- Acidosis due to chronic high altitude residence could enhance dental fluorosis.
- High fluoride retention occurs due to impaired kidney function at higher altitude.
- Need to maintain good nutrition status and intake of alkaline producing diets.
- Optimum iodine and vitamin D intake helps to control dental fluorosis.
- Need to keep the drinking water fluoride level 0.1 mg/L at 1500 m altitude.
Many scientific reports emphasized that the extent of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis is higher among the people residing at high altitude regions than lower altitudes, even though they are exposed to drinking water with similar or less fluoride levels. This review reports various factors which enhance the risk of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis at high altitude regions through different pathways. Especially, this review focused on ecological, physiological, biochemical and dietary factors as well as to identify potential key areas to implement further research on control of dental fluorosis risk at high altitude regions. In addition, by considering the pathways of risks, suitable remedial measures are also recommended in this review to manage the dental fluorosis risk at higher altitude regions.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352186420314152
Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and vitamin D concentrations in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis
Objective: Patan, is a semi urban area in Gujarat, India where fluorosis is endemic (Fluoride concentration in ground water 1.96–10.85 ppm, Patel et al., 2008). Exposure to fluoride is likely to be higher in lower socio-economic class (SEC) due to lack of access to bottled water. Calcium intake and vitamin
Relation of endemic dental fluorosis to malnutrition
Summary The prevalence and severity of endemic dental fluorosis were studied in 928 undernourished inhabitants who had resided since birth in two fluoride endemic areas in Italy (Compagnano di Roma and Quarto). The data were compared with the index of mottling in endemic areas in the United States with similar fluorine
Systematic review of water fluoridation.
Objective: To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. Design: Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened
Effects of smoking, use of aluminum utensils, and tamarind consumption on fluorosis in a fluorotic village of Andhra Pradesh, India
A field study was undertaken to determine effects of tamarind, the use of aluminium (Al) cooking utensils, and smoking on dental and skeletal fluorosis in the randomly selected fluoride (F) endemic village of Buttlapally in the Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India, where the F level in the drinking water is
Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.
Highlights We mapped groundwater fluoride distribution and identified fluoride health risk areas. Dental fluorosis (DF) was evaluated based on TFI scale (Thylstrup and Fejerskov index). Relationship between groundwater fluoride and its dental health impact was established. Effect of milk consumption on DF was evaluated and contributed to reducing DF severity.
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