chemical name listed is the most common name used for the
/ Use Type.
overall term pesticide has several subdivisions indicating
the pest that is its chief target and for which it is sold.
This does not mean that its effect is limited to one class
of pests alone. Many herbicides, for example, are especially
toxic to mammals or insects, and some pesticides are so
broadly lethal that they are called biocides. (Ref: Basic
Guide to Pesticides. Their characteristics and hazards.
by SA Briggs and the staff of Rachel Carson Council. 1992.
Published by Taylor & Francis.) The main reference for
the following definitions is from
Pesticide Action Network
and mites (includes miticides)
a formulation to aid in the pesticide application or to improve
the effectiveness; can include wetting agents, spreaders, emulsifiers,
dispersing and foaming agents, foam suppressants, and penetrants.
paints and other coatings to inhibit growth of algae, barnacles
and other shellfish on the hulls of ships.
are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural
materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals.
For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications
and are considered biopesticides. At the end of 2001, there
were approximately 195 registered biopesticide active ingredients
and 780 products. Biopesticides fall into three major classes:
Microbial pesticides consist of a
microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or
protozoan) as the active ingredient. Microbial pesticides
can control many different kinds of pests, although each
separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its
target pest[s]. For example, there are fungi that control
certain weeds, and other fungi that kill specific insects.
The most widely used microbial pesticides
are subspecies and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, or
Bt. Each strain of this bacterium produces a different
mix of proteins, and specifically kills one or a few related
species of insect larvae. While some Bt's control moth larvae
found on plants, other Bt's are specific for larvae of flies
and mosquitoes. The target insect species are determined
by whether the particular Bt produces a protein that can
bind to a larval gut receptor, thereby causing the insect
larvae to starve
are pesticidal substances that plants produce from
genetic material that has been added to the plant. For example,
scientists can take the gene for the Bt pesticidal protein,
and introduce the gene into the plant's own genetic material.
Then the plant, instead of the Bt bacterium, manufactures
the substance that destroys the pest. The protein and its
genetic material, but not the plant itself, are regulated
Biochemical pesticides are
naturally occurring substances that control pests by non-toxic
mechanisms. Conventional pesticides, by contrast, are generally
synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the
pest. Biochemical pesticides include substances, such as
insect sex pheromones, that interfere with mating, as well
as various scented plant extracts that attract insect pests
to traps. Because it is sometimes difficult to determine
whether a substance meets the criteria for classification
as a biochemical pesticide, EPA has established a special
committee to make such decisions.
Ref: US EPA http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/whatarebiopesticides.htm
(Online as of April 4, 2005)
transformation product resulting from metabolism of a pesticide
in a biological system or from reaction of a pesticide with
oxygen, water, light or other substances in the environment.
In the PAN database, known breakdown products are listed as
related chemicals for the parent pesticide (see Related Chemicals
section at the bottom of the Chemical Infomation page); however,
it is important to note that not all pesticide transformation
products have been identified. Breakdown products can sometimes
be more toxic than the starting pesticide.
reproduction (sterilizes pests)
gases or produce a gas when they break down in the environment.
Fumigants typically kill all living things. Used in agriculture
to sterilize soil before planting and to kill pests in stored
food or before shipment to other countries. In urban settings,
fumigants are used to treat dwellings for termites, ants, and
roaches. The target pests for many soil fumigations are nematodes.
Most of these pesticides are highly acutely toxic.
EPA allows so-called "Inert" ingredients to be commonly mixed
with the "active" pesticidal ingredient to create
a formulated pesticide product. According
to EPA, "The term `inert' is not intended to imply
nontoxicity; the ingredient may or may not be chemically active."
