AAPHD – American Association of Public Health Dentistry
ACS – American Cancer Society
ADA – American Dental Association
AWWA – American Water Works Association
ASTDD – Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors
ATSDR – Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CA EPA – California Environmental Protection Agency
CDC-Oral Health – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Oral Health
CDC-MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
CRC – Congressional Research Service
DHEW – Department of Health Education, and Welfare
DOD – Department of Defence
DOJ – Department of Justice
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
EPA-Air: Office of Air Toxics
EPA-Pesticides: Office of Pesticides
EPA-RTP: Research Triangle Park
EPA-TTNA: Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics
EPA-Water: Office of Water
FDA – Food and Drug Administration
HHS – Department of Health & Human Services
IHS – Indian Health Service
IAOMT – International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (NGO)
IOM – Institute of Medicine
NAS – National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
NCHS – National Center for Health Statistics
NCI – National Cancer Institute
NIDR – National Institute of Dental Research
NIEHS – National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIH – National Institutes of Health
NKF – National Kidney Foundation
NRC – National Research Council of the National Academies
NSF International – NSF
NTEU – National Treasury Employees Union
NTP – National Toxicology Program
NYDOH – New Jersey Department of Health
PEW – The Pew Charitable Trusts and The Pew Center on the States
PHS – Public Health Service
SWDA – Safe Water Drinking Act
TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act
USDA – United States Department of Agriculture
USGS – United States Geological Survey
|2021||February 9: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine second peer review of the Revised NTP Monograph on the Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects: A Letter Report.||NAS-NTP|
|2020||November 30: Income Disparities Widen the Gap in Oral Health of California Adults. By Nadereh Pourat and Maria Ditter. Policy Brief, the Study’s Infographic, and Press Release.||UCLA Center for Health Policy Research|
|2020||October 19. Submission from Chris Neurath on behalf of FAN to the National Academies Committee to Review the Revised National Toxicology Program’s Monograph on Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects.
|2020||October 19. Outline with figures of submission from Chris Neurath on behalf of FAN to the National Academies Committee to Review the Revised National Toxicology Program’s Monograph on Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects.
|2020||October 19. Oral comments from Chris Neurath on behalf of FAN on the NTP’s Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects to the National Academies Committee to Review the Revised National Toxicology Program’s Monograph.
|2020||October 19. Comments from Paul Connett of FAN to the National Academies Committee to Review the Revised National Toxicology Program’s Monograph on Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects.
|2020||October 16. Comments submitted from the American Dental Association to the National Academies on the “Revised NTP Monograph on Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health.
|2020||October 14. EPA Approves Use of Phosphogypsum in Road Construction. News Release. [Note: “Phosphogypsum contains, next to naturally occurring radionuclides, some trace elements such as arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, zinc, antimony, copper (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990), which may be leached.” Source: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, 2017]||EPA|
|2020||October 9. Fluoride Fact Sheet for Consumers –also in pdf). By the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Heath. (See also Fluoride Fact Sheet for Professionals)||NIH|
**The September 6, 2019 draft monograph was peer reviewed by a committee convened by the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). This current draft incorporates changes in response to that review and is being submitted to the same NASEM committee for an additional round of peer review. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/ntp.revised-monograph.9-16-2020.pdf
|2020||September 16. Committee on Peer Review of the NTP Monograph on Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects.
|2020||September 16. Protocol for the Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects. Project Leader: Kyla Taylor, PhD.
|2020||September 16. Literature Search Results for the Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects.
|2020||August 25. Fluoride occurrence in United States groundwater. Authors: McMahon PB, Brown CJ, Johnson TD, Belitz K, Lindsey BD. Science of the Total Environment 732:139217.||Journal|
|2020||July 21. Fluoride Fact Sheet for Professionals – also in pdf). By the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Heath. (See also Fluoride Fact Sheet for Consumers)||NIH|
|2020||March 5. Review of the Draft NTP Monograph: Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects (2020). National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/nas-review-of-ntp-review.march-5-2020.pdf||NTP-NAS|
|2019||Presentation to the National Academies on the draft NTP Monograph on the Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects, by Kyla W. Taylor, PhD, Office of Health Assessment and Translation, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. November 6.
October 22. Draft NTP Monograph on the Systematic Review of Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Cognitive Health Effects. National Toxicology Program. Dated September 6, 2019; available October 22, 2019. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/2019.ntp_.draft-fluoride-systematic-review.online-Oct-22.pdf
This DRAFT Monograph is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review and does not represent and should not be construed to represent any NTP determination or policy.
