Body Weight Decrease - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides
beginning with
A-E • F-G H-P Q-Z
 
 
• See Table of dramatic weight loss effects in laboratory animals exposed to fluoride and/or fluorinated pesticides.

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Acifluorfen, sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 62476-59-9

-- For "females 13-50 years," a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg/day was established based on effects of decreased fetal weight and increased incidence of dilated lateral ventricles of the brain observed in a rat developmental toxicity study. Both the decreased fetal weight and the brain malformations are presumed to occur after a single exposure (dose), and thus, are appropriate for this acute risk assessment. These effects were observed at 90 mg/kg/day (LOAEL).
Ref: Overview of Sodium Acifluorfen Risk Assessment April 4, 2002. USEPA. http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/acifluorfen.na.epa.apr.02.pdf

-- Carcinogenic Effects. Some studies show acifluorfen to be carcinogenic, while others do not; the main differences among the studies were the dose levels administered and the lengths of the studies. One study of mice fed high doses for 18 months showed decreases in body weight and increases in both benign and malignant liver tumors (2). As a result, acifluorfen is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Ref: Pesticide Information Profile. Extoxnet. Cornell Univeristy.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Acifluorfen.Extoxnet.htm

STUDY TYPE
DOSE LEVELS
NOAEL (mg/kg/day) LOAEL (mg/kg/day)
Chronic/Carcinogenicity - Rat (1983) 0, 25, 150, 500, 2500, or 5000 ppm. (0, 1.25, 7.50, 25.0, 125, or 250 mg/kg/day based on 1 ppm=0.05 mg/kg/day) (MRID No. 00128253; Accession Nos. 071315 through 071317 and 250289 through 250792) 25 125
based on reduced body weight, increased absolute and relative liver weights and increased kidney weights, increased incidence of nephritis/pyelonephritis, increased incidence of acidophilic cells in the liver, and related changes in clinical chemistry parameters .
Carcinogenicity in Mice (1982). 0, 625, 1250, or 2500 ppm (males: 0, 119, 259, 655 mg/kg/day; females: 0, 143, 313, 711 mg/kg/day) (MRID No. 00122732; Accession Nos.071312, 071313, 071314, 250463, and 250464) < 119 • • 119 . • • 143
based on reduced body weight, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and changes in hematologic parameters (decreased MCV counts, decreased segmented neutrophil counts, increased RBC counts, and increased lymphocyte counts).
Chronic Feeding Study in Dogs (1983). Tackle 2S (Acifluorfen, purity was unspecified). 0, 20, 300, or 4500 ppm (0, 0.5, 7.5 or 112.5 mg/kg/day based on 1 ppm = 0.025 mg/kg/day) for 2 years (MRID No. 00131162; Accession Nos.251297 and 251298) 7.5 112.5
based on decreased body weight gain, increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights, changes in hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters and increased incidence of microscopic changes in the liver.
Developmental Toxicity Study in Rats (1981) 0, 20, 90, or 180 mg/kg/day from gestation days 6 through 19 (MRID No.00122743; Accession No. 071319) Maternal: 20
Development al: 20
Maternal: 90
based on increase in clinical signs (excessive salivation and piloerection). Developmental: 90 based on the decreased fetal body weight and the increase in anatomical variations.
Developmental Toxicity Study in Rabbits (1979) 0, 20, 60, 180 mg/kg/day (MRID 00107485) Maternal: 20
Development al: 60
Maternal: 60
based on clinical signs (anorexia, depression and dyspnea).
Developmental: 180 based on fetal resorptions.
Ref: April 27, 2001. MEMORANDUM. SUBJECT: SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN. HED Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document. US EPA. Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/acifluorfen.epa.01.healtrsk.pdf

Acrinathrin - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 103833-18-7

-- Main effects observed in subchronic toxicity studies through chronic toxicity studies were the decrease of body weight gain and food consumption,
-- Subchronic Toxicity Studies: Group of 20 male and 20 female CD (SD) rats were fed diet containing 0, 30, 100 or 300 ppm of acrinathrin for 90 days.... Overall, the mortality was not marked, except in the 300 ppm group where deaths recorded in females could be treatment related and/or due to malnutrition. A body weight decrease and a reduction in food consumption each related to the concentration were observed in both sexes of the 100 and 300 ppm groups.

