Reports, articles and other information pertinent to
Fluoride and Fluorinated Pesticides
 
 

Publications

FLUORIDE, the Journal of the International Society for Fluoride Research, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/
SUBSCRIPTION to FLUORIDE is US $50.
FILL in FORM online or send your check to:
Dr. Bruce Spittle, Treasurer, International Society for Fluoride Research, 17 Pioneer Crescent,
Dunedin 9001, New Zealand.
Email: treasurer@fluoride-journal.com

Note from EC: Fluoride has been published since 1966 and is essential reading. Incredibly PubMed does not index this exceptional publication. This egregious omission reveals that even PubMed is not immune to political agendas.

Reports:

1943 - current: Reports available from the NTIS (US National Technical Information Service)

2005 - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request of the Commission related to concentration limits for boron and fluoride in natural mineral waters (Question No. EFSA-Q-2003-21). Adopted on 22 June 2005 by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

2004 - USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods. October 2004.

2004 - Fluorspar. By M. Michael Miller. Review published in the US Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook - 2004
Presents good review. Some excerpts:

HF (hydrofluoric acid ) was used as the feedstock for producing potassium fluoride, which is the preferred fluorine source in a number of insecticides and herbicides, and in some proprietary analgesic preparations, antibiotics, and antidepressants."

Fluorosilicic acid is a byproduct of the phosphate fertilizer industry. In 2004, IMC Global Inc. and Cargill Fertilizer, LLC merged to form a new company called The Mosaic Company (Mosaic Company, The, 2004§ 1). The fertilizer operations of this new company were named Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC. This merger reduced to three the number of companies producing marketable byproduct fluorosilicic acid at phosphoric acid plants (part of a phosphate fertilizer operation). In addition to Mosaic Fertilizer, PCS Phosphate Co., Inc. and U.S. Agri-Chemicals Corp. produced fluorosilicic acid. These three companies operated seven plants and reported production of 50,900 t of byproduct fluorosilicic acid.

2004 - A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis and Fluoride Exposure and Intake of Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach. By Serap Erdal and Susan N. Buchanan. Online 14 September 2004. EHP (Environmental Health Perspectives).

ATSDR Reports:

2003 - Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen fluoride, and Fluorine (Update) - Released in March 2004

2001 - Draft Toxicological Profile for Fluorides

1993 - Draft Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (F).

2002 - Interaction Profile for cyanide, fluoride, nitrate and uranium. Draft for public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA. June

2002. (See ATSDR's website for Interaction Profiles.)

ATSDR = U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).

See Comments submitted by Ellen and Paul Connett to ATSDR on 2001 report.

2003 - Opinion of the Scientific Sommittee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products intended for consumers concerning the safety of fluorine compounds in oral hygiene products for children under the age of 6 years. European Union. Report No. SCCNFP/0653/03, final. June 2003.

2003 - Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on Undesirable Substances in Feed. See section on Fluorine (pages 15-18). European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General. (Adopted on 20

February 2003, updated on 25 April 2003). - also available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scan/out126_bis_en.pdf

2003 - Report of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Revision of Essential Requirements of Infant Formulae and Follow-on Formulae. Section on Fluoride, pages 148-149. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General, Scientific Committee on Food. SCF/CS/NUT/IF/65 Final 18 May 2003.

2003 - Effects of Air Pollution on Agricultural Crops. Revision of Factsheet Air Pollution on Agricultural Crops, Order No. 85-002; Printed June, 2003. By Heather Griffiths - Integrated Pest Management Modelling Specialist, Ontaria Ministry of Agriculture & Food.

2002 - Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOs) and its Salts. Environment Directorate, Joint Metting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL November 21, 2002. 362 pages.

2002 - FLUORIDES. Environmental Health Criteria 227. World Health Organization, Geneva. This 224 page report was released on August 8, 2002. See Ref. 3 below for some excerpts.

2001 - Environment Canada. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life: Inorganic Fluorides. Scientific Supporting Document. Ecosystem Health: Science-based Solutions Report No. 1-1. National Guidelines and Standards Office, Environmental Quality Branch. Environment Canada. Ottawa. Cat. no. Enl-34/3-2001E. August, 2001.