|2019||Oral Health Surveillance Report: Trends in Dental Caries and Sealants, Tooth Retention, and Edentulism, United States, 1999–2004 to 2011–2016. Division of Oral Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services. September.||CDC Oral Health|
|2019||Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop (2019). National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine||NAS|
|2019||Fluoride Ingestion: Connecting the Dots for Health. By Steven G. Gilbert, PhD. May.||Report|
|2019||Beverages: Bottled Water. Notice. Proposal to revise the quality standard for bottled water to specify that bottled water to which fluoride is added by the manufacturer may not contain fluoride in excess of 0.7 milligrams per liter (mg/ L). This action, if finalized, will revise the current allowable levels for fluoride in domestically packaged and imported bottled water to which fluoride is added. Public comments due on or by June 3. Federal Register. PDF version. April 3.||FDA|
|2019||Coal’s Poisonous Legacy. Groundwater Contaminated by Coal Ash Across the U.S. Environmental Integrity Project. March 4.||NGO|
|2019||DRAFT for public comment: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2017. Report # EPA430-P-19-001. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Atmospheric Programs. February 12. Comments due by March 14 – see more information.||EPA|
|2019||Use of Toothpaste and Toothbrushing Patterns Among Children and Adolescents — United States, 2013–2016. By Thornton-Evans G, Junger ML, Lin M, Wei L, Espinoza L, Beltran-Aguilar E. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2019;68:87–90. Also in PDF.||CDC Oral Health|
|2019||Fact Sheet on Fluoridation Products and Fluoride. NSF International. January 14.||NSF|
|2018||December 6. Proposed Data Collection Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations.
“… CDC’s collection of CWS data is not duplicative of any other federal collection, including the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS), as SDWIS receives state reports of CWS fluoride levels that exceed 4 mg/L but not those near the beneficial level of 0.7 mg/L recommended for dental caries prevention by the PHS. Thus, CDC’s system is required to assess the degree to which the nation is reaching this PHS-recommended level…” A Notice in the Federal Register. Public comments due by February 4, 2019.
|2018||July 13. Proposed Guidance Regarding Operational Control Range Around Optimal Fluoride Concentration in Community Water Systems That Adjust Fluoride. A Notice in the Federal Register. Public comments due by October 11. Also in PDF format.||CDC Oral Health|
|2018||June 6. Statement on the evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of community water fluoridation. By Casey Hannan, MPH, Director (Acting), Division of Oral Health; and Lorena Espinoza, DDS, MPH, Associate Director for Science, Division of Oral Health. See also in html||CDC Oral Health|
|2018||June. Toxicological Profile for Perfluoroalkyls. The term Perfluoroalkyls, as used in this report, refers only to these 14 compounds: PFOA, PFOS, PFBA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDeA, PFUA, PFBuS, PFHxS, PFDoA, PFOSA, ME-PFOSA-AcOH,
See July 13, 2018, Federal Register notice for public comments
|2018||State of Decay, a report from Oral Health America, a part of the American Dental Association.||ADA|
|2018||April. Prevalence of Total and Untreated Dental Caries Among Youth: United States, 2015–2016. By Eleanor Fleming, Ph.D., D.D.S., M.P.H., and Joseph Afful, M.S. NCHS Data Brief No. 307. National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey,
|2018||February. ODS [Ozone Depleting Substances] Destruction in the United States and Abroad. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by ICF. EPA 430-R-18-001.||EPA|
|2017||October. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers. Protecting Children’s Health Where They Live, Learn, and Play. IMPACT REPORT EPA/600/R-17/407||NIEHS, EPA|
|2017||September. Sodium Fluoride. Draft for Comment (B701 SCLB). Deadline of Nov. 20th to review and submit comments. After that deadline date, comments will have to wait until the next revision of the standard.American Water Works Association.||AWWA|
|2017||September 28. Final Rule. Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing and Phosphate Fertilizer Production Risk and Technology Review Reconsideration. Federal Register, 40 CFR Part 63; Docket ID No. EPA–HQ–OAR–2012–0522||EPA|
August 8. Mexichem Fluor, Inc. (Petitioner) vs EPA (Respondent), The Chemours Company FC, LLC, et al. (Intervenors). Argued February 17, 2017; Decided August 8, 2017. United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Note: HFCs are are potent greenhouse gases sometimes referred to as a High Global Warming Potential gas (HIgh GWP). In the court’s judgment …”The fundamental problem for EPA is that HFCs are not ozone-depleting substances, as all parties agree. Because HFCs are not ozone-depleting substances, Section 612 would not seem to grant EPA authority to require replacement of HFCs. Indeed, before 2015, EPA itself maintained that Section 612 did not grant authority to require replacement of non-ozone-depleting substances such as HFCs. But in the 2015 Rule, for the first time since Section 612 was enacted in 1990, EPA required manufacturers to replace non-ozone-depleting substances (HFCs) that had previously been deemed acceptable by the agency. In particular, EPA concluded that some HFCs could no longer be used by manufacturers in certain products, even if the manufacturers had long since replaced ozone-depleting substances with HFCs.
