Complete fluoride intake data from the 2000-2003 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey were used to examine questions outstanding from the Fluoridation of Water Supplies review process. In a quarter of the population, fluoride consumption from all sources exceeds the Safe Intake defined by the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy, regardless of water fluoride concentration. In areas supplied with fully fluoridated water, fluoride intake exceeds the recommended safe maximum in nearly two thirds of consumers. The implications are discussed and recommendations are made.
Biomarkers for the Assessment of Fluoride Exposure in Children.
Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict exposure has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake
Monitoring salt fluoridation programs through urinary excretion studies.
This paper reviews problems associated with urinary collection for the estimation of fluoride exposure and recent findings in this context. After intake of a salted meal at noon, children aged 9 to 14 excreted on average 45 microgF/h. Morning and nocturnal excretions were only 16 microgF/h with the exception of
Fluoride intake and urinary fluoride excretion in 4- and 8-year-old children living in urban and rural areas of Southwest Nigeria
Objectives To estimate and compare total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), daily urinary fluoride excretion (DUFE), daily fluoride retention (DFR), fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) and fractional fluoride retention (FFR) in 4- and 8 year-old Nigerians and explore associations between these outcomes to improve understanding of fluoride metabolism. Methods Using a cross-sectional observational study,
Fluoride retention in infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas: effects of weaning.
Limited knowledge is available on total fluoride exposure, excretion and retention in infants, despite the first year of human life being the critical period for dental development and risk of dental fluorosis. This study investigated total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), excretion (TDFE) and retention (TDFR) in infants living in fluoridated
Total fluoride intake and excretion in children up to 4 years of age living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas.
Fractional fluoride retention is important during the early years of life when considering the risk of development of dental fluorosis. This study aimed to measure fractional fluoride retention in young children. The objectives were to investigate the relationships between fractional fluoride retention and total daily fluoride intake, age, and body
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