- Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province.
- Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure.
- Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively.
- The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from 2008 to 2017.
- The fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system.
Excessive and inadequate intake of fluoride may cause adverse effects in children, such as dental caries and dental fluorosis. This study reports the results of monitoring fluoride concentrations in drinking water from an endemic fluorosis region during the ten-year period (2008 through 2017). The fluoride concentration had a range of 0.03–9.42 mg L-1 (mean = 0.55 ± 0.01 mg L-1). Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Probabilistic risks for children were assessed and the fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system. On several water consumption points, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for children were higher than 1, indicating potential non-cancer health risks due to fluoride exposure. The results of this study will help governmental agencies to develop better policies for protecting children from exposure to fluoride.
Epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical study of endemic dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab
The incidence of dental fluorosis in 46,000 children in the Punjab was assessed and compared with the fluoride content of their water supplies. Ten villages were selected for more detailed studies of skeletal as well as dental fluorosis. Factors other than the fluoride content of the drinking water which were found to influence
Effects of fluoride toxicity on animals, plants, and soil health: a review.
Substantial multi-disciplinary efforts have been made to investigate the effects of environmental fluoride ion (F) pollution since the last century. The chronic ingestion of high doses of F may adversely affect human health by causing skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, bone fractures, the formation of kidney stones, decreased birth rates, weakening
[Principle and techniques for fluoride pollution control in drinking water].
Long-term natural geochemical processes result in wide occurrence of fluoride contamination in underground water and fluoride exposure via drinking water for over 500 million people globally. The control of fluoride pollution and fluorosis is one of the most important issues for drinking water safety. In the past several decades, many
Incidence of fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are not always positively correlated with drinking water fluoride level.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fluoride on human health, focusing on the incidence of fluorosis, urinary fluoride concentration and fluoride level in drinking water in three fluoride-affected villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. In one village urinary fluoride concentration was very high along
Fluoride's effects on the formation of teeth and bones, and the influence of genetics.
Fluorides are present in the environment. Excessive systemic exposure to fluorides can lead to disturbances of bone homeostasis (skeletal fluorosis) and enamel development (dental/enamel fluorosis). The severity of dental fluorosis is also dependent upon fluoride dose and the timing and duration of fluoride exposure. Fluoride's actions on bone cells predominate
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Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
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