|2017||August 11. Sulfuryl fluoride. Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 — United States. By Thomas K, Jajosky R, Coates RJ, Calvert GM, et al. MMWR, 64(54);1–6.||CDC – MMWR|
|2017||July. Position Paper against Fluoride Use in Water, Dental Materials , and Other Products for Dental and Medical Practitioners, Dental and Medical Students, Consumers , and Policy Makers.||IAOMT|
|2017||June. Protocol for Systematic Review of Effects of Fluoride Exposure on Neurodevelopment.||NTP|
|2017||February 27. Fluoride Chemicals in Drinking Water; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Reasons for Agency Response. Proposed Rule. Federal Register 82 FR 11878. Html version.||EPA|
|2017||January 30. Statement on the evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of community water fluoridation. By Casey Hannan, MPH, Acting Director, Division of Oral Health, CDC; and Lorena Espinoza, DDS, MPH, Associate Director for Science, Division of Oral Health||CDC Oral Health|
January 23. Oral Health: Preventing Dental Caries, Community Water Fluoridation. By the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Published by the Community Guide. Document last updated January 23, 2017. (Original url, https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/Oral-Health-Caries-Community-Water-Fluoridation_3.pdf)
|2017||January 11. Six-Year Review. Six-Year Review of Fluoride in Drinking Water. Published in the Federal Register 82 FR 3518 under: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA’s Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment and/or Information on Related Issues. Public comments requested with a due date before or on March 13.
• PDF version
|2016||December. Six-Year Review. Six-Year Review 3 – Health Effects Assessment for Existing Chemical and Radionuclide National Primary Drinking Water Regulations – Summary Report. Office of Water (4304T); EPA 822-R-16-008. This document was prepared in part under U.S. EPA Contract EP-C-10-030, Work Assignments 3-08 and 4-08, and U.S. EPA Contract EP-C-12-023, Work Assignment 3-26||EPA-Water|
|2016||December 12: Additional Measures Can Be Taken to Prevent Deaths and Serious Injuries From Residential Fumigations. Report No. 17-P-0053. By the EPA’s Office of Inspector General. See excerpts.||EPA|
|2016||December. Fluoridation Report by State. Council on Advocacy for Access Prevention.||ADA|
|2016||December 12. Additional measures can be taken to prevent deaths and serious injuries from residential fumigations. Report No. 17-P-0053. Office of Inspector General.||EPA|
|2016||November 29. FDA’s letter to Michael Connett, Esq.,director of FAN, denying petition of May 6, 2016, requesting FDA to take enforcement actions against companies that distribute sodium fluoride drops/tablets/lozenges for dental caries protection. Docket #: FDA-2016-P-1288||FDA|
|2016||November 22. Petition under Section 21 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”), 15 U.S.C. § 2620, to EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy. Petiton to the U.S. EPA to ban fluoridation chemicals used in water fluoridation due to fluoride’s neurotoxicity. Submitted by Fluoride Action Network, Food & Water Watch, Organic Consumers Association, American Academy of Environmental Medicine, International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, Moms Against Fluoridation, and undersigned individuals.||TSCA|
|2016||November 7. Federal Register Notice, “Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review.”
Re: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). “… The notice for the proposed information collection is published to obtain comments from the public and affected agencies… The following major examination or laboratory items, that had been included in the 2015–2016 NHANES, were cycled out for NHANES 2017–2018: … dental fluorosis assessment, dental fluorosis imaging (DFI), plasma, urine and water fluoride… To request additional information on the proposed project or to obtain a copy of the information collection plan and instruments, call (404) 639–7570 or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Direct written comments and/or suggestions regarding the items contained in this notice to the Attention: CDC Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503 or by fax to (202) 395–5806. Written comments should be received within 30 days of this notice.” Public comments due no later than December 5, 2016.
|2016||November 11. Hydrogen Fluoride emissions from Brick & Ceramic Kilms. Petition by Sierra Club to US EPA.||Sierra Club|
|2016||October 21. Vital Signs: Dental Sealant Use and Untreated Tooth Decay Among U.S. School-Aged Children. By Griffin SO, Wei L, Gooch BF, et al. MMWR, October 21, 2016 / 65(41);1141-1145.||CDC – MMWR|
July 19. Natural Fluoride in the US. “This fact sheet answers common questions about fluoride occurring naturally in private wells and groundwater.”
July 15. Notes from the Field: Acute Sulfuryl Fluoride Poisoning in a Family — Florida, August 2015.By Prakash RM, Clark G, Jackson WL, Calvert GM. MMWR, July 15, 2016 / 65(27);698–699.
|CDC – MMWR|
|2016||July 8. Comments Regarding the NIH National Toxicology Program’s Systematic Literature Review on the Effects of Fluoride on Learning and Memory in Animal Studies. By Lorena Espinoza, DDS, MPH, Associate Director for Science, Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.||CDC-Oral Health|
|2016||July. Systematic Literature Review on the Effects of Fluoride on Learning and Memory in Animal Studies. NTP Research Report 1. National Toxicology Program.||NTP|
|2016||May 12. Dental Health Is Worse in Communities of Color. By Jane Koppelman and Rebecca Singer Cohen. The Pew Charitable Trusts | Dental Campaign.||Pew|
|2016||May 6. Email from EPA’s Steven Neugeboren to Jill Jennings-McElheney on the Statutory Role of Regulatory Agencies on Water Fluoridation.||EPA-Water|
|2016||March 3. 2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics.||CDC|
|2016||Jan 16. Most children with medicaid in four states are not receiving required dental services, Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Inspector General. January 16, 2016. Report No. OEI-02-14-00490. This report was prepared under the direction of Jodi Nudelman, Regional Inspector General for Evaluation and Inspections in the New York regional office, and Nancy Harrison and Meridith Seife, Deputy Regional Inspectors General.||HHS|
|2016||January 15. Technical comments. Nominations to the Report on Carcinogens and Office of Health Assessment and Translation.
