Analysis of the data produced the following conclusions:
1. As was expected, dental fluorosis was significantly greater in Bartlett than in Cameron (all of the participants born and in continuous residence in Bartlett during the tooth formative period exhibited positive evidence of dental fluorosis).
2. The incidence of cardiovascular disease was higher in Cameron, an observation unrelated to fluoride ingestion.
3. There were no significant differences between the age-adjusted death rates in the two towns.
4. The two groups showed no significant differences in the ten year period with respect to changes in blood pressure, arthritic conditions, eyes, thyroid disorders, hearing, tumors, cysts, bones and bone fractures, and the urinary system (Table 1).
5. The only difference in laboratory findings was in the white blood cell count, which tended to be higher in Bartlett in 1953. White blood cells counts are normally subject to considerable variation and, when viewed in the light of clinical experience, this finding does not suggest an association with fluoride intake (Table 2).
When the data are reviewed critically, it is clear that the medical characteristics of the two groups, with the exception of dental fluorosis, do not differ more than would be expected of two comparable towns with or without an excess of fluoride in the water supply.
Medical aspects of excessive fluoride in a water supply
A 10-year study of 116 persons in Bartlett and 121 in Cameron, Tex., was conducted to determine if prolonged exposure to fluoride in the water supply of Bartlett had produced detectable physiological effects. Bartlett's water contained about 8 p.p.m. F until 1952, when an experimental defluoridation unit was installed, reducing the
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards.
Excerpts: Summary Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to establish exposure standards for contaminants in public drinking-water systems that might cause any adverse effects on human health. These standards include the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG), the maximum contaminant level (MCL), and the secondary
Fluorosis in Aden
The cases to be described here occurred in the Aden Protectorate where for the last 12 years mass screening of the chest to exclude pulmonary tuberculosis has been carried out. The patients had all drunk the brackish water from the wells, and the analysis of the water from a well
Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients
About the Authors: William J Johnson, director of the Mayo Artificial Kidney Center and professor of medicine with the Division of Nephrology at the Mayo Clinic, has been involved in the study of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and renal osteodystrophy, potassium metabolism, and uremic neuropathy. He is past chairman of the Minnesota
Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride
Excerpts: INTRODUCTION Fluoridation of drinking water has been a subject of controversy for decades. Over the past 50 years, the incidence of dental caries (cavities) has declined considerably in the United States, an important health advance that most scientists attribute principally to increased access to fluoridated water and dental products. According to
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Fluoride & Liver Cancers in NTP Bioassay
On October 28, 1988, Battelle Columbus Laboratories submitted its Final Report to the NTP concerning the results of the Mouse study. The principal finding of Battelle's report was that a dose-dependent increase of a rare liver cancer (hepatocholangiocarcinoma) had occurred in the fluoride-treated male and female mice.
Fluoride Reduces Bone Strength in Animals
Most animal studies investigating how fluoride effects bone strength have found either a detrimental effect, or no effect. Few animal studies have found a beneficial effect. In fact, one of the few studies that found a beneficial effect was unable to be repeated by the same authors in a later
The Relationship Between Fluoride, Bone Density, and Bone Strength
Although fluoride has generally been found to reduce the bone density of cortical bone, it is well documented that fluoride can increase the density of trabecular bone (aka cancellous bone). Trabecular bone is the primary bone of the spine, whereas cortical bone is the primary bone of the legs and arms. While increases in
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
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