Although community water fluoridtion (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs.
To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF.
Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined.
Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected.
Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis.
Effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries and IQ in children.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of fluoride exposure on the prevalence of dental caries and the intellectual ability of children. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 161 children from 9 to 10 years of age were evaluated. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water and urine was
Protections against toxicity in the brains of rat with chronic fluorosis and primary neurons exposed to fluoride by resveratrol involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Highlights Fluorosis decreased learning and memory of rats and increased oxidative stress. The changes above may be associated with the lower expressions of a7 and a4 nAChRs. RSV attenuated the toxic effect by fluorosis, which might involve stimulating nAChRs. Protection of Resveratrol (RSV) against the neurotoxicity induced by high level of
Use of geochemical data banks in monitoring the natural environment — a case study from Sri Lanka.
A survey carried out on the incidence of dental diseases and the distribution of fluoride in drinking water wells and also copper in such waters in Sri Lanka showed the influence of the natural environmental factors on the prevalence of certain geographical diseases. In the case of the geographical variation
Some Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis.
Excerpt THE endemic hypoplasia of the permanent teeth known in this country as mottled enamel was first reported by Eager in 1901. The first investigation in the United States was the extensive one of Black,2 and McKay,3 published in 1916. At present in this country alone there are more than 200
Relationship between fluorine in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China.
In this project, the relationship between fluorine content in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China was evaluated. The concentration of fluorine in tap water and in urine of local subjects of 28 cities and 4 high fluorine villages in China shows a strong
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Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor
Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed about their physical appearance can have significant consequences on their self-esteem and confidence. Researchers have repeatedly found that "physical appearance [is] the best predictor of self-esteem" in adolescents, (Harter 2000) and that facial attractiveness, particularly the appearance of one's teeth, is a
Mechanisms by Which Fluoride Causes Dental Fluorosis Remain Unknown
When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel
Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by increased subsurface porosity. The enamel, however, is not the only component of teeth that is effected. As several studies have demonstrated, dental fluorosis can also impair the mineralization of dentin as well. As noted in one review: "The fact that
Severe Dental Fluorosis: Perception and Psychological Impact
[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
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