The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats. The left ureters of 6-week-old male rats were ligated using silk sutures. Fluoride was then administered for 2 weeks at doses of 0, 75, and 150 ppm in the drinking water. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) transcription; histological and immunohistochemical staining were used to identify positive areas within the renal cortex and staining-positive cells by image analysis. Significant increases were observed in the obstructed kidneys of UUO rats exposed to 150 ppm fluoride (compared to 0 ppm) for areas or number of cells that stained with Masson trichrome or with antibodies against collagen type I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, a myofibroblast marker), ED1, ED2, and ED3 (macrophage markers), and TGF-?1. Taken together, these observations suggested that fluoride exacerbates tuburointerstitial nephropathy resulting from UUO, and that this effect occurs via activation of the M2 macrophage-TGF-?1-fibroblast/myofibroblast-collagen synthesis pathway.
Pattern of renal osteodystrophy in haemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia
In order to know the pattern of renal osteodystrophy in haemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia we conducted a multicentre study involving 209 patients. The mean age of the patients was 39.4 +/- 14 (18-70) years, 128 were males and 81 females. All patients were on acetate dialysate and their mean
Influence of sodium fluoride and caffeine on the kidney function and free-radical processes in that organ in adult rats
An experiment was carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats (adult males) that for 50 days were administered, in the drinking water, NaF and NaF with caffeine (doses, respectively: 4.9 mg of NaF/kg body mass/24 h and 3 mg of caffeine/kg body mass/24 h). Disturbances were noted in the functioning of kidneys,
Fluoride metabolism in man
Fluoride balances were measured in man under strictly controlled dietary conditions before and during the intake of sodium fluoride, and after its discontinuation. Fluoride intake averaged 4.4 mg/day in the control period and 13.8 mg during the addition of an average of 21 mg sodium fluoride/day. The main pathway of
Evaluation of kidney injury biomarkers in an adult Mexican population environmentally exposed to fluoride and low arsenic levels.
Highlights Fluoride exposure increased renal injury biomarkers (ALB, Cys-C, KIM-1 and OPN). Fluoride could be considered an environmental kidney toxicant. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic does not increase kidney injury biomarkers. Co-exposure to low arsenic level does not enhanced renal fluoride toxicity. Fluoride (F) is a toxicant widely distributed
Sevoflurane or halothane in inhalational anesthesia induction in childhood. Anesthesia quality and fluoride level.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: With approval of the ethics committee and written informed parental consent, 40 children (age 1-10, mean 5.3 years, ASA class I and II) had anaesthesia induced without premedication (fresh gas flow 6 l/min, N2O/O2 = 65/35). Concentration of volatile anaesthetics was increased every 3-5 breaths (S: 0.8...3.2
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