1999 - Canada: Benefits and Risks of Water Fluoridation. An Update of the 1996 Federal-Provincial Sub-committee Report Prepared under contract for: Public Health Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada. Submitted by: Dr David Locker, Community Dental Health Services Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, November 15, 1999. Report prepared for Ontario’s public consultation on water fluoridation levels. November 15, 1999.

1993 - Canada: Inorganic Fluorides (Priority substances list assessment report). Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Government of Canada, Environment Canada, Health Canada. ISBN 0-662-21070-9. Cat. No. En40-215/32E.
Also available at
: http://www.fluoridealert.org/HCanada-93.pdf

1993 - Effects of Fluoride on Fish Passage. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-7

1984 - Fluorine and Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria Report Number 36. World Health Organization.
International Programme on Chemical Safety.
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc36.htm

1978 - Fluorosis from phosphate mineral supplements in Michigan dairy cattle; by Hillman D, Bolenbaugh D, and Convey EM. Research Report 365, Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lancing. Abstracted in Fluoride 1979; 12(2):100-102. See Ref. 5 below for excerpts of abstract.

1970 - Environmental pollution by fluorides in Flathead National Forest and Glacier National Park
by CE Carlson and JE Dewey. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1, Missoula, Montana


Other Reports:

Released February 2005: Pesticide Data Program. Annual Summary Calendar Year 2003. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture).

Petition to FDA:

Oct 26, 2000: Petition to FDA from NJ Assemblyman John V. Kelly "to remove unapproved children's fluoride supplements from the market."

Articles:

2001 - Fluoride: The Hidden Poison in the National Organic Standards, by Ellen and Paul Connett.
Pesticides and You , Vol. 21, No. 1; published by the National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides

1997 - Sulfuryl Fluoride, by Caroline Cox Journal of Pesticide Reform, 17 (2) 17-20;
published by the Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides.

1999 - Fluoride Pesticide Poisonings: Recognition & Management, Fifth Edition.
View full report at www.epa.gov/oppfead1/safety/healthcare/handbook/handbook.htm

1999 - Benzotrifluoride and Derivatives: Useful Solvents for Organic Synthesis and Fluorous Synthesis;
by James J. Maul Philip J. Ostrowski, Gregg A. Ublacker, Bruno Linclau, Dennis P. Curran.
Topics in Current Chemistry, Vol. 206 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

"... BTF belongs to an important group of trifluoromethyl-substituted aromatic compounds, which have broad applications as intermediates or building blocks for crop protection chemicals, insecticides and pharmaceuticals, as well as dyes. Related higher boiling compounds that are produced in multimillion pound quantities include 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF) and 3,4 dichlorobenzotri- fluoride (3,4-DCBTF)..."

Brain:

April 19, 2004. Submission to National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water. From Ellen Connett. Title of Submission: Fluoride's effect on the brain.

2001 - The Behavioral Neurology of White Matter, by Christopher Filley, Oxford University Press.
Essential reading. Several of the toxicologicall reports on Fluoride and Organofluorine pesticides indicate damage to the brain's white matter. While Filley's book does not reference any fluorinated compounds it does provide an exceptional review of white matter. Dr. Filley is a Professor of Neurology and Psychiatry at the U. of Colorado School of Medicine.

2001 - Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment for Human Health: Principles and Approaches.
Environmental Health Criteria Report Number 223. Published under the joint sponsorship of the
United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization,
and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. See Section 3.1.6 Blood-brain and blood-nerve barriers.

2001 - Sulfuryl Fluoride; Proposed Pesticide Temporary Tolerances. In this Federal Register document, EPA provides an updated toxicological review of fluoride. The result of the animal experiments (exposed to fluoride via inhallation) indicate that brain white matter is the major target organ foradverse effects. September 5, 2001. - see Ref. 1 below for some excerpts.

