- Fluoride causes histopathological changes in C2C12 cells.
- Fluoride exposure damages ultrastructure in C2C12 cells.
- Fluoride exposure induces apoptosis in C2C12 cells.
- PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in fluoride-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells.
To investigate the mechanisms of fluoride-induced apoptosis, a fluoride-induced C2C12 skeletal muscle cell (C2C12 cell) model was established in this study, and the viability of the C2C12 cells was measured using an MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed via haematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis was monitored through Hoechst staining. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K, PDK1, AKT1, BAD, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 were detected through real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the survival rates of C2C12 cells decreased gradually with an increasing fluoride doses. The C2C12 cell structure was seriously damaged by fluoride, presenting with pyknosis, mitochondrial ridge disruption and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the expression of mRNA in PI3K, BAD, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 were significantly increased in the fluoride group (P <0.01), while the expression of PDK1 was markedly decreased (P <0.01). The expression of protein in BAD, Bcl-2 and Bax were significantly increased in the fluoride group (P <0.01), while the expression of PDK1 and P-AKT1 was markedly decreased (P <0.01). In conclusion, fluoride-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells is related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Analysis of the roles of dietary protein and calcium in fluoride-induced changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in rat
The roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) levels on the changes in T-lymphocyte subsets induced by excessive fluoride (F) intake were assessed using rats that were malnourished for 120 days as a model. The CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the spleen tissue were determined by flow cytometry and
Sodium fluoride promotes apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocytes
Fluoride generated the attention of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and with in vivo experimental models. Interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awarenessFluoride generated the attention of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations
DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes
AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80-120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group, 5 animals each group. The animals in
Sodium fluoride suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis through decreased insulin-like growth factor-I expression and oxidative stress in primary cultured mouse osteoblasts
It has been reported that sodium fluoride suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. However, the details about the mechanism at work in bone metabolism are limited. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of NaF on proliferation and apoptosis in the primary cultured mouse osteoblasts, which were exposed
Sodium fluoride exposure exerts toxic effects on porcine oocyte maturation.
Excessive long-term fluoride intake is associated with several health problems, including infertility. However, limited information is available on the toxic effects of fluoride exposure on the female reproductive system, especially oocyte maturation. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and
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