- Users of prescription fluoride drops had lower levels of fluorides in water and plasma.
- Smokers had higher levels of fluorides in plasma than nonsmokers.
- There was a positive association between fluoride levels in water and plasma.
For the first time, for 2013-2014, as part of ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, data for fluoride concentrations in water and plasma for U.S. children and adolescents were released in the public domain. This study was undertaken to investigate how fluoride concentrations vary in water and plasma with age, gender, race/ethnicity, housing ownership, use of prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and recent use of tobacco products (among adolescents). Fluoride concentrations in water were found to be lower among those aged 3-5 years than those aged 6-11 years (p=0.02), lower for non-Hispanic Asians than Hispanics (p=0.04) among 3-5 years old, lower for non-Hispanic Asians than non-Hispanic blacks (p=0.04) among 6-11 years old, and lower for those who used prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets than those who did not (p?0.048) among 12-19 years old. Adjusted fluoride concentrations in plasma were found to be lower for females than males (p<0.01) among those aged 6-11 years, lower for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites (p<0.01) among those aged 12-19 years, and lower for those who used prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets than those who did not (p=0.03) among 12-15 years old. Recent smokers were found to have higher fluoride concentration (p=0.03) in plasma than non-smoker adolescents. Over 60% of the children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years were at the risk of developing dental caries/decay. About 30% of the children were at the risk of dental fluorosis.