Includes comments on”
– Harvard Study on Osteosarcoma
– Ruling by CA Prop 65 in 2011
– Evaluation by EU’s SCHER committee
– Additional Studies
|2016||Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid). Summary created in April 1992, updated in September 2016.||EPA|
|2015||Dec 2. NTP Evaluation of Fluoride Exposure and Potential for Developmental Neurobehavioral Effects. By Kristina Thayer, PhD, Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. NTP Board of Scientific Counselors.||NTP|
|2015||Oct 26. Final Rule for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Brick and Structural Clay Products (BSCP) Manufacturing and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing.
2. Summary of the Major Provisions
The EPA is finalizing MACT emission limits for non-Hg HAP metals (or PM surrogate) and Hg, and a health-based emission limit (HBEL) for acid gases (hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine (Cl2)) for BSCP tunnel kilns…
|2015||Oct 7. Recommendation to review fluoride as a carcinogen, developmental toxicant, and endocrine disruptor. Federal Register. Notice.||NTP|
|2015||Oct 7. Notice of Lodging of Two Proposed Consent Decrees Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Federal Register.||DOJ|
|2015||Oct 1. Press release on the Consent Decrees against Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC, operations in Florida and Louisiana.||EPA|
|2015||Sept 30. United States of America and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Civil Complaint. Filed September 30, 2015. 99 pages.||DOJ
|2015||Sept 30. United States of America and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Consent Decree. Filed September 30, 2015. 82 pages.||DOJ
|2015||Oct 1. United States of America and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Appendices. Filed October 1, 2015. 574 pages.||DOJ
|2015||Sept 30. United States of America and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Civil Complaint. Filed September 30, 2015. 53 pages.||DOJ
|2015||Sept 30. United States of America and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Consent Decree. Filed September 30, 2015. 85 pages.||DOJ
|2015||Oct 1. United States of America and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (Plaintiffs) v. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (Defendant). Attachments. Filed October 1, 2015. 416 pages.||DOJ
|2015||August 21. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing — Washington State, 2001–2013. MMWR 64(32);874-877.||CDC – MMWR|
|2015||July 31. Overview: Infant formula and fluorosis.
Online at https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/safety/infant_formula.htm as of May 12, 2017
|2015||July 28. Water Fluoridation and Cancer Risk.||ACS|
|2015||July 2. Comments Regarding the Cochrane Review of Water Fluoridation for the Prevention of Dental Caries. Division of Oral Health.||CDC|
|2015||July. Fluoridation Advocacy. Pew’s Contributions and Lessons that Emerge, by the Children’s Dental Health Project||Pew|
|2015||June. Community Water Fluoridation Policy Statement. Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors. Adopted 2009; Amended June 2015.||ASTDD|
June 18. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. By Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Worthington HV, Walsh T, O’Malley L, Clarkson JE, Macey R, Alam R, Tugwell P, Welch V, Glenny AM. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 18;6.
NOTE: “Conflicts of interest This review is supported by a grant from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No other interests to declare.”
Questions & Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant Formula. (No mention of fluoride.) Updated June 5, 2015; online July 7, 2017.
This 2008 report was released in June 2015 in response to a FOIA request by Carol Kopf.
Title on the report: The Public Votes on Fluoridation. Factors Linked to the Outcome of Fluoridation Campaigns.
HHS suggested citation title: Exploring Factors Associated with Fluoridation Referenda Outcomes. By Chadwick A, Lamia T, Zaro-Moore J.
