Although community water fluoridtion (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs.
To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF.
Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined.
Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected.
Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis.
Comparison of dental esthetic perceptions of young adolescents and their parents
To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. METHODS: Adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with adolescents' dental appearance.
Dental fluorosis in the Vesuvius towns in AD 79: a multidisciplinary approach.
BACKGROUND: Endemic fluorosis induced by high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater and soils is a major health problem in several countries, particularly in volcanic areas. AIM: To evaluate the occurrence of dental fluorosis resulting from exposure to high levels of environmental fluoride in 79 AD Herculaneum and close Vesuvius towns. SUBJECTS AND
Dose-dependent effect of fluoride on clinical and subclinical indices of fluorosis in school going children and its mitigation by supply of safe drinking water for 5 years: An Indian study.
Fluorosis is a public health problem in India; to know its prevalence and severity along with its mitigation measures is very important. The present study has been undertaken with the aim to assess the F dose-dependent clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis and reversal of the disease by providing safe
Alternative esthetic management of fluorosis and hypoplasia stains: blending effect obtained with resin infiltration techniques
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: New light-polymerized resin composites optimized for rapid infiltration of enamel lesions with resin light curing monomers are commercially available today to prevent enamel lesions from further demineralization and provide a highly conservative therapy. In addition, this technique has proved to be effective treatment for blending white spot
[Changes in fluoride levels in the blood serum and urine of children with mottled enamel].
The study comprised 46 children (25 boys and 21 girls) aged 10 to 14 years with endemic mottled enamel. From birth all children used aqueductal potable water containing supraoptimal amount of fluorine equal to 2,68 mg/ml. The control group consisted of 40 children from Lód? children care homes free from
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Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel
Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by increased subsurface porosity. The enamel, however, is not the only component of teeth that is effected. As several studies have demonstrated, dental fluorosis can also impair the mineralization of dentin as well. As noted in one review: "The fact that
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The TSIF ("Total Surface Index of Fluorosis")
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Dental Fluorosis Is a "Hypo-mineralization" of Enamel
Teeth with fluorosis have an increase in porosity in the subsurface enamel ("hypomineralization"). The increased porosity of enamel found in fluorosis is a result of a fluoride-induced impairment in the clearance of proteins (amelogenins) from the developing teeth. Despite over 50 years of research, the exact mechanism by which fluoride impairs amelogin
Severe Dental Fluorosis: Perception and Psychological Impact
[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor
Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed about their physical appearance can have significant consequences on their self-esteem and confidence. Researchers have repeatedly found that "physical appearance [is] the best predictor of self-esteem" in adolescents, (Harter 2000) and that facial attractiveness, particularly the appearance of one's teeth, is a
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