2000 - Critical Periods of Vulnerability for the Developing Nervous System: Evidence from Humans and Animal Models by Deborah Rice and Stan Barone Jr. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 108, Supplement 3, June 2000

1998 - Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. by Varner JA, K F Jensen, W Horvath and R L Isaacson, Brain Research, 784:284-298. This results of this long term (52 weeks), low dose (1 ppm), rat study indicate that fluoride facilitates aluminum to cross the blood brain barrier.

1998 - The Use of Data on Cholinesterase Inhibition (ChEI) for Risk Assessments of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides. US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Science policy. Prepared by William F. Sette, Ph.D. for the Office of Pesticide Programs US EPA, October 27, 1998.
This is EPA's Science Policy document and is a good reference source for cholinesterase inhibition; "Inhibition of this enzyme (AChE) [acetylcholinesterase inhibition] in brain may be considered evidence of neurotoxicity, whereas decreases in AChE in blood, which can easily be determined in humans, are only suggestive of a neurotoxic effect."

1998 - Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain by Guan Z-Z, Wang Y-N, Xiao K-Q, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol 20(5):537-542. - see Ref. 2 below for full abstract. (As cited in: Toxicological profile for fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorides. Draft for public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA. 2001.)

1986 - Kinetics of fluoride penetration into liver and brain by Geeraerts F, Gijs G, Finne E, et al. Fluoride 19:108-112. (As cited in: Toxicological profile for fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorides. Draft for public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA. 2001.)

1985 - The development of the human blood-CSF-brain barrier by Adinolfi M. Dev Med Child Neurol 27:532-537. (As cited in: Toxicological profile for fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorides. Draft for public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA. 2001.)

1980 - Permeability and vascularity of the developing brain: Cerebellum vs cerebral cortex by Johanson CE. Brain Res 190:3-16. (As cited in: Toxicological profile for fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorides. Draft for public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA. 2001.)

Fertilizer:
See Abstracts on Phosphate Fertilizers that cite effects or levels of fluoride
Part 1: 1954 - 1989
Part 2: 1990 - present

June 2000 - The Phosphate-Fluoride Link. Acres USA. Vol. 30, No. 6 - Page 17

January 1999 - US: BACKGROUND REPORT ON FERTILIZER USE, CONTAMINANTS AND REGULATIONS. Prepared by BATTELLE 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH 43201-2693 for National Program Chemicals Division Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460. Contract No. 68-D5-0008

Fluoride levels in Perlite and various fertilizers and substrate components. A report from The Schundler Company.

See also FAN's Index on Fluorapatite (1306-05-4) and abstracts. Fluorapatite is the most common source of fluoride (F-) in the environment is the natural mineral fluorapatite, which is a fluorinated calcium phosphate rock. Fluorapatite is mined as the primary source of phosphate fertilizer.

National Organic Standards - US Department of Agriculture:
2001 - Fluoride: The Hidden Poison in the National Organic Standards. Pesticides and You, Vol. 21, No. 1. Published by Beyond Pesticides/National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP), Washington DC.
Pesticides: Classifications
September 2001. Draft Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Pesticides: Routes of Exposure

November 27, 2002. Guidance Document on Dermal Absorption. (Sanco/222/2000 rev. 6). European Commission. Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General.

Ref. 1

Sulfuryl Fluoride; Proposed Pesticide Temporary Tolerances. Federal Register: September 5, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 172)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 46415-46425]. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [OPP-301166; FRL-6799-6] RIN 2070-AC18. http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Sulfuryl.Flu.FR.Sept.5.2001.htm

-- In 2-week inhalation studies in rats, dogs and rabbits, different target organs were affected... In rabbits, the primary target organ was the brain, in which malacia (necrosis) and vacuolation were observed in the cerebrum...

-- In subchronic (90-day) inhalation studies in rats, dogs, rabbits and mice, the brain was the major target organ. Malacia and/or vacuolation were observed in the white matter of the brain in all four species. The portions of the brain most often affected were the caudate-putamen nucleus in the basal ganglia, the white fiber tracts in the internal and external capsules, and the globus pallidus of the cerebrum. In dogs and rabbits, clinical signs of neurotoxicity (including tremors, tetany, incoordination, convulsions and/or hind limb paralysis) were also observed...

