Fluoride Action Network


Choline has been shown to mediate damage of the chondrocyte matrix and degradation enzymes of mice exposed to fluoride (F). To test the action of choline, pregnant mice were treated with differing amounts of F and choline. Newborn mice were weaned at 21 days after birth and treated with the same doses of F and choline as they mothers for 12 weeks. Using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and western blotting, changes in the structure of the cartilage, the expression of mRNA and protein related to proteoglycans (PG), and degradation enzymes were detected. The RT-PCR results show that the expression of the Aggrecan (Acan), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?1), and Aggrecanases-1 gene were abnormal in the high fluoride (HiF) group, and treatments with choline reversed this phenomenon. The western blotting results show that the protein expression of Aggrecanases-1 was significantly increased in the HiF group (p?<?0.01). These findings suggest that F can change the morphology of cartilage tissue, the gene expression of the Acan, TGF-?1, Aggrecanases-1, and the protein expression of the Acan, and that choline can attenuate the effect of F. This may provide the basis for the treatment and prevention of fluorosis.