BACKGROUND: Sodium fluoride (NaF) intoxication is associated with oxidative stress and altered antioxidant defense mechanism. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of blackberry and quercetin (Q) against NaF-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in liver, kidney, testis and brain tissues of rats.
METHODS: The rats were allocated evenly to seven groups. The first group was maintained as the control, whereas groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were administered blackberry juice (BBJ), Q, NaF, BBJ+NaF, Q+NaF and BBJ+Q+NaF, respectively, for a period of 30 days.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: NaF caused an elevation in lipid peroxidation level paralleled with significant decline in glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as the total antioxidant activity in liver, kidney, testes and brain. Some histopathological changes were detected in all tested tissues of the NaF treated group. Q and BBJ had successfully maintained normal histological architecture and mitigated the induction of oxidative stress caused by NaF. Q effectively reduced the elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver, kidney, testis and brain. Less histopathological changes were observed in Q+NaF and BBJ+NaF treated groups. As a result, BBJ and Q significantly reduced NaF-induced oxidative and histological changes in rats. In the combination of BBJ and Q against NaF toxicity, the effects were more severe than from separate exposure, thus indicating that these flavonoids exhibited synergistic effects on all antioxidant and histological parameters