"Inert" ingredients include solvents, emulsifiers,
spreaders, and other substances mixed into pesticide products
to increase the effectiveness of the active ingredients, make
the product easier to apply, or to allow several active ingredients
to mix in one solution. Both US EPA and California Department
of Pesticide Regulation require pesticide manufacturers to
identify inert ingredients in their products but do not disclose
this information to the general public because the pesticide
industry considers product formulations trade secrets, protected
by law and by the US EPA. The US EPA category of Inerts:
List 1 - Of Toxicological Concern (none in this list)
List 2 - Potentially Toxic / High Priority for Testing (7
in this list)
List 3 - Of Unknown Toxicity (11 in this list)
List 4A - Generally Regarded as Safe (none in this list)
List 4B - EPA states it has Sufficient Information to Reasonably
Conclude that the Current Use Pattern in Pesticide Products
will not Adversely Affect Public Health or the Environment
(1 in this list: Sodium fluoride)
EPA's Current List of Inerts
1998 US Code of Federal
Regulations - identifies specific uses of certain inerts
Inert Ingredients No Longer
Used in Pesticide Products, June 24, 1998, Federal Register.
Good report: Toxic
Secrets": "Inert" Ingredients in Pesticides
1987-1997, published by Northwest Coalition for Alternatives
Note: EPA's List 4A & 4B Inerts have been approved for
use in the new US National Organic Standards, e.g., Sodium
microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi and used in disinfectant
or antibacterial products.
nematodes. Nematodes include many families of long, legless,
worm-shaped animals including tens of thousands of species worldwide.
Some species are aquatic, in freshwater or the sea. Some species
are parasites of birds, mammals, or other vertebrate animals.
Some species are parasitoids of insects. Others feed on plant
roots. Among the many families are steinernematid nematodes.
toxic response that is elicited after the first exposure of
skin to certain chemicals and subsequent exposure to light,
or that is induced similarly by skin irradiation after the systemic
administration of a chemical. - see related
or speeds the growth of plants
compounds used in spray formulations of pesticides to create
an aerosol mist of the pesticide.
such as rats, mice and gophers.
safeners can protect certain crops from herbicide injury by
promoting herbicide metabolism. The precise mechanisms of safener
action and the reasons for their specificity are attracting
much interest but are at present obscure.
means any chemical used in treating wood to retard or prevent
deterioration or destruction caused by the action of insects,
fungi, bacteria, or other wood-destroying organisms. Most wood
preservatives are highly toxic.
US Environmental Protection Agency RED (Reregistration
Eligibility Decision) documents are the most comprehensive
reviews of health and environemntal data that EPA publishes
on specific pesticides. EPA has not published RED documents
on all pesticides. According
to EPA, "Since the passage of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) amendments in 1988,
EPA has been conducting a comprehensive review of older
pesticides (those initially registered before November 1,
1984) to consider their health and environmental effects
and to make decisions about. To be "eligible," a pesticide
must have a substantially complete data base and must not
cause unreasonable risks to human health or the environment
when used in accordance with its approved label directions
and precautions. FIFRA as amended
in 1996 by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
requires that all pesticides meet new safety standards.
EPA must be able to conclude with "reasonable certainty"
that "no harm" will come to infants, children, or other
sensitive individuals exposed to pesticides. All pesticide
exposures -- from food, drinking water, and home and garden
use -- must be considered in determining allowable levels
of pesticides in food. The cumulative effects of pesticides
and other compounds with common mechanisms of toxicity also
must be considered. Through the reregistration program,
EPA is ensuring that older pesticides meet contemporary
health and safety standards and product labeling requirements,
and that their risks are mitigated."
