- We studied the toxic effects of different concentrations of NaF in H9c2 cells.
- NaF inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation and induced early apoptosis.
- Mitochondrial membrane potential decreased with increase in NaF.
- Caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c mRNA levels increased with increase in NaF.
- Fluoride induces apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial pathway.
Numerous studies have shown that chronic excessive fluoride intake can adversely affect different organ systems. In particular, the cardiovascular system is susceptible to disruption by a high concentration of fluoride. The objectives of this study were to explore the mechanism of apoptosis by detecting the toxic effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) in H9c2 cells exposed for up to 96 h. NaF not only inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation but also induced apoptosis and morphological damage. With increasing NaF concentrations, early apoptosis of H9c2 cells was increased while the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Compared with the control group, the mRNA levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c all increased with increasing concentrations of NaF. In summary, these data suggest that apoptosis is involved in NaF-induced H9c2 cell toxicity and that activation of the mitochondrial pathway may occur.
Fluoride induced tissue hypercalcemia, IL-17 mediated inflammation and apoptosis lead to cardiomyopathy: ultrastructural and biochemical findings.
An increased prevalence of cardiac complications has been observed in residents of fluorosis endemic areas chronically exposed to fluoride. Fluoride induces soft tissue injury due to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and mitochondriopathy. It was hypothesized that chronic fluoride exposure induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes due to inflammation, lysis of extra
Epigallocatechin gallate potentially attenuates fluoride induced oxidative stress mediated cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia in rats
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective role of (-)-epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) against Fluoride (F) induced oxidative stress mediated cardiotoxicity in rats. The animals exposed to F as sodium Fluoride (NaF) (25mg/kg BW) for 4 weeks exhibited a significant increase in the levels of cardiac troponins T and I
Single oral acute fluoride exposure causes changes in cardiac expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic and necrotic markers in male rats
Several studies have shown that acute fluoride (F-) exposure impairs cardiac function, but the molecular mechanism is not clear. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F- for 24 h. A significant accumulation of F- was found in the serum
Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by altering mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ROS level
Chronic excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic, and effects of long-term fluorosis on different organ systems have been examined. However, there are few studies about the effects of fluorosis on cardiovascular systems. Here, we studied the fluoride-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms including
The pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis: Research progress in the last 5 years.
Fluorine is one of the trace elements necessary for health. It has many physiological functions, and participates in normal metabolism. However, fluorine has paradoxical effects on the body. Many studies have shown that tissues and organs of humans and animals appear to suffer different degrees of damage after long-term direct
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