OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of water fluoridated to 1 ppm on the incidence of hip fractures in the elderly.
DESIGN: Ecological cohort.
SETTING: The incidence of femoral neck fractures in patients 65 years of age or older was compared in three communities in Utah, one with and two without water fluoridated to 1 ppm.
PATIENTS: All patients with hip fractures who were 65 years of age and older over a 7-year period in the three communities, excluding (1) those with revisions of hip fractures, (2) those in whom the hip fracture was anything but a first diagnosis, (3) those in whom metastatic disease was present, or (4) those in whom the fracture was a second fracture (n = 246).
OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of hospital discharge for hip fracture.
RESULTS: The relative risk for hip fracture for women in the fluoridated area was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.46) and for men was 1.41 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.81) relative to the nonfluoridated areas.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.
The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease (DJD) and hip fractures
Fluoride strengthens bone, yet makes it more susceptible to fracture. If mechanical factors are important in DJD, an increased risk for DJD in communities where fluoride is consumed is also expected. Hip fractures and knee DJD joint replacements among those >65 years for 1991-1996 were compared between one community with
A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure
In 1983/1984, a study of bone mass and fractures was begun in 827 women aged 20-80 years in three rural Iowa communities selected for the fluoride and calcium content of their community water supplies. The control community's water had a calcium content of 67 mg/liter and a fluoride content of
Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland
In the retrospective cohort study based on record linkage, the authors studied a cohort of persons born in 1900-1930 (n = 144,627), who had lived in the same rural location at least from 1967 to 1980. Estimates for fluoride concentrations (median, 0.1 mg/liter; maximum, 2.4 mg/liter) in well water in
Bone resorption and quantitative ultrasound in an endemic fluorosis area of Turkey.
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the quantity and quality of bone by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and to assess bone resorption by urinary excretion measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in an adult Turkish population living in an endemic fluorosis area and consuming
Industrial Fluorosis [Carnow et al.]
SUMMARY: In 1242 apparently healthy and actively employed workers of a Canadian aluminum facility, the history of musculoskeletal symptoms, of the incidence of fractures, of neck and back surgery, as well as the x-ray findings were reviewed. A highly significant relationship of exposure to fluoride was established with the frequency
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Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Impact of Iodine Deficiency
A consistent body of animal and human research shows that fluoride exposure worsens the impact of an iodine deficiency. Iodine is the basic building block of the T3 and T4 hormones and thus an adequate iodine intake is essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. When iodine intake is inadequate during infancy and
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
The Relationship Between Fluoride, Bone Density, and Bone Strength
Although fluoride has generally been found to reduce the bone density of cortical bone, it is well documented that fluoride can increase the density of trabecular bone (aka cancellous bone). Trabecular bone is the primary bone of the spine, whereas cortical bone is the primary bone of the legs and arms. While increases in
Annapolis: Water Fluoridation Linked to Death of Dialysis Patient
EVENING CAPITAL (Annapolis, Maryland) November 29, 1979 Fluoride Linked to Death by Mary Ann Kryzankowicz Staff Writer Fluoride poisoning has been definitely linked to the death of a 65-year-old kidney dialysis patient who became ill during a blood cleaning process Nov 11. State Medical Examiner Dr. (illegible) Guard has ruled that Lawrence Blake, 65, of Arundel
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
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