from EC: The 1996 FQPA fundamentally changed the way EPA
regulates pesticides. The FQPA erased concerns of the Delaney
anti-cancer clause (in section 409 of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act). The FQPA rescued certain pesticides
that would have been banned because they violated the Delaney
anti-cancer clause. To view the list of pesticides that
EPA produced REDs for see http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/status.htm
publishes a "Restricted Use Product File." Explanations
are given for the reasons EPA has placed restrictions on
the use of each of the chemicals in this list. Check out
the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs website for updates
term is generally undestood to mean an organic derivative
of phosphoric or similar acids. Many OPs inhibit an enzyme
known as acetylcholinesterase, but not all OPs (e.g. glyphosate)
demonstrate this effect. Some OPs react with other proteins
such as neuropathy target esterase. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase
affect certain nerve junctions in animals, as well as parasympathetic
effector sites (the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, urinary
bladder, prostate, eyes and salivary glands). The transmission
of impulses across nerve junctions involves the release
of a transmitter chemical, which, in the case of many nerves,
is acetylcholine. To stop the nerve continuing to transmit
the message, the transmitter, acetylcholine, must be broken
down immediately after it has had its effect. This breakdown
is brought about by an enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. By
inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, OPs prevent
the nerve junction from functioning properly. In humans,
anticholinesterase OPs have broadly similar actions to those
seen in other species. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition causes
acute effects in humans and other mammals. The symptoms
in humans, which generally occur when acetylcholinesterase
activity has been reduced by about 50%, may include: headache,
exhaustion and mental confusion together with blurred vision,
sweating, salivation, chest tightness, muscle twitching
and abdominal cramps. The severity of the effects depends
on the degree of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. For more
detailed explanation see: Organophosphate
to identify a "most toxic" set of pesticides, Pesticide
Action Network (PAN) and Californians for Pesticide Reform
created the term PAN Bad Actor pesticides. These pesticides
are at least one of the following: Known or probable carcinogen,
as designated by the International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC), US EPA, US National Toxicology Program, and
the state of California's Proposition 65 list. Reproductive
or developmental toxicants, as designated by the state of
California's Proposition 65 list. Neurotoxic cholinesterase
inhibitors, as designated by California Department of Pesticide
Regulation, the Materials Safety Data Sheet for the particular
chemical, or PAN staff evaluation of chemical structure
(for organophosphorus compounds). Known groundwater contaminants,
as designated by the state of California (for actively registered
pesticides) or from historic groundwater monitoring records
(for banned pesticides). Pesticides with high acute toxicity,
as designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), the
US EPA, or the US National Toxicology Program. Ref: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/documentation3/ref_toxicity7.html#BadActor
Action Network database for all pesticides.
result of a citizens initiative called Proposition 65, the
California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act
of 1986 requires that the Governor revise and republish
at least once per year the list of chemicals known to the
State that cause cancer or reproductive toxicity, which
include: Developmental Toxicity - adverse effects on the
developing organism that may result from exposure prior
to conception (either parent), during prenatal development,
or postnatally to the time of sexual maturation. Adverse
developmental effects may be detected at any point in the
lifespan of the organism. The major manifestations of developmental
toxicity include: (1) death of the developing organism,
(2) structural abnormality, (3) altered growth, and (4)
functional deficiency. The California Prop 65 definition
(almost the same) is: 'Developmental toxicity' is defined
to include adverse effects on the products of conception
(i.e., the conceptus), including but not limited to: Postnatal
parameters including growth and development, physiological
deficits and delay, neurological, neurobehavioral and psychological
deficits, altered sex ratio, abnormal sexual development
or function, or morbidty or mortality. Reproductive Toxicity
- the hazard to three populations, the male, the female
and the conceptus, each of which has distinct differences
in toxic response and susceptibility. The conceptus is at
risk from long before birth, and the risk persists long
after birth (some chemicals harm only female and others
only male, i.e., sperm motility, morphology).
Pesticide National Synthesis Project is part of the U. S.
Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program
(NAWQA). The program began in 1991 with the purpose of producing
a long-term assessment of the status of and trends in the
quality of the Nation's water resources. Pesticides are
one of the highest-priority issues for the NAWQA. The pesticide
use maps show regional scale patterns in use intensity within
the United States and are not intended for making local-scale
estimates of use, such as for individual counties. The maps
are based on state-level estimates of pesticide use rates
for individual crops, which have been compiled by the National
Center for Food and Agricultural Policy for 1991-1993 and
1995, and on county-based crop acreage data obtained from
the 1992 Census of Agriculture. Key limitations include:
(1) state use coefficients represent an average for the
entire state and consequently do not reflect the local variability
pesticide management practices found within many states
and counties, and (2) the county-level acreage data used
to calculate use are based on the 1992 Census of Agriculture
and may not represent all crop acreage due to Census non-disclosure
rules. - The full list of pesticide maps are at: http://water.wr.usgs.gov/pnsp/use92/
(World Health Organization)
obsolete or discontinued. From the WHO
Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines
to Classification 2000-2002. Table 6. Active ingredients
not included in the Classification and believed to be obsolete
or discontinued for use as pesticides, p 37. Published by
IOMC (Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Managment
of Chemicals, comprised of United Nationals Environment
Programme, International Labour Organization, and WHO).