-- 52 Week Oral Study in Dogs Group of 6 male and 6 female Beagle dogs were dosed by oral route, in gelatin capsules for 52 weeks at the levels of 0, l, 3 and l0 mg/kg/day. Control animals received empty capsules only. Slight to moderate, soft or liquid diarrhea were observed sporadically throughout the study in the treated animals. A loss of weight was observed until week 3 or 4 in both sexes treated at 10 mg/kg/day and the mean body weight of the males of this group remained inferior to that of the other males thereafter (with a statistical significance for weeks 5 to 35 and 43 to 46), while it was similar to that of the other groups in the females. The food consumption of the animals was not influenced by the treatment... Based on the transient body weight loss observed until weeks 3-4, then a body weight retardation throughout the study for the males only, at 10 mg/kg/day, the NOAEL in this 52 week study is considered to be 3 mg/kg/day.
-- Rat Teratology Study Acrinathrin suspended in corn oil was administered at the dose levels of 0, 2, 6 and 18 mg/kg/day to groups of 25 mated females in SD rats from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, females were sacrificed and fetuses were removed by caesarean section... Maternal findings: At 6 mg/kg/day or more, the body weight gain of the females had stopped or decreased between days 9 and 15. At 18 mg/kg/day, piloerection were observed in high frequency and three females were found dead. At this highest dose level, the body weight still remained lower through days 20, and furthermore the decrease in the rate of live fetuses and the increase in the rate of fetal loss were noted. Litter findings: At 18mg/kg/day, the mean body weight of fetuses was decreased. The incidence of minor skeletal abnormalities was increased at the highest dose level [18 mg/kg/day] but these abnormalities were essentially represented by a delay in the ossification process. The rate of fetuses affected with external, skeletal or visceral abnormalities was comparable between the control and the 2 and 6 mg/ kg/day groups. In conclusion, the dose of 2 mg/kg/day was considered to be the NOEL in terms of maternal toxicity. The dose of 6 mg/kg/day was considered as the NOEL in terms of embryofetal development. Acrinathrin revealed no evidence of teratogenicity even at the highest dose level of 18 mg/kg/day.

-- Rabbit Teratology Study. Acrinathrin suspended in corn oil was administered at the dose levels of 0, 15, 45 and 135 mg/kg/day to groups of 16 mated females in New Zealand White rabbits from days 6 to 18 of pregnancy. On day 28 of pregnancy, females were sacrificed and fetuses were removed by caesarean section. Litter values were determined and fetuses were subsequently examined for external, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. The following findings were observed: Maternal findings: At 45 mg/kg/day or more, a transient decrease in body weight gain from days 5 to 12 was observed slightly. At 135 mg/kg/day, the rate of live fetuses was lower and the rate of fetal losses was higher. On general symptoms, reduced food consumption and anorexia were observed animals of the highest dose level.
Ref: Summary of Toxicological Studies on Acrinathrin Market Development, AgrEvo Japan Limited (Received January 26, 1998 ; Accepted March 20, 1998).

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Acrinathrin.Tox.Studys.1998.pdf

Ammonium fluoride - Wood Preservative - CAS No. 12125-01-8

Chronic Exposure: Chronic exposure may cause mottling of teeth and bone damage (osteosclerosis) and fluorosis. Symptoms of fluorisis include brittle bones, weight loss, anemia, calcified ligaments, general ill health and joint stiffness.
Ref: 1999 Material Safety Data Sheet prepared by Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Ammonium.F.MSDS.htm

Ammonium silicofluoride - Insecticide, Miticide Wood Preservative, EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 16919-19-0
(Also known as Ammonium fluorosilicate)

Chronic: Causes severe skin irritation and burns. Ingestion or inhalation may be harmful and possibly fatal depending on severity and length of over-exposure. Chronic over- exposure may cause fluorosis. Product may be absorbed through the skin and produce signs of fluorosis such as weight loss, brittleness of bones, anemia, weakness and stiffness of joints. Internal bleeding may develop. First aid procedures should be followed even in cases of suspected contact.
Ref: Ammonium fluorosilicate Material Safety Data Sheet from LCI, Ltd.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/ammonium.fluosilicate.msds.htm