-- In chronic (1-2 year) inhalation studies in rats, dogs and mice, target organs were the same as in the 90-day studies... Other treatment-related effects in rats included effects in the brain (vacuolation of the cerebrum and thalamus/hypothalamus)... In dogs and mice, increased mortalities, malacia and/or vacuolation in the white matter in the brain, histopathology in the lungs, and follicular cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland were observed.

-- In a 2-generation reproduction inhalation study in rats, vacuolation of the white matter in the brain...


Ref. 2:
Neurotoxicol Teratol 1998 Sep-Oct;20(5):537-42
Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain.
Guan ZZ, Wang YN, Xiao KQ, Dai DY, Chen YH, Liu JL, Sindelar P, Dallner G.
PMID: 9761592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Brain membrane lipid in rats were analyzed after being fed either 30 or 100 ppm fluoride for 3, 5, and 7 months. The protein content of brain with fluorosis decreased, whereas the DNA content remained stable during the entire period of investigation. After 7 months of fluoride treatment, the total brain phospholipid content decreased by 10% and 20% in the 30 and 100 ppm fluoride groups, respectively. The main species of phospholipid influenced by fluorosis were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylserine. The fatty acid and aldehyde compositions of individual phospholipid classes were unchanged. No modifications could be detected in the amounts of cholesterol and dolichol. After 3 months of fluoride treatment, ubiquinone contents in brain were lower; however, at 7 months they were obviously increased in both groups of fluoride treatment. The results demonstrate that the contents of phospholipid and ubiquinone are modified in brains affected by chronic fluorosis and these changes of membrane lipids could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease.


Ref. 3
Some excerpts from: 2002 - FLUORIDES. Environmental Health Criteria 227. World Health Organization, Geneva. This 224 page report was released on August 8, 2002.

The use of fluoride-containing pesticides as well as the fluoridation of drinking-water supplies also contribute to the release of fluoride from anthro-pogenic sources...

The relative contribution of various anthropogenic sources to total emissions of fluoride to air, water and soil in Canada are estimated at 48% for phosphate fertilizer production, 20% for chemical production, 19% for aluminium production, 8% for steel and oil production and 5% for coal burning

The concentration of fluoride in food products is not signifi-cantly increased by the addition of superphosphate fertilizers, which contain significant concentrations of fluoride (1–3%) as impurities, to agricultural soil, due to the generally low transfer coefficient from soil to plant material. However, a recent study suggests that, given the right soil conditions and application of sufficient fluoride as an impurity in phosphate fertilizers to soils, plant uptake of fluoride can be increased. The use of water containing relatively low (<3.1 mg/litre) levels of fluoride for crop irrigation generally does not increase fluoride concentrations in foodstuffs. However, this is dependent on plant species and fluoride concentrations in soil and water. The level of fluoride in foods is significantly affected by the fluoride content of the water used in preparation or processing, most notably in beverages and dry foodstuffs — for example, powdered baby formula — to which water is added prior to consumption. The concentrations of fluoride in unwashed or unprocessed foods grown in the vicinity of industrial sources (emissions) of fluoride may be greater than the levels in the same foods grown in other non-industrially exposed areas. In commer-cially available infant formulas sold in the USA, soy-based ready-to-use and liquid concentrate formulas contained higher levels of fluoride than the equivalent milk-based products; however, no significant difference was observed between soy- and milk-based powdered infant formulas.

Aluminium smelters, brickworks, phosphorus plants and fertilizer and fibreglass plants have all been shown to be sources of fluoride that are correlated with damage to local plant communities. Vegetation in the vicinity of a phosphorus plant revealed that the degree of damage and fluoride levels in soil humus were inversely related to the distance from the plant. Average levels of fluoride in vegetation ranged from 281 mg/kg in severely damaged areas to 44 mg/kg in lightly damaged areas; at a control site, the fluoride concentration was 7 mg/kg. Plant communities near an aluminium smelter showed dif-ferences in community composition and structure due partly to varia-tions in fluoride tolerance. However, it must be noted that, in the field, one of the main problems with the identification of fluoride effects is the presence of confounding variables such as other atmospheric pollutants. Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting the many field studies on fluoride pollution. (page 13)

... there is a potential risk from fluoride-contaminated pasture and soil ingestion due to the long-term use of phosphate fertilizers containing fluoride as an impurity.

