Although community water fluoridtion (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs.
To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF.
Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined.
Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected.
Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis.
Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study
Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained
The use of urinary fluoride excretion to facilitate monitoring fluoride intake: A systematic scoping review.
BACKGROUND: As a recognised effective and economical agent for dental caries prevention, fluoride has been used in many different fluoridation schemes implemented across the world. Considering the narrow ‘dose-gap’ between the benefit of caries reduction and the risk of dental fluorosis, it is recommended that fluoride intake is monitored by
Relationship between fluorine in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China.
In this project, the relationship between fluorine content in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China was evaluated. The concentration of fluorine in tap water and in urine of local subjects of 28 cities and 4 high fluorine villages in China shows a strong
Skeletal development and dental fluorosis in 12--14-year-old Danish girls from a fluoride and a non-fluoride community
The present study has examined the relationship between waterborne fluoride, dental fluorosis and skeletal maturity in two Danish areas containing less than 0.2 and 2.4 parts/10(6) F- in the drinking water. 12--14-year-old girls, 113 from the non-F- area and 122 from the F- area, born and raised in the areas,
Effect of power bleaching on the fluorosis stained anterior teeth case series
Bleaching is a conservative method for restoring the colour of intrinsic discoloration of teeth. The combination of McInnes solution and power bleaching is effective procedure for bleaching of fluorosis stained teeth. Definitely bleaching with McInnes bleaching agent gives instant results, not dependent on patient's compliance as other office based procedures,
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Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor
Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed about their physical appearance can have significant consequences on their self-esteem and confidence. Researchers have repeatedly found that "physical appearance [is] the best predictor of self-esteem" in adolescents, (Harter 2000) and that facial attractiveness, particularly the appearance of one's teeth, is a
Mechanisms by Which Fluoride Causes Dental Fluorosis Remain Unknown
When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
"Mild" Dental Fluorosis: Perceptions & Psychological Impact
The vast majority of research has found that patients, parents, and the general public alike view mild fluorosis (TF score 3) as a significant blemish of the teeth, one that is likely to embarrass the affected child to a degree that cosmetic treatment would be warranted.
Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel
Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by increased subsurface porosity. The enamel, however, is not the only component of teeth that is effected. As several studies have demonstrated, dental fluorosis can also impair the mineralization of dentin as well. As noted in one review: "The fact that
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The TSIF ("Total Surface Index of Fluorosis")
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
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