Benfluralin (Benefin) - Herbicide - CAS No. 1861-40-1

-- REPRODUCTION, RAT **208-078 167287, ATwo-Generation Reproduction Study in Rats with Benefin@, (Janet A. Trutter, Hazleton Washington, Inc., Vienna, VA., Report # HWA 174-136, 9 February 1995). Thirty Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD 7 BR rats per sex per group received benefin (95.8% purity) in the diet at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000, and 5000 ppm through 2 generations with one litter per generation. Parental NOEL = 100 ppm (7.1 and 8.8 mg/kg/day for M and F, respectively, based on hepatocellular enlargement, enhanced extent of chronic progressive nephropathy in both sexes, and renal tubule hyaline droplets in males: also associated increased liver and kidney weights). Offspring NOEL = 100 ppm (reduced body weights of pups by day 7, continuing at least through weaning). The high dose caused pup weight reductions at weaning to about 60% of controls. Adult 5000 ppm F1 males (the more sensitive gender and generation of adults) weighed about 80% of controls after 10 to 19 weeks of treatment. Lesser but statistically significant decrements were seen in F0 males and in F0 and F1 females at 5000 ppm. Food consumption was correspondingly reduced in both sexes at this dose level. Offspring effects limited to 5000 ppm included significant reduction of mean live litter size at birth and a reduction of pup viability between day 4 cull and weaning (21% loss in 5000 ppm F2 pups). Acceptable, with no adverse effects. (H. Green and C. Aldous, 4/21/00).
-- TERATOLOGY, RABBIT **208-077 167286, "Teratology Study in Rabbits with Benefin", (M. D. Mercieca, Springborn Laboratories, Inc., Spencerville, OH, Report # 3130.9, 3 June 1991). Twenty inseminated female New Zealand white rabbits per group received benefin (in 10% aqueous acacia) at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 225 mg/kg/day on gestation days 6 through 18 in a guideline teratology study. Maternal NOEL = 50 mg/kg/day (increased incidence of does with few or no feces). Developmental NOEL = 225 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested). The highest dose was clearly maternally toxic, as indicated by significant (p < 0.01) reductions in food consumption and body weight gain, and by the presence of 3 aborted litters and one total litter resorption loss. Acceptable, with no adverse effects (H. Green, and C. Aldous, 4/18/00).
Ref: Summary of Toxicological Data: Benefin. California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch. Revised April 21, 2000.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/benefin.ca.tox.rev.apr.2000.pdf

Benzotrifluoride - Herbicide, Plant Growth Regulator - CAS No. 98-08-8
(also known as Trifluoromethylbenzene)

-- Trifluoromethylbenzene was studied for oral toxicity in Crj:CD (SD) rats in an OECD combined repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test at doses of 0, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day... Depression of body weight gain in offspring of all treatment groups was observed without any necropsy findings. The NOELs are considered to be 500 mg/kg/day for reproductive performance of the parents and less than 20 mg/kg/day for offspring development.
Ref: 1988. GINC: Global Information Network on Chemicals. The Databases of Chemicals.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/benzotrifluoride.toxicity.htm

Beta-cyfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 68359-37-5

-- Beta-cyfluthrin (99.7% active ingredient (a.i.)). 90-Day oral toxicity-- NOAEL = 9.5/10.9 male/female (M/F) rats LOAEL = 37.0/43.0 (M/F) based on gait abnormalities, necrosis in head and neck region, mortality (2), decreased body weight gain.
-- Beta-cyfluthrin (97.9% a.i.). 4-Week inhalation study--rat. subacute NOAEL = 0.00026 mg/L (0.07 mg/kg/day) LOAEL = 0.0027 mg/L (0.73 mg/kg/day) based on decreased body weights, 9 urine pH in males
-- Beta-cyfluthrin (96.5- 97.3%). Prenatal developmental toxicity study--rats. Maternal NOAEL = 3 Developmental NOAEL = 10 Maternal LOAEL = 10 based on reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption with post-treatment recovery. Developmental LOAEL = 40 based on reduced fetal body weights and increased skeletal variations.