Phosphate fertilizers Phosphate fertilizers are the major source of fluoride contami-nation of agricultural soils. They are manufactured from rock phos-phates, which generally contain around 3.5% fluorine (Hart et al., 1934). However, during the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers, part of the fluoride is lost into the atmosphere during the acidulation process, and the concentration of fluoride in the final fertilizer is lowered further through dilution with sulfur (superphospha tes) or ammonium ion (ammoniated phosphates); the final product commonly contains between 1.3 and 3.0% fluorine (McLaughlin et al., 1996). In Australia, an average annual addition of fluoride to soil through fertilization has been estimated to be 1.1 kg/ha. (pages 22-23)

Terrestrial plants may accumulate inorganic fluorides following airborne deposition and uptake from the soil (Davison, 1983). Sloof et al. (1989) reported that the main route of uptake of fluoride by plants is from aerial deposition on the plant surface. Plant uptake from soil is generally low (except for accumulators) unless the fluoride has been added suddenly, such as following amendment with sludge or phos-phate fertilizer. The availability to plants tends to decrease with time following application of fluoride. The degree of accumulation depends on several factors, including soil type and, most prominently, pH. At acidic pH (below pH 5.5), fluoride becomes more phytoavailable through complexation with soluble aluminium fluoride species, which are themselves taken up by plants or increase the potential for the fluoride ion to be taken up by the plant (Stevens et al., 1997). Plant uptake of fluoride from solution culture is dependent on plant species and positively related to the ionic strength of the growth solution. Once a threshold fluoride ion activity in nutrient solutions is reached, fluoride concentrations in plants increase rapidly (Stevens et al., 1998a). (Page 35-36)

The concentration of fluoride in food products is usually not significantly increased by the addition of superphosphate fertilizers to agricultural soil (OelschlĢger, 1971), due to the generally low transfer coefficient from soil to plant material. However, a recent study by McLaughlin et al. (2001) found significant increases in fluoride concentrations in herbage harvested from plots fertilized with phosphate fertilizers (537 kg total phosphorus added over 59 years) over a long period (22 mg fluoride/kg) compared with concentrations in herbage harvested from unfertilized plots (11 mg fluoride/kg). These data suggest that, given the right soil conditions and application of sufficient fluoride as an impurity in phosphate fertilizers to soils, plant uptake of fluoride can be increased. The use of water containing rela-tively low (<3.1 mg/litre) levels of fluoride for crop irrigation generally does not increase foodstuff fluoride concentrations (Schamschula et al., 1988a). However, this is dependent on plant species and fluoride concentrations in soil and water. For example, Kabasakalis & Tsolaki (1994) showed that fluoride concentrations in vegetables irrigated with water containing 10 mg fluoride/litre were increased compared with fluoride concentrations in vegetables grown with irrigation water con-taining low fluoride concentrations (0.15 mg/litre). They also commented that fluoride has a tendency to accumulate in the vegetable leaves rather than in the fruits.

Levels of fluoride in foods are significantly affected by the fluoride content of the water used in preparation or processing, most notably in beverages and dry foodstuffs to which water is added prior to consumption (Kumpulainen & Koivistoinen, 1977; Schamschula et al., 1988a). In a study conducted in a rural area of China, immersion of vegetables in hot spring water containing elevated levels of fluoride (approximately 20.3 mg/litre) reportedly led to a significant increase in the fluoride content of the food product (Xu et al., 1995). The concentration of fluoride in water used to parboil rice influenced the level in the final product (Anasuya & Paranjape, 1996). The concentrations of fluoride in unwashed or unprocessed foods grown in the vicinity of industrial sources (emissions) of fluoride in Japan (Sakurai et al., 1983; Tsunoda & Tsunoda, 1986; Muramoto et al., 1991) and the United Kingdom (Jones et al., 1971) have been up to 100-fold greater than the levels in the same foods grown in other non-industrially exposed areas.

