Background: Fluoridation of drinking water, despite being regarded as one of the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century, has remained a much more debated concept. Excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood causes a number of irreversible structural and functional changes in the CNS leading to memory, learning and intellectual deficits.
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the fluoride, arsenic and cadmium levels in drinking water of six different locations in Egypt (Beheira Governorate) and compare the IQ levels of children aged 4.6-11-years of the same locations, with fluoride levels.
Materials and Methods: A cross–sectional study was conducted among 1000 children aged 4.6-11-years, selected by stratified random sampling on six different areas in Egypt (Beheira Governorate), two different towns (urban) and four villages (rural). The town and the belonging villages are supplied by the same water station. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and respective school authorities. Results states that High significant increase fluoride level in the drinking tap water than the WHO and the Egyptian allowed level and highly significant decrease in average IQ level in group of children with high fluoride level more than 1.5 mg/dL than the group of children with low fluoride level while the mean arsenic, cadmium and copper levels in tap drinking water was below the recommended WHO the Egyptian level.
Conclusion: A real relationship between fluoride exposure and intelligence with the average IQ of high fluoride group was lower than those with lower fluoride level.