Fluoride concentrations were determined in plasma of 50 pregnant women, 44 samples of amniotic fluid and fetal cord blood of 29 fetuses at various stages of normal pregnancies, from an area with a relatively low water fluoride (less than 0.5 ppm) content. The mean concentrations of fluoride from maternal plasma, cord plasma and amniotic fluid (+/- S.D.) were 0.033 +/- 0.003, 0.028 +/- 0.005 and 0.017 +/- 0.003 ppm, respectively. Maternal and fetal plasma fluoride concentrations did not differ significantly. In the older age group fetal cord plasma fluoride concentration was significantly lower than maternal plasma levels (0.012 +/- 0.08 ppm vs. 0.023 +/- 0.001, respectively; p less than 0.05). Amniotic fluid fluoride levels were significantly higher at term than in midtrimester pregnancy, 0.017 +/- 0.0018 vs. 0.010 +/- 0.009 ppm (P less than 0.05), respectively. This higher concentration may imply higher fetal urinary excretion of fluoride at term due to the lower sequestration of fluoride as the process of bone calcification is more complete.
These low concentrations of fluoride in amniotic fluid and the slightly lower concentration in fetal plasma compared with maternal plasma suggest that the fluoride concentration does not constitute a danger to the developing fetus of women consuming water containing less than 0.5 ppm fluoride concentration. It is likely that the amniotic fluid fluoride concentrations of persons consuming an optimal level of fluoride in water (1 ppm), based on the low plasma fluoride concentration reported by others , would not be high.