Various authors have studied the effect of fluoride ion upon mammalian cells using many different biological end-points, of:which inhibition of the function of specific cellular enzymes, survival of cell reproductive capacity, production of abnormalities of cell division and alteration in the rate of cell proliferation are a representative sample. In this review the minimum fluoride ion concentration at which biological effects are detect- able are compared for each of these end-points. The usefulness of such in vitro studies for evaluation of potential whole-animal toxicity is discussed.
Chronic fluoride exposure alters antioxidant enzymes in rat brain and intestine
Background: Low Fluoride use has been advocated as a therapeutic agent for delaying tooth decay however, high fluoride exposure has been associated with behavioral changes, low IQ, and altered brain functions and development. Although Fluoride generally does not generate free radicals but is still implicated in free radical associated damage
Influence of methionine upon the activity of antioxidative enzymes in the kidney of rats exposed to sodium fluoride.
The intensified or uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species leads to disturbances of numerous biochemical processes. Among the factors inducing intensified free radical processes, fluoride ions are listed, among others. One of the organs most exposed to the toxic activity of fluorides is the kidney. In the study presented here,
[Effects of sodium fluoride on the activity of Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase in synaptic membrane in rat brain].
Effects of sodium fluoride on Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of synaptic membrane in rat brain were studied with in vitro or in vivo methods. Concentrations of sodium fluoride of 0.3, 1.6, 8.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mmol/L can significantly inhibit the activity of the enzyme with proportions of 6.6%, 18.0%, 41.0%, 55.5% and
Fluoride Exposure Induces Inhibition of Sodium-and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) Enzyme Activity: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Public Health.
In this study, several lines of evidence are provided to show that Na+ , K+ -ATPase activity exerts vital roles in normal brain development and function and that loss of enzyme activity is implicated in neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as increased risk of cancer, metabolic, pulmonary and
Effect of fluoride ions on apatite crystal formation in rat hard tissues.
Fluoride is widely believed to be a useful chemical substance for preventing dental caries. However, the mechanism underlying crystal perforation in the tooth enamel and the effect of fluoride on hard tissues are unclear. To clarify the mechanism of the biological action of fluoride in the mineralization process, we examined
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