Genotoxic effects. The mean frequency of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 40 Chinese fertilizer production workers was significantly (P < 0.01) increased by approximately 50%, compared with that in a similarly sized group of controls matched for age, sex and smoking habits (Meng et al., 1995). During the period of analysis, workers were exposed to levels of fluoride (mostly hydro-fluoric acid and silicon tetrafluoride) ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 mg/m 3 , as well as to phosphate fog, ammonia and sulfur dioxide. Among the workers, the average frequency of sister chromatid exchange was approximately 27% higher (P < 0.01) in smokers than in non-smokers. Information on the total intake of fluoride was not presented. In a further study, an increased frequency of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in circulating blood lymphocytes was also observed among the fertilizer plant workers (n = 40), in comparison with 40 controls working and studying in Shanxi University, situated in the same city as the factory, matched for sex, age and smoking habits (Meng & Zhang, 1997); the microscopic analysis was performed on coded slides. (page 128-129)


Ref. 4

Inorganic fluorides act as enzyme inhibitors and have wide-ranging effects. Adverse effects observed in aquatic organisms include: changes in blood composition; reduced size and growth; slowed embryonic and developmental life stage; impaired reproduction; and abnormal or impaired behavior (e.g., fish migration). Inorganic fluorides are also neurotoxic, causing adverse effects on the central nervous system. Inorganic fluoride toxicity is negatively correlated with water hardness (calcium) and positively corelated with temperature...

Anthropogenic Sources. In Canada, the primary anthropogenic emission sources of inorganic fluorides are phosphate fertiliser production (34.6%), and aluminum smelting operations (35.2%). Other important emission sources include coal burning facilities, oil refining, steel production, chemical producers, primary copper and nickel production, clay production, magnesium smelting, lead and zinc smelting, glass and enamel making, brick and ceramic manufacturing, production of glues and adhesives, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride-containing pesticides, waste from sewage sludge, and the production of uranium trifluoriide (UF3) and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) for the nuclear electric industry (page 9).


Ref. 5
November 1978 Research Report 365: Fluorosis from phosphate mineral supplements in Michigan dairy cattle by Hillman D, Bolenbaugh D, Convey EM. Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lancing.

Excerpts from abstracted version published in Fluoride 1979; 12(2):100-102:
During 1975 and 1976 more than 75 Michigan dairymen reported in their cows subnormal milk production, loss of weight after calving, failure to exhibit estrus or to re-breed as expected as well as a high incidence uterine infections and lameness. Death from undetermined causes ranged between 10 and 15 percent among adult cows and among calves up to 1 year or more in age many failed to grow normally or died from undetermined causes. Analysis of milk and tissue fat for PBB (polybrominated biphenyls) which had been responsible for a similar epidemic in Michigan reealed no detectable traces. Severe dental fluorosis and exostoses of etatarsal bones led to the discovery that mineral suppements containing up to 6300 ppm of fluoride and protein supplements containing up to 1088 ppm fluoride consumed by the cows were responsible for this epidemic.

... The thyroids of calves were enlarged 2 to 5 times their normal weight and the cows afficted with fluorosis showed evidence of hypo-thryoidism. The depression of the serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) correlated with the increase in urinary fluoride, with the number of red blood cells, with the hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, calcium, glucose and albumin. Fluoride also decreased the serum cholesterol at a lower level of significance (P <.06).

With respect to the hematological findings eosinophilia increased in correlation with urinary fluoride (P <.004) and should be considered an early manifestation of fluoride toxicity. Moreover fluorotic animals manifested anemia...

The authors suggested that the National Research Council recommendation of a level of 30 ppm maximum dietary fluoride "may be too high for high producing dairy cattle fed phosphate sources of fluoride."

 
Fluoride Action Network | Pesticide Project | 315-379-9200 | pesticides@fluoridealert.org