioners’ Opening Brief for Review of an Order of the United States EPA.
In this case, the largest beekeeping organizations in America and three commercial beekeepers (collectively, “Beekeepers”) challenge a decision by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) to approve a new insecticide called sulfoxaflor (s?l-f?ks-a-flor) under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”), 7 U.S.C. §§ 136-136y. Sulfoxaflor belongs to a category of powerful insecticides called neonicotinoids, and it is classified by EPA as “very highly toxic” to honey bees. The use of sulfoxaflor on millions of acres of farms and orchards nationwide will exacerbate a growing crisis in which about one-third of America’s honey bee colonies have collapsed each year since neonicotinoids first became prevalent in the mid-2000s. As a result of this catastrophic die-off, our food security now hangs in the balance.
|Dec 6, 2013||9th Circuit Court||Declarations in Support of Petitioners’ Opening Brief (see directly above).|
|August 2013||New Zealand EPA||EPA STAFF EVALUATION AND REVIEW REPORT. Application for approval to import and manufacture GF-2032 for release.|
|July 2013||Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority||Evaluation of the New Active Constituent Sulfoxaflor in the Product Transform.|
|June 26, 2013||US EPA||§180.668 Sulfoxaflor; tolerances for residues.
(a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide sulfoxaflor, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities in the table. Compliance with the tolerance levels specified is to be determined by measuring only sulfoxaflor (N-[methyloxido[1-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]ethyl]-?4-sulfanylidene]cyanamide).
|May 17, 2013||US EPA||Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule – also in pdf|
|March 2013||Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA)||Sulfoxaflor New Active Ingredient Review|
|Sept 28, 2012||US EPA||Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions|
|Sept 26, 2012||US EPA||Sulfoxaflor – New Active Ingredient Human Health Risk Assessment of Uses on
|Sept 14, 2012||US EPA||Sulfoxaflor: Summary of Hazard and Science Policy Council (HASPOC). Meeting of April 26, 2012 : Recommendation on the need for a 28-day inhalation study.|
|2011||Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)||Toxicology of Sulfoxaflor.
Discussion of Metabolites:
X11519540 (sulfonyl metabolite) approximately two times more toxic than parent sulfoxaflor
X11596066 (ethyl metabolite)
X11718922 (identified in the Australian report)