- Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province.
- Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure.
- Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively.
- The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from 2008 to 2017.
- The fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system.
Excessive and inadequate intake of fluoride may cause adverse effects in children, such as dental caries and dental fluorosis. This study reports the results of monitoring fluoride concentrations in drinking water from an endemic fluorosis region during the ten-year period (2008 through 2017). The fluoride concentration had a range of 0.03–9.42 mg L-1 (mean = 0.55 ± 0.01 mg L-1). Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Probabilistic risks for children were assessed and the fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system. On several water consumption points, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for children were higher than 1, indicating potential non-cancer health risks due to fluoride exposure. The results of this study will help governmental agencies to develop better policies for protecting children from exposure to fluoride.
[Principle and techniques for fluoride pollution control in drinking water].
Long-term natural geochemical processes result in wide occurrence of fluoride contamination in underground water and fluoride exposure via drinking water for over 500 million people globally. The control of fluoride pollution and fluorosis is one of the most important issues for drinking water safety. In the past several decades, many
A comparative study of dental fluorosis and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis in areas with different water fluoride concentrations in rural Kolar.
Background: Fluorosis is an endemic disease which results due to excess exposure to high fluoride from different sources. The climatic factors and dependency on ground water add to the risk of fluorosis in Kolar. In addition to it, the epidemiological studies conducted on fluorosis in Kolar are very few. Aims: (1) To
The relationship between water-borne fluoride, dental fluorosis and skeletal development in 11-15 year old Tanzanian girls
Dental fluorosis was evaluated by a classification system, previously shown to be sensitive, and skeletal changes evaluated by bone maturity and structure. Dental fluorosis was more severe in posterior than in anterior teeth in both jaws irrespective of fluoride concentration of the drinking water. There appeared to be no dependence between fluoride content
Fluoride exposure altered metabolomic profile in rat serum
Highlights 58 NEG and 73 POS metabolites were altered in F-treated 3 weeks rat serum. 126 NEG and 70 POS metabolites were altered in F-treated 11 weeks rat serum. Four significantly different metabolites, nicotinamide, adenosine, 1-Oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-Stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine were shared by two models. Urea, N2-Acetyl-l-ornithine, and betaine were
Clinical aspects of fluorosis in horses
Horses grazing in areas where cattle and sheep had developed severe fluorosis were examined clinically. Of those examined, 12 horses of different ages and with various degrees of fluorosis were selected for necropsy. Selected tissues were examined grossly, histologically, and radiographically. Major fluorotic lesions occurred only when the horses ingested
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Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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