Ref: Federal Register. September 27, 2002. Cyfluthrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Cyfluthrin.FR.Sept.27.2002.htm

Bifenthrin - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS Numbers: 82657-04-3 (Cis); 83322-02-5 (Trans)

Reproductive toxicity study. In the rat reproduction study, parental toxicity occurred as decreased body weight at 5.0 mg/kg/day with a NOEL of 3.0 mg/kg/day. There were no developmental (pup) or reproductive effects up to 5.0 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested).
Ref: Federal Register: September 5, 1997. Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Bifenthrin.FR.Sept.5.1997.htm

A 13-week feeding study in dogs (by capsule) of doses at nominal dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 milligram/kilogram/day (mg/kg/day) (equivalent to 2.21, 4.42, 8.84, and 17.7 mg/kg/day, based on percent active ingredient (a.i.)) for 13 weeks... A non-statistically significant, but possibly treatment- related reduction in body weight (bwt) gain was noted in females at 17.7 mg/kg/day (0.6 kilogram (kg)) relative to the controls (1.3 kg). None of the females at 8.84 or 17.7 mg/kg/day showed cyclic activity or signs of estrus, but cyclic activity was observed in 2, 2, and 1 female at 0, 2.21, and 4.42 mg/kg/day, respectively and \4/5\ showed signs of estrus. The lowest observed effect level (LOEL) for this 13-week study is 4.42 mg/kg/day based on the increased incidence of tremors in both sexes. The NOEL is 2.21 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register: November 26, 1997. Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Bifenthrin.FR.Nov.1997.htm

Boron Trifluoride - Fumigant - CAS No. 7637-07-2

- In a 2 week study, all animals exposed to 180 mg/cu m died prior to the sixth exposure, rats exposed at concn of 66 and 24 mg/cu m showed clinical signs of respiratory irritation, body weight gain depressions, increased lung weights, and depressed liver weights.
Ref: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank for Boron Trifluoride.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Boron.Trifluoride.TOXNET.htm

Butafenacil - Herbicide - CAS No. 134605-64-4

Some excerpts from Table 2.--Subchronic, Chronic, and Other Toxicity
Ref: Butafenacil; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register. September 19, 2003.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/butafenacil.fr.sept.19.2003.htm
Study type
[Guideline number]
Results
90-Day oral (dietary) toxicity rodents
(rat) - [870.3100]
NOAEL = 300 ppm (18.8/20.6 mg/kg/ day M/F). LOAEL = 1,000 ppm (62.3/69.3 mg/kg/ day M/F) based on decreased body weight gains, decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), increased red cell volume, increased bone marrow hypercellularity; increased bilirubin and urobilinogen; increased alanine aminotransferase; hepatocyte necrosis; inflammatory liver cell infiltration
2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects - [870.3800] Parental/systemic NOAEL = 30 ppm (2.4/ 2.5 mg/kg/day M/F) Parental/systemic LOAEL = 300 ppm (23.8/25.2 mg/kg/ day M/F), based on decreased body weights and food consumption and on increased incidences of bile duct hyperplasia and liver necrosis in males and females of both generations Offspring NOAEL = 300 ppm (23.8/25.2 mg/kg/day M/F) Offspring LOAEL = 1,000 ppm (79.6/ 83.8 M/F), based on decreased pup body weight and body weight gain in both generations Reproductive NOAEL = 30 ppm (2.4/2.5 mg/ kg/day M/F) Reproductive LOAEL = 300 ppm (23.8/25.2 mg/kg/day M/F) based on an increase in the number of days to mating in both generations
1-Year chronic oral (capsule) toxicity
(dog) - [870.4100]
NOAEL = 500 mg/kg/day M/F LOAEL = 1,000 mg/kg/ day M/F, based on decreased body weight gain in males, decreased MCV, MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); increased thrombocytes and red cell volume distribution width; hepatic histopathology: glycogen disposition, inclusion bodies in cytoplasm, and pigment disposition in both sexes, and focal vaculolation in females

