The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats. The left ureters of 6-week-old male rats were ligated using silk sutures. Fluoride was then administered for 2 weeks at doses of 0, 75, and 150 ppm in the drinking water. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) transcription; histological and immunohistochemical staining were used to identify positive areas within the renal cortex and staining-positive cells by image analysis. Significant increases were observed in the obstructed kidneys of UUO rats exposed to 150 ppm fluoride (compared to 0 ppm) for areas or number of cells that stained with Masson trichrome or with antibodies against collagen type I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, a myofibroblast marker), ED1, ED2, and ED3 (macrophage markers), and TGF-?1. Taken together, these observations suggested that fluoride exacerbates tuburointerstitial nephropathy resulting from UUO, and that this effect occurs via activation of the M2 macrophage-TGF-?1-fibroblast/myofibroblast-collagen synthesis pathway.
Newburgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study. XIII. Pediatric findings after ten years
The onset of menstruation in girls was selected as an index of the rate of sexual maturation, since the menarche is an event which is usually readily dated. The distribution of ages at the nearest birthday at which menstruation first occurred is shown in Table 5. The average age at
The relationship of creatinine clearance to serum fluoride concentration and urinary fluoride excretion in man
The effects of renal function on urinary fluoride clearance and serum inorganic fluoride concentration were studied. Laboratory determinations including (1) creatinine clearance rate (CCR), (2) serum inorganic fluoride concentration, and (3) urinary fluoride concentration, were made on 122 hospital patients. Subjects were then divided into impaired, questionable and normal creatinine
Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride
Excerpts: INTRODUCTION Fluoridation of drinking water has been a subject of controversy for decades. Over the past 50 years, the incidence of dental caries (cavities) has declined considerably in the United States, an important health advance that most scientists attribute principally to increased access to fluoridated water and dental products. According to
Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
Comment on Effects of fluoridation of community water supplies for people with chronic kidney disease. [Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007, Oct;22(10):2763-7.] Sir, Ludlow et al.  only confirmed that our knowledge of the potential adverse effects of chronic low fluoride supplementation of drinking water on normal or diseased kidneys is insufficient. More than
Sevoflurane or halothane in inhalational anesthesia induction in childhood. Anesthesia quality and fluoride level.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: With approval of the ethics committee and written informed parental consent, 40 children (age 1-10, mean 5.3 years, ASA class I and II) had anaesthesia induced without premedication (fresh gas flow 6 l/min, N2O/O2 = 65/35). Concentration of volatile anaesthetics was increased every 3-5 breaths (S: 0.8...3.2
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