Return to Ammonium
bifluoride Adverse Effects
Weapons Precursor for the production of sarin-family nerve
1: Hazardous Polluting
Substance. Identified in 1978 Agreement between Canada and
the US on Great Lakes Water Quality.
(only comprehensive for the US)
(includes only a limited list of countries)
Ammonium hydrogen fluoride
|Of special interest:
from post-morten analysis: brain,
pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, and heart. Paper presented
at the March 2002 PITTCOM
Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Death and Fluoride-containing Wheel Cleaner. Annals
of Emergency Medicine. Vol 31, No.4, April 1998.
on poisoning incident of a 2 year old child by
B Markovitz et al. Washington University School of Medicine,
St. Louis, Mo.
Marked hypocalcemia and ventricular fibrillation in two pediatric
patients exposed to a fluoride-containing wheel cleaner, by
AE Klasaer et al. Ann Emerg Med, Dec;28(6):713-8.
as of September 15, 2003 - Material
Safety Data Sheet from Analytyka.
of Decay in Waterfront Structures.
The FPL was established in 1910 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service. The FPL, located in Madison, Wisconsin, is the
nation's leading wood research institute. Paper
by the Forest
Products Laboratory (FPL)
January 1996 - Hazardous
Substance Fact Sheet. New Jersey Department
of Health and Senior Services.
2000 - Two
minor citations for use as a wood preservative in: BIOCIDES
(II). Refined aquatic environmental risk assessment of 28 priority
biocides. RIVM report 601506005. B.J.W.G. Mensink. November
2000. RIVM = Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu.
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment.
quantum-mechanical discussion of the bifluoride ion. Thesis
by Martin Karplus. In partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. California Institute
of Technology. Pasadena, California. Acknowledgements to several
people (including Dr. Linus Pauling) were cited and also:
"Generous financial assistance was supplied by the Allied
Chemical and Dye Corporation."
Excerpts from Introduction:
... In spite of the recognized importance of the hydrogen
bond, no one has given a detailed discussion of the forces
involved in its formation. Since the bifluoride ion (FHF)
is the simplest hydrogen bonded species, it appears best suited
for a theoretical attack. This
thesis is an attempt to develop a semi-theoretical method
applicable to highly ionic systems and to apply this method
to a treatment of the bifluoride ion. It is hoped that the
results contribue to a better understanding of the hydrogen
bond and provide an illustration of the power of quantum-mechanical
methods in chemistry.
Technical Report January 1, 1951
thru March 31, 1951. Program F. Fluoride.
Authors: Maynard EA, Downs WL, Le Sher MF
Source: University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, Rochester,
New York, Contract No. W-7401-eng-49, pages 73-76, 1 reference.
Acute toxicity tests were
conducted on various animal species by various routes of administration
with a number of fluoride compounds: sodium-fluoride (7681494),
potassium-fluoride (7789233), calcium-fluoride, ammonium-fluoride
(1341497), beryllium-fluoride (7787497), beryllium-potassium-fluoride
Ref: Ammonium bifluoride at Toxnet.
& Biological Weapons. Fluorine chemicals.
1995 UN Monitoring and Verification of Iraq's Compliance.
Fluorine & Organofluorines substances include:
Hydrogen fluoride (7664-39-3)
Ammonium bifluoride (1341-49-7)
Sodium fluoride (7681-49-4)
Potassium bifluoride (7789-29-9)
Also included are fluoropolymers
Aflex COP, Aflon COP 88, F 40, Ftorlon, Ftoroplast, Neoflon,
ETFE, Teflon, PVDF, Tefzel, PTFE, PE TFE 500 LZ, Haller).
1993 - Chemical
Weapon Precursor chemicals that are also used as fluorine
pesticides. A comparison of the Australia group list
of chemical weapon precursors and the CWC schedules of chemicals,
by RJ Mathews. Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin. Issue
No. 21. Page 2,
highlighted in red]:
"... some of the precursor chemicals which are early
in the production process and/or are widely produced in
industry (and hence not considered suitable for effective
monitoring under the CWC [Chemical Weapons Convention])
have been included on the AGL [Australia Group List], because
they are either known or suspected to have been sought for
CW purposes. Such precursors include: the fluoride chemicals
(14 [potassium fluoride], 24 [hydrogen fluoride], 41 [potassium
bifluoride], 42 [ammonium bifluoride],
43 [sodium bifluoride] and
44 [sodium fluoride]) for
the production of sarin-family nerve agents..."
The list of precursor chemicals and their CAS Nos. appear
on page 3. Also available at: http://fas-www.harvard.edu/~hsp/bulletin/cwcb21.pdf