Carfentrazone-ethyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 128639-02-1

In a developmental toxicity study in rabbits, evidence of treatment-related maternal toxicity consisted of unthriftiness and emaciation in two does at 300 mg/kg/day. The maternal LOAEL is 300 mg/ kg/day; the maternal NOAEL is greater than or equal to 150 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of treatment-related prenatal developmental toxicity: The developmental LOAEL was not determined; the developmental NOAEL is greater than or equal to 300 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register: June 12, 2002. Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Carfentrazone-E.FR.June2002.htm

-- A 90-day subchronic feeding study was conducted in rats at intake levels of 0, 58, 226, 470, 831 and 1197 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 72, 284, 578, 1008 and 1427 mg/kg/day in females, respectively. The NOEL was 226 mg/kg/day in males and 284 mg/kg/day in females. The LOEL was 470 mg/kg/day in males and 578 mg/kg/day in females based on decreases in body weight, reductions in food consumption and histopathological lesions.
-- A 90-day subchronic feeding study in dogs administered by dietary admix doses of 0, 50, 150, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. The NOEL was 50 mg/kg/day and the LOEL was 150 mg/kg/day based on systemic toxicity (decrease in the rate of weight gain in females and an increase in porphyrin levels in both sexes).
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Carfentrazone-ethyl Reason for Issuance:New Chemical Registration Date Issued: September 30, 1998.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/carfentrazone.pdf

Chlorfenapyr - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 122453-73-0

-- MRID No. 42770219 (1993)-- 90-Day oral toxicity rats. NOAEL = 24.1 mg/kg/day. LOAEL = 48.4, based on spongiform myelopathy in the brain and spinal cord of male rats, decreased body weight gain and increased relative liver weight in males and females, increased absolute liver weight in females, and decreased hemoglobin in females.
-- MRID No. 43492830 (1994). 90-Day oral toxicity mouse. NOAEL = 27.6/40, M/F. LOAEL = 62.6/78, M/F, based on reduced body weights/body weight gains, and spongiform encephalopathy in both sexes.
-- MRID No. 42770220 (1993). 90-Day oral toxicity dog. NOAEL = 3.9/4.5 mg/kg/ day, M/F. LOAEL = 6.7/6.8 mg/kg/ day, M/Fbased on emaciation, decreased body weight gains, and decreased food efficiency.
-- MRID No. 42884202 (1993). Prenatal developmental rat. Maternal NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day, based on decreased body weight gain and relative food consumption during treatment Developmental NOAEL >=225 mg/kg/day. Developmental LOAEL = not identified.
-- MRID No. 42770222 (1993). Prenatal developmental rabbit. Maternal NOAEL = 5 mg/kg/day. Maternal LOAEL = 15 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased body weight gain during treatment Developmental NOAEL = 15 mg/kg/day Developmental LOAEL = 30 mg/kg/day, based on increased post implantation loss.
-- MRID No. 43492836 (1994). 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects rat. Parental systemic NOAEL = 4.4-4.5 mg/kg/day, M. Parental systemic LOAEL = 22.2-22.5 mg/kg/day, M, based on decreased absolute body weight/body weight gains of P1 males during premating. Offspring systemic NOAEL = 4.4-5.1 mg/kg/day. Offspring systemic LOAEL = 22.2-25.6 mg/kg/day, based on decreased pup weights at weaning. Reproductive NOAEL >=44- 50.7 mg/kg/day. Reproductive LOAEL: not identified.
-- MRID No. 43492834 (1994). Chronic toxicity dog. NOAEL = 4.0/4.5 mg/kg/day, M/F. LOAEL = 8.7/10.1 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based on decreased body weight/body weight gains.
-- MRID No. 43492838 (1994). Carcinogenicity mouse. NOAEL = 2.8/3.7 mg/kg/day, M/F. LOAEL = 16.6/21.9 mg/kg/day, M/F, based on decreased body weight gains, brain vacuolation, and scabbing of the skin (males) No evidence of carcinogenicity.
-- MRID No. 43492837 (1994). Combined chronic/ carcinogenicity in rat. NOAEL = 15 mg/kg/day, males. LOAEL = 30.8 mg/kg/day, males, based on anemia. NOAEL = 3.6 mg/kg/day, females LOAEL = 18.6 mg/kg/day, females, based on decreased body weight/ body weight gain.
-- MRID No. 43492833 (1994). Chronic neurotoxicity rat. NOAEL = 2.6/3.4 mg/kg/day, M/F. LOAEL = 13.6/18 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based on the presence of myelinopathic alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) in male rats and decreased average body weights/body weight gains, food efficiency, absolute food consumption (females) and water consumption (males)
-- Chronic neurotoxicity study - rat. LOAEL = 13.6/18 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based on the presence of myelinopathic alterations in the CNS in male rats and decreased average body weights, body weigh gains, food efficiency, absolute food consumption (F), and water consumption (M). Supporting this endpoint are similar CNS lesions and skin lesions observed in the mouse carcinogenicity study (NOAEL = 2.8).