|2015||May 1. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Federal Register, Notice (80 FR 24936) (Page: 24936 -24947) (Document Number:2015-10201). Original online.||HHS|
|2015||May. Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S Households in 2014 by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Report prepared by Jeff Larrimore, Mario Arthur-Bentil, Sam Dodini, and Logan Thomas.||Federal Reserve System|
May. Dental Caries and Tooth Loss in Adults in the United States, 2011–2012. By Dye BA, Thornton-Evans G, Li X, Iafolla TJ. NCHS data brief, no 197. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
|2015||April. The Oral Health of American Indian and Alaska Native Children Aged 1-5 Years: Results of the 2014 IHS Oral Health Survey. By Phipps KR and Ricks TL. Indian Health Service data brief. Rockville, MD: Indian Health Service.||IHS|
|2015||April 27. U.S. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for the Prevention of Dental Caries. Public Health Reports, July-August 2015. (Released via press release on April 27, 2015.)||HHS|
|2015||April 27. Surgeon General’s Perspectives. Community Water Fluoridation: One of CDC’s “10 Great Public Health Achievements of the 20th Century.” Public Health Reports, July-August 2015. (Released via press release on April 27, 2015.)||HHS|
|2015||April 27. FDA issues a letter for manufacturers with recommendations on fluoride added to bottled water. “… We intend to revise the quality standard for fluoride added to bottled water in 21 CFR 165.110(b)(4)(ii) to be consistent with the updated PHS recommendation. In the interim, we recommend that bottled water manufacturers do not add fluoride to bottled water at concentrations greater than a maximum final concentration of 0.7 mg/L.“||FDA|
April 2. Statement on the evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of community water fluoridation. Signed by Katherine Weno, DDS, JD, Director, Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
|CDC – Oral Health|
|2015||Revised April 1, 2015: BOTTLED WATER. Code of Federal Regulation Title 21; Sec. 165.110, Bottled water.||FDA|
|2015||Revised April 1, 2015: LABELING ON DENTAL PRODUCTS. Code of Federal Regulation Title21: Section 355.50, Labeling of anticaries drug products.||FDA|
… FDA has determined that Congress did not intend for FDA to regulate the addition of fluoride to public drinking water for dental caries prevention as a drug under FD&C Act. Instead, Congress intended that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulate fluoride in public drinking water as a potential contaminant under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (SDWA), Public Law No. 93-523, 88 Stat. 1660 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.) to protect against adverse health effects, and that within the limits thus set by EPA, state and local governments be permitted, but not required, to fluoridate public drinking water to help dental caries…
|2014||September 12. Use of Dental Care and Effective Preventive Services in Preventing Tooth Decay Among U.S. Children and Adolescents — Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, United States, 2003–2009 and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2005–2010. By Griffin SO, Barker LK, Wei L, Li CH, Albuquerque MS, Gooch BF. MMWR, 63(02);54-60.||CDC – MMWR|
|2014||May. Who’s in Danger? Race, Poverty, and Chemical Disasters. A demographic analysis of chemical disaster vulnerability zones. Environmental Justice and Health Alliance for Chemical Policy Reform.||Other|
|2014||Feb 14. New guidance from the ADA’s Council on Scientific Affairs “recommends that caregivers use a smear of fluoride toothpaste (or an amount about the size of a grain of rice) for children younger than 3 years old and a pea-size amount of fluoride toothpaste for children 3 to 6 years old.” Press release.||ADA|
|2013||September. Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book. A Report to the Communities. National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. NIH Publication No. 13-7951.||HHS|
|2013||April 22. Petition to prohibit the use of hydrofluorosilicic acid (HFSA) as a water fluoridation agent to EPA from J. William Hirzy.||EPA|
|2013||April 5. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues – by Mary Tiemann, April 5.||CRC|
|2013||March 18. The Department of Defense issued a memo in 2013 mandating that its bases fluoridate their water supply. “DoD installations in the United States and territories that own or operate a potable water treatment facility serving 3,300 persons or more must provide optimally fluoridated water beginning in Fiscal Year 2016. Fluoridation should be required in future potable water treatment plant privatizations. Existing privatized potable water treatment plants will incorporate the fluoridation requirement as opportunities become available.”||DOD|
February 14. Letter from Steven M. Neugeboren, Associate General Council, Water Law Office, at the Environmental Protection Agency, which states, “EPA does not have responsibility for substances added to water solely for preventative health care purposes…”
|2013||April. Building Capacity. By Orc Macro, Inc. (See second para, page 165)
The intent of this review is to provide background information on the issue of fluoridation and to identify social scientific research that may shed light on the factors that influence community decisions to adopt or reject fluoridation.
|CDC – Oral Health|
|2012||Health, United States, 2011. With Special Feature on Socioeconomic Status and Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. DHHS Publication No. 2012 – 1232.||CDC – Oral Health|
|2012 (a)||Contract that CDC gave to Georgia Health Sciences University Research Institute “for laboratory measurements on water and plasma specimens for fluoride testing… on participants aged 6 to 19 years.” Amount of contract: $496,256.00.||CDC – Oral Health|
|2012 (b)||Specifications for Contract (above) “for laboratory measurements on water and plasma specimens for fluoride testing… on participants aged 6 to 19 years.”||CDC – Oral Health|
|2012||February. Final Rule: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units … According to this Final Rule: “In 2005, U.S. EGUs [Coal & oil-fired units] emitted 62 percent of total HF emissions.” February 12.||EPA-Air|
|2012||2012 Water Fluoridation Statistics. Online in 2013.||CDC|
|2011||Evidence on the Carcinogenicity of Fluoride and Its Salts. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA).||CA EPA|
September 23. Dental Caries in Rural Alaska Native Children — Alaska, 2008. MMWR,
|CDC – MMWR|
|2011||Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxicants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies. By W Mundy W, Padilla S, Shafer T, Gilbert M, Breier J, Cowden J, Crofton K, Herr D, Jensen K, Raffaele K, Radio N, and Schumacher K.||RTP|
|2011||June 11. Comments on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Fluoride Risk Assessment and Relative Risk Contribution Documents Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0174. Submission signed by Raymond F. Gist, DDS, President and Kathleen T. O’Loughlin DMD, Executive Director.
