- RUNX2 promotor methylation is positively related to excessive fluoride (F) exposure.
- Bone mineral density (BMD) is negatively related to excessive F exposure in women.
- BMD is negatively associated with RUNX2 promotor methylation in women.
- RUNX2 methylation mediates the association of excessive F exposure and BMD in women.
Bone mineral density (BMD) changes were reported to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure and abnormal expression of RUNX2. However, whether the alteration of methylation status, a most commonly used marker for the alteration of gene expression in epidemiological investigation, of RUNX2 is associated with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure and BMD changes has not been reported. Our study aims to explore the role of RUNX2 promoter methylation in BMD changes induced by low-to-moderate fluoride exposure. A total of 1124 adults (413 men and 711 women) were recruited from Kaifeng City in 2017. We measured BMD using ultrasound bone densitometer. Concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) were measured using ion-selective electrode, and the participants were grouped into control group (CG) and excessive fluoride group (EFG) according to the concentration of UF. We extracted DNA from fasting peripheral blood samples and then detected the promoter methylation levels of RUNX2 using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Relationships between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation and BMD changes were analyzed using generalized linear model and logistic regression. Results showed in EFG (UF concentration > 1.6 mg/L), BMD was negatively correlated with UF concentration B: -0.14; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.01) and RUNX2 promoter methylation (B: -0.13; 95%CI: -0.22, -0.03) in women. The methylation rate of RUNX2 promoter increased by 2.16% for each 1 mg/L increment in UF concentration of women in EFG (95%CI: 0.37, 3.96). No any significant associations between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation, and BMD were observed in the individuals in CG. Mediation analysis showed that RUNX2 promoter methylation mediated 18.2% (95% CI: 4.2%, 53.2%) of the association between UF concentration and BMD of women in EFG. In conclusion, excessive fluoride exposure (>1.6 mg/L) is associated with changes of BMD in women, and this association is mediated by RUNX2 promoter methylation.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0147651320308708
Fluoride exposure and CALCA methylation is associated with the bone mineral density of Chinese women.
Highlights Excessive fluoride exposure is positively related to CALCA methylation in women. CALCA methylation in Chinese women is negatively associated with BMD. Long-term excessive fluoride exposure is negatively related to BMD in women. BMD in women with CALCA hypermethylated is more susceptible to fluoride. The statistical associations are age-specific
Skeletal Fluorosis: An Unusual Manifestation of Computer Cleaner Inhalant Abuse.
Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone disease caused by accumulation of fluoride and is generally associated with chronic exposure to fluoride-contaminated groundwater, a phenomenon endemic to developing countries. Whereas elevated water fluoride concentrations do not constitute a public health issue in the United States, emergence of skeletal fluorosis as a
Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea
BACKGROUND: High fluoride ion (F(-)) levels are found in many surface and well waters. Drinking F(-)-contaminated water typically explains endemic skeletal fluorosis (SF). In some regions of Asia, however, poor quality "brick tea" also causes this disorder. The plant source of brick, black, green, orange pekoe, and oolong tea, Camellia
Prevention of bony fluorosis in aluminum smelter workers. A 15-year retrospective study of fluoride excretion and bony radiopacity among aluminum smelter workers -- Pt. 4
1. Fifty six aluminum smelter workers with 10 to 43 years' occupational exposure, and who had been previously studied medically, were re-x-rayed. Average urinary fluoride concentrations since 1960 were estimated to range from 2.78 mg/liter preshift and 7.71 mg/liter postshift. 2. Roentgenographic studies in 1960-66 and 1974 failed to reveal
Effects of water improvement and defluoridation on fluorosis-endemic areas in China: A meta-analysis.
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Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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