Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-.
Paradoxes of fluoride toxicity
Numerous literature sources reveal evidence that fluoride affects the activities of numerous enzymes in vitro as well as in vivo. Millions of people live in endemic fluoride areas with a severe public health problem. A plethora of data suggest that fluoride should be recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant for humans.
Fluoride plus aluminum: useful tools in laboratory investigations, but messengers of false information.
Aluminofluoride complexes (AlF(x)) form spontaneously in aqueous solutions containing fluoride and traces of aluminum ions and appear to act as phosphate analogs. These complexes have become widely utilized in laboratory investigations of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Reflecting on many laboratory studies, a new mechanism of fluoride and aluminum action on
Interplay of glia activation and oxidative stress formation in fluoride and aluminium exposure.
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress formation is pivotal in the action of environmental agents which trigger the activation of glial cells and neuroinflammation to stimulate compensatory mechanisms aimed at restoring homeostasis. AIM: This study sets to demonstrate the interplay of fluoride (F) and aluminium (Al) in brain metabolism. Specifically, it reveals how oxidative
Black berry juice attenuates neurological disorders and oxidative stress associated with concurrent exposure of aluminum and fluoride in male rats
The objective of this study was to assess the protective effect of black berry juice (BBJ) on the neurological disorders and oxidative stress induced by co-exposure to ALCL3 and NaF in male albino rats. Administration of either AlCl3 (200?mg/kg bw) or NaF (10?mg/kg bw) or both of them caused a
Protective effect of resveratrol against neuronal damage through oxidative stress in cerebral hemisphere of aluminum and fluoride treated rats.
Aluminum has no defined biological function and it is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the presence of fluoride causes more aluminum to accumulate in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal damage. In recent years, resveratrol through its ameliorative effects was found to be a neuroprotectant. This
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