Note: While one of the pages has DRAFT on it, this was the ADA’s submission in EPA’s docket.
|2011||January 19. Sulfuryl Fluoride; Proposed Order Granting Objections to Tolerances and Denying Request for a Stay; Proposed Rule. Federal Register.||EPA-
|2011||January 13. Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Notice in the Federal Register||HHS|
|2011||January 7. Press release with EPA Office of Water: EPA and HHS Announce New Scientific Assessments and Actions on Fluoride / Agencies working together to maintain benefits of preventing tooth decay while preventing excessive exposure||HHS
|2011||January. Fact Sheet: New Fluoride Risk Assessment and Relative Source Contribution Documents||EPA-Water|
|2011||January 3. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues – by Mary Tiemann.||CRC|
|2011||January. Questions and Answers on Fluoride||EPA-Water|
|2010||December. Fluoride: Dose-Response Analysis For Non-cancer Effects||EPA-Water|
|2010||December. Fluoride: Exposure and Relative Source Contribution Analysis||EPA-Water|
|2010||Report: The Cost of Delay. State Dental Policies Fail One in Five Children. By the Pew Center on the States||Pew|
|2010||Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999–2004. By Beltran-Aguilar ED et al. NCHS Data Brief No. 53. November.||CDC – Oral Health|
|2010||March 29. Six-Year Review. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA’s Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment and/or Information on Related Issues. Federal Register. Notice.||EPA|
|2010||Fact Sheet. Announcement of Completion of EPA’s Second Review of Existing Water Standards. A requirement of the Safe Water Drinking Act (SWDA). March.||EPA|
|2010||March. Resolution on Community Water Fluoridation by the American Association of Public Health Dentistry.||AAPHD|
|2009||National Primary Drinking Water Regulations||EPA-Water|
|2009||Fluoridation Report for the Secretary of Health. Findings from a Review of the Current Literature. By Dwight Flammia, PhD, Public Health Toxicologist, Virginia. October.||Report|
Title on the report: The Public Votes on Fluoridation. Factors Linked to the Outcome of Fluoridation Campaigns. By ORC Macro, Inc. research team: Chadwick A, Lamia T, Zaro-Moore J,Chervin D, Wike R, Farrell J, Bates B.
According to the report, “A more detailed description of this study, “Exploring Factors Associated with Fluoridation Refetenda Outcomes, Final Report” (September 2005), and its findings ate available from the CDC Division of Oral Health.”
This report was received in June 2015 via a FOIA request by Carol Kopf.
|CDC – Oral Health|
|2008||Fluoride: Dose-Response Analysis For Non-cancer Effects. Dental Fluorosis: Evaluations of Key Studies. Report 820-R-10-018.Health and Ecological Criteria Division Office of Water. January.||EPA-Water|
— Comments submitted by Kathleen Thiessen, click here
|2008||Sulfuryl fluoride – Interim Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Technical Support Document
|2008||July 11. Populations Receiving Optimally Fluoridated Public Drinking Water — United States, 1992–2006. MMWR, July 11, 2008 / 57(27);737-741.||CDC – MMWR|
|2008||April 15. National Kidney Foundation statement: Fluoride Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease, April 15, 2008.||NKF|
|2008||2008 – AKWESASNE. St. Regis Mohawk Tribe Data Report: Fluoride. 2008. CAA Fluoride Grant: XA98279801-3.|
|2007||Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Sodium Fluoride||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Sodium Fluoride Risk Assessment for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Environmental Fate Assessment of Sodium Fluoride||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Sodium Fluoride Toxicology Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Revised Occupational and Residential/Bystander Assessment of the Antimicrobial Use (Remedial Wood Treatment) of Sodium Fluoride for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Revised Ecological Hazard and Environmental Risk Assessment Chapter for Sodium Fluoride RED – Error Corrections||EPA – Pesticides|
|2007||Sodium Fluoride – Incident Report Summary||EPA – Pesticides|
|2006||Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania. Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5261. In cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency.||USGS|
|2006||Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. Prepared at the request of the U.S. EPA’s Office of Water. Also see PDF version.||NRC|
August 26. Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002. By Beltran-Aguilar ED et al. MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 54(03);1-44. August 26.
See also, Table 23 on enamel fluorosis
|CDC – MMWR|
|2005||2005. USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected
Beverages and Foods, Release 2. December. Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville., Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service.
(See 2004 below)
|2004||2004. USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Food. Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville., Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service.
(see 2005 above)
|2004||Interaction Profile for: Cyanide, Fluoride, Nitrate, and Uranium.||ATSDR|
|2004||Hydrogen Fluoride and Uranium Fluoride: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. Volume 4. National Research Council.||NRC|
|2003||Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine||ATSDR|
|2003||Public Health and Aging: Retention of Natural Teeth Among Older Adults — United States, 2002. MMWR, December 19, 2003 / 52(50);1226-1229.||CDC – MMWR|
|2003||July 18. Six-Year Review. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of Completion of EPA’s Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards. Federal Register. Notice.||EPA|
|2002||February 22. Populations Receiving Optimally Fluoridated Public Drinking Water — United States, 2000. MMWR, February 22, 2002 / 51(07);144-7||CDC – MMWR|
|2001||Draft Toxicological Profile for Fluorine, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorides||ATSDR|
November 30. Promoting Oral Health: Interventions for Preventing Dental Caries, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers, and Sports-Related Craniofacial Injuries. MMWR Recommendations and Reports November 30, 2001 / 50(RR21);1-13.
