Since the mid 1940s, fluoride has been added to tap water in American communities in an effort to reduce the incidence of dental caries in the population. When the levels of fluoride in drinking water were tested and set, water was the only measurable source of fluoride for most communities. Now, adults and children ingest fluoride with foods and beverages prepared with fluoridated water, and they are exposed to fluoride-containing dental products. As a result, exposure to fluoride is greater than had been anticipated. In the early 1990s, the existing reproductive studies were reviewed in several reports and were considered to be inadequate to determine potential reproductive or developmental hazards. The effects of sodium fluoride ingestion at 0, 25, 100, 175 or 250 ppm in drinking water measured in rats throughout three generations are reported here. Feed and fluid consumption, body weights and clinical signs were recorded at regular intervals. Decreased fluid consumption observed at 175 and 250 ppm was attributed to decreased palatability and did not affect reproduction. No cumulative effects were observed in the three generations. Mating, fertility and survival indices were not affected. Organ-to-body-weight ratios and organ-to-brain weight ratios were not affected. Sodium fluoride up to 250 ppm did not affect reproduction in rats.