Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-.
Fluoride plus aluminum: useful tools in laboratory investigations, but messengers of false information.
Aluminofluoride complexes (AlF(x)) form spontaneously in aqueous solutions containing fluoride and traces of aluminum ions and appear to act as phosphate analogs. These complexes have become widely utilized in laboratory investigations of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Reflecting on many laboratory studies, a new mechanism of fluoride and aluminum action on
Paradoxes of fluoride toxicity
Numerous literature sources reveal evidence that fluoride affects the activities of numerous enzymes in vitro as well as in vivo. Millions of people live in endemic fluoride areas with a severe public health problem. A plethora of data suggest that fluoride should be recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant for humans.
Black berry juice attenuates neurological disorders and oxidative stress associated with concurrent exposure of aluminum and fluoride in male rats
The objective of this study was to assess the protective effect of black berry juice (BBJ) on the neurological disorders and oxidative stress induced by co-exposure to ALCL3 and NaF in male albino rats. Administration of either AlCl3 (200?mg/kg bw) or NaF (10?mg/kg bw) or both of them caused a
Screening of Human Proteins for Fluoride and Aluminum Binding.
Previous studies showed that prolonged exposure to fluoride (F-) and aluminum (Al3+) ions is associated with numerous diseases including neurological disorders. They don't have any known biological function. But they can bind with proteins that interact with ions similar to them. Such unwanted interactions affect the normal biological function of
Chronic Fluoride Exposure and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
The continuous rise of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalent in the past few decades is causing an increase in public health and socioeconomic concern. A consensus suggests the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors in the ASD etiopathogenesis. Fluoride (F) is rarely recognized among the environmental risk factors of
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