|CDC – MMWR|
|2001||August 17. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWR. August 17. 50(RR14):1-42. By Adair SM, Bowen WH, Burt BA, Kumar JV, Levy SM, Pendrys DG.||CDC – MMWR|
|2001||Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Review of Toxicological Literature. By Karen E. Haneke and Bonnie L. Carson.||NIEHS|
|2000||June 29. Statement of Dr. J. William Hirzy, National Treasury Employees Union, Chapter 280, before the Subcommittee on Wildlife, Fisheries and Drinking Water, United States Senate.||NTEU|
|2000||The Manufacture of Fluoride Chemicals. By Thomas G. Reeves, P.E., National Fluoridation Engineer.||CDC – Oral Health|
|2000||Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health.||HHS|
December 24. Ten Great Public Health Achievements — United States, 1900-1999. MMWR Weekly, December 24, 1999 / 48(50);1141.
Also, see below, October 22, 1999, CDC-MMWR.
|CDC – MMWR|
October 22. Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. (MMWR). 48(41): 933-940 October 22, 1999.
Also, see above, December 24, 1999, CDC-MMWR.
|CDC – MMWR|
|1999||October 22. H. Trendley Dean, D.D.S. MMWR, October 22, 1999 /48(41);935.||CDC – MMWR|
|1999||September 3. Water Fluoridation and Costs of Medicaid Treatment for Dental Decay — Louisiana, 1995-1996. MMWR, September 3, 1999 / 48(34);753-757.||CDC – MMWR|
|1999||August 5. Re: Aluminum Company of America, [Docket No.: 97–BXA–20], Bureau of Export Administration. Federal Register. The December 21, 1998, Recommended and
Decision Order of the Administrative Law Judge in the fine of $750,000 placed on ALCOA for sending sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride to Suriname and Jamaica as “water treatment” chemicals without proper notification. These two chemicals have strict export regulations, which Alcoa flaunted, as they can be used as precursors for chemical weapons.
|Dept. of Commerce|
|1999||April. Highlights in North American Litigation During the Twentieth Century on Artificial Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies. By John Remington Graham and Pierre-Jean Morin. Florida State University Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law 14(2):195-248.||Report|
|1999||April 2. Ten Great Public Health Achievements — United States, 1900-1999. MMWR, April 2, 1999 / 48(12);241-243.||CDC – MMWR|
|1998||Letter from the presidents of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine to Albert W. Burgstahler, Ph.D. et al. (confirming that fluoride is not an essential nutrient).||IOM|
|1998||Final Background document for Vinyl Fluoride. 8th Report on Carcinogens.||NTP|
|1998||Summary of Fluoride/Fluoridation Incidents. By Thomas G. Reeves, P.E., National Fluoridation Engineer, Division of Oral Health. September.||CDC-
|1997||August 7, 1997. Pesticide Tolerance Petition amending the established tolerances for residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and/or synthetic cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride or sodium aluminofluoride); Notice of Filing. Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Register.||EPA|
|1997||Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press.||IOM|
|1996||May 8. Fluorine Compounds; Pesticide Tolerance and Feed Additive Regulation. Proposed Rule. Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Register. Also available in pdf format.||EPA|
|1996||The Safe Water Drinking Act – (SWDA)
The U.S. Congressional Committee on Environment and Public Works. See top of page 18:
(11) No national primary drinking water regulation may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
|1996||April 12. Surveillance for Waterborne-Disease Outbreaks — United States, 1993-1994. By Kramer MH, Herwaldt BL, Calderon RL, et al. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, April 12, 1996 / 45(SS-1);1-33.||CDC – MMWR|
|1995||Federal Register 60FR52474, October 6, 1995. Anticaries Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Final Monograph. Final Rule.||FDA|
|1995||September 29. Engineering and Administrative Recommendations for Water Fluoridation, 1995. MMWR, Recommendations and Reports. September 29, 1995 / 44(RR-13);1-’40.||CDC – MMWR|
|1994||March 25. Current Trends Core Public Health Functions and State Efforts to Improve Oral Health — United States, 1993. MMWR, March 25, 1994 / 43(11);201,207-9.||CDC – MMWR|
|1993||November 19. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks — United States, 1991-1992. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, November 19, 1993 / 42(SS-05);1-22.||CDC – MMWR|
|1993||Fluoridation Census 1992||CDC|
|1993||Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine||ATSDR|
|1993||Hydrogen Fluoride Study. Report to Congress. Section 112(n)(6)Clean Air Act as Amended. Final Report. http://www.epa.gov/osweroe1/docs/chem/hydro.pdf – This report details the hazards associated with the production and uses of hydrofluoric acid and to makes recommendations about reducing these hazards based on the finding.||EPA|
|1993||Health effects of ingested fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington DC. Online report available to read and search.||NRC|
|1993||Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Advisory: Hydrogen Fluoride. This advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in their communities.||EPA|
|1992||An Epidemiologic Report on Drinking Water and Fluoridation. By Perry D. Cohn PhD, MPH. Environmental Health Service.||NYDOH|