Extremely Hazardous (Class 1a). From the above publication.
Table 1. EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS (Class Ia) active ingredients
(technical grade) of pesticides, p 16.
Highly Hazardous (Class 1b). From the above publication.
Table 2. HIGHLY HAZARDOUS (Class Ib) active ingredients
(technical grade) of pesticides, p 18.
noted from animal studies. Data collection for this section
is currently underway.
Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number is a unique
identifier assigned to each chemical and to some mixtures
of chemicals by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division
of the American Chemical Society. This number is used worldwide.
There are three ways to list a CAS No. Using Sodium fluoride
as the example:
7681-49-4 (the most common way),
7681494 (without dashes), or
007681494 (placing zeros in front to adjust to a nine digit
formula for compound. Main source: http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/index.html
source of information: http://www.agranova.co.uk/herbhist.htm#1995;
source of information: http://www.agranova.co.uk/herbhist.htm#1995;
EPA (FIFRA) Pemit Date and Registrant.
Registered in US under FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act) and name of Registrant. A major source
of this information from US EPA report,
Chemicals Registered for the First Time as Pesticidal Active
Ingredients under FIFRA, Office of Pesticide Programs,
Economic Analysis Branch, Biological and Economic Analysis
Division. December 1994.
companies that make the pesticides.
& Other Names.
most prominent registered trademark(s), generic / common
name(s) and code number(s).
Also US EPA's Experimental Use Permits
(EUP). According to the Environmental Working Group,
EUP's, which come under Section 18: "The Section
18 program is a fraud that has mushroomed far beyond the
legitimate need to help farmers control emergency pest infestations.
The program has little to do with real pest emergencies
and has become a test marketing program for pesticide companies
through which they avoid the full children’s health requirements
of FQPA. Children bear the risk of the untested pesticides,
while pesticide companies reap the profits. Nothing better
illustrates the phony essence of the program than the surge
in emergency and crisis exemptions granted for control of
weeds." Ref: See Chlorfenapyr at: http://www.ewg.org/pub/home/reports/killerweeds/killer-4.html
manufactured at this location.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) list of active
pesticides. We include Inerts as active ingredients. See
above for an explanation of what an "Inert" is.
US EPA PC Code.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assigns a unique
chemical code number to a particular pesticide active ingredient
or mixture of active ingredients. The US EPA
PC (Pesticide Chemical) Code is sometimes referred
to as the Shaugnessy Number. The US EPA PC code is included
in the US EPA pesticide product data. Reference: US EPA
Pesticide Product Information System
California Department of Pesticide Regulation assigns a
unique chemical code number to serve as an identifier for
a particular pesticide active ingredient or mixture of active
by US FDA (Food and Drug Administration), to report analytical
results. Glossary of
Pesticide Chemials, October 2001. A listing of pesticides
subject to analysis of residues in foods and feeds by the
FDA. Also available at: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/pestglos.pdf
US CFR Tolerances
references to the Code of Federal Regulations (1999) 40
CFR 180 and 40 CFR 185-86; also FDA's notes on temporary,
pending,or revoked tolerances and indicates use in other
countries (“foreign use ”). Code of Federal Regulations
(1999) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186. See:
search site for pesticide residue limits on food
U.S. Residue Limits
for Pesticides in Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products
US FDA's Glossary of
Pesticide Chemials, October 2001.
Permanent Tolerances updated at http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/tolerance/pdf_files/TolReassUniv1-24-2002.PDF
in these Countries.
only a very limited list of countries that use these pesticides.
Residue Levels - Amount of pesticide allowed "in or
on" a food commodity.
US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs: What
the pesticide residues are on food.
As of December 31, 1999: U.S.
residue limits for pesticides in meat, poultry, and egg