The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats. The left ureters of 6-week-old male rats were ligated using silk sutures. Fluoride was then administered for 2 weeks at doses of 0, 75, and 150 ppm in the drinking water. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) transcription; histological and immunohistochemical staining were used to identify positive areas within the renal cortex and staining-positive cells by image analysis. Significant increases were observed in the obstructed kidneys of UUO rats exposed to 150 ppm fluoride (compared to 0 ppm) for areas or number of cells that stained with Masson trichrome or with antibodies against collagen type I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, a myofibroblast marker), ED1, ED2, and ED3 (macrophage markers), and TGF-?1. Taken together, these observations suggested that fluoride exacerbates tuburointerstitial nephropathy resulting from UUO, and that this effect occurs via activation of the M2 macrophage-TGF-?1-fibroblast/myofibroblast-collagen synthesis pathway.
The effects of fluoride supplementation on the epiphyseal growth plate of rats with chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure (CRF) inhibits the ability of the kidneys to excrete fluoride. Increased systemic fluoride, has been shown to result in increased thickness of the growth plate (GP). Severe CRF also leads to widening of the GP in uremic rats. Therefore, we hypothesize that fluoride exposure may further accentuate
Effects of fluoridated water on tissues of CSE female mice
Evidence suggests that certain tissues of the body are affected by inorganic fluoride in the diet. Groups of CSE female mice received different concentrations of fluoride in their drinking water for approximately 26 weeks. Slight variation in water and food intake was observed among the groups. Histological observation revealed pathological
Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
Comment on Effects of fluoridation of community water supplies for people with chronic kidney disease. [Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007, Oct;22(10):2763-7.] Sir, Ludlow et al.  only confirmed that our knowledge of the potential adverse effects of chronic low fluoride supplementation of drinking water on normal or diseased kidneys is insufficient. More than
Changes in adrenal function as a possible mechanism for elevation of serum glucose by a single large dose of fluoride.
Serum glucose was elevated immediately after ip administration of a single large dose of fluoride (NaF 35 mg/kg) to rats. Moreover, elevation of serum glucose following ip administration of 35 mg/kg of fluoride to rats was suppressed by adrenalectomy, dibenamine, or propranolol, but not by thyroid-parathyroidectomy. The elevation of serum
Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride- affected hilly areas of Doda District, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study
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