|1992||December 11. Knowledge of the Purpose of Community Water Fluoridation — United States, 1990. MMWR, December 11, 1992 / 41(49);919,925-927.||CDC – MMWR|
|1992||May 29. Public Health Focus: Fluoridation of Community Water Systems. MMWR, May 29, 1992 / 41(21);372-375, 381.||CDC – MMWR|
|1991||Review of fluoride: benefits and risks (also see abbreviated version). Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. Public Health Service.||HHS|
|1991||Time trends for bone and joint cancers and osteosarcomas in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. National Cancer Institute. In: Appendix E and Appendix F of the above report. By Hoover RN, Devesa SS, Cantor KP, Lubin JH, Fraumeni JF.||HHS|
|1990||Marcus W. Memorandum from William L. Marcus, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor, Criteria & Standards Division Office of Drinking Water, to Alan B. Hais, Acting Director. Subject: Fluoride Conference to Review the NP Draft Fluoride Report. US EPA. May 1.||EPA-Water|
|1990||Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Fluoride in F344/N Rats and B6C3f1 Mice. Technical report Series No. 393. NIH Publ. No 91-2848. Also, Abstract, About/Findings||NTP|
|1990||September 21. Health Objectives for the Nation Progress Toward Achieving the 1990 Objectives for the Nation for Fluoridation and Dental Health. MMWR, September 21, 1990 / 39(37);646-650.||CDC – MMWR|
|1990||April 26. Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Thursday, April 26, 1990.||NTP|
|1989||“Trace Elements.” Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1989.||NRC|
|1989||Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1987. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. Publication No.90-2789.||NCI|
|1989||May 19. Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Dental Caries in Schoolchildren — Utah. MMWR, May 19, 1989 / 38(19);347-350.||CDC – MMWR|
|1988||September 23. Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion — Progress Toward Achieving the National 1990 Objectives for Fluoridation and Dental Health. MMWR, September 23, 1988 / 37(37);578-583.||CDC – MMWR|
|1987||September 18. Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Fatalities Resulting From Sulfuryl Fluoride Exposure After Home Fumigation — Virginia. MMWR, September 18, 1987 / 36(36);602-4,609-11.||CDC – MMWR|
|1987||August 14. Polymer-Fume Fever Associated with Cigarette Smoking and the Use of Tetrafluoroethylene — Mississippi. MMWR, August 14, 1987 / 36(31);515-516,521-522.||CDC – MMWR|
|1985||Fluoridation Census 1985||CDC|
February 15. Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Dental Caries and Community Water Fluoridation Trends — United States. MMWR, February 15, 1985 / 34(6);77-80,85.
|CDC – MMWR|
|1985||Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. 3rd Edition. By John E. Hem. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254.||USGS|
|1982||Ad Hoc Committee Report on Dental Fluorosis.||PHS|
|1981||The prevalence of dental caries in United States children, 1979-80: National Dental Caries Prevalence Survey. Bethesda, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1981; NIH publication no. 82-2245.||NIDR|
|1980||Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants. IX. Fluoride. by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and EPA’s Office of Research and Development, Health Effects Research Laboratory. Report No. EPA-600-1-78-050 and ORNL/EIS-85.||EPA|
|1980||Removal of fluoride from Industrial wastewaters using activated alumina. EPA-600/2-80-058. March. EPA Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory.||EPA|
|1980||Fluoride in Drinking Water. By Brian A. Dementi, PhD, Department of Health, Richmond, Virginia.||Report|
|1979||June. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. MOU 225-79-2001. EPA signed June 12; FDA signed June 22.||EPA, FDA|
|1977||Drinking Water and Health. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. pp. 388-389.||NRC|
|1977||Effects of fluoride on human health: nervous system. In: Fluorides. Committee on Biological Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.||NRC|
|1976||Geology and Resources of Fluorine in the United States. Geological Professional Survey Paper 933.||USGS|
|1975||Fluoridation Census 1975 (412 pages)
Public Health Serivce, Center for Disease Control, U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare
ACUTE FLUORIDE POISONING – North Carolina. MMWR Volume 23, No.. 22, page 199.
See original on page 199 at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/cdc-mmwr.june-1-1974.page-199.pdf
|CDC – MMWR|
|1968||Thermal degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinyl fluoride by oven pyrolysis.
By John T. Stapler, William J. Barnes, William E. C. Yelland. Clothing and Organic Materials Laboratory, U. S. ARMY NATICK LABORATORIES, Technical report: 69-7-C14. Project Reference IT024401A329.
|1967||Fluoridation Census 1967
By the Division of Dental Health, Bureau of Health Manpower, U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare
|1966||Fluoridation Census 1966
Public Health Service, Division of Dental Health, U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare
|1951||Report of the ad hoc Committee on Fluoridation of Water Supplies. Division of Medical Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. November 29.||NRC|