Ref: Federal Register: September 26, 2003. Chlorfenapyr; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/chlorfenapyr.fr.sept26.2003.htm

-- CHRONIC TOXICITY, DOG ** 062; 147071; "One Year Dietary Toxicity Study with AC 303,630 in Purebred Beagle Dogs"; (Kelly, C.M.; Pharmaco LSR Inc., East Millstone, NJ; Study No. 92-3107; 8/31/94); AC 303,630 Technical (purity: 94.5%) was administered in the diet to 5 dogs/sex/group at doses of 0, 60 and 120 ppm and to 6 dogs/sex at 240 ppm for 12 months (M-0, 2.1, 4.0, 8.7 mg/kg/day, F-0, 2.3, 4.5, 10.1 mg/kg/day). Reduced body weight gain was evident in the high dose animals. The relative mean liver weights were slightly increased in the high dose group. No treatment-related effects were noted for hematology or clinical chemistry. No treatment-related lesions were evident. No adverse effects were indicated. NOEL: 120 ppm (M/F) (based on increase in relative mean liver weight and reduced body weight gain of animals in the 240 ppm treatment group); NOAEL: 240 ppm; Study acceptable. (Moore, 7/15/96)
-- REPRODUCTION, RAT ** 063; 147072; "A Pilot Dietary Reproduction Study in Rats with AC 303,630", (R.E. Schroeder; Pharmaco LSR Inc., East Millstone, NJ; Study No. 91-3755; 7/20/94); AC 303,630 Technical (purity: 94.5%) was administered to 10 animals/sex/group in the diet at doses of 0, 60, 300 and 600 ppm for 10 weeks during a premating period, a 10 day mating period and the ensuing gestation and lactation periods. Reduced body weight gain was noted in the females of the 300 and 600 ppm groups during the premating period. Pup survival was reduced in the 600 ppm treatment group during the 0 to 4 day post-natal period. Pup weight gain was reduced in the high dose group over the lactation period. No adverse effect indicated. Parental NOEL: 60 ppm (based upon reduced body weight gain in the 300 ppm treatment group), Reproductive/Developmental NOEL: 300 ppm (based upon the reduced pup survival and body weight gain in the 600 ppm treatment group), NOAEL: 600 ppm; Study supplemental. (Moore, 7/29/96)
-- REPRODUCTION, RAT ** 064; 147073; "A Two-Generation (One-Litter) Reproduction Study with AC 303,630 in Rats"; (R.E. Schroeder, Pharmaco LSR Inc., East Millstone, NJ; Study No. 90-3638; 8/8/94); AC 303,630 technical (purity 94.5%) was administered in the feed of 30 animals/sex/group for two generations at doses of 0, 60, 300, and 600 ppm (P1 (M) 0, 4.2, 20.9, 41.1 mg/kg/day, (F) 0, 6.0, 29.3, 57.2 mg/kg/day, F1 (M) 0, 3.7, 19.0, 38.3 mg/kg/day, (F) 0, 6.0, 29.5, 58.7 mg/kg/day). Reduced body weight gain was noted for both the adult males and females in the 300 and 600 ppm treatment groups of the F1 generation. This reduced weight gain was apparent in these animals during the lactation period and continued during the premating period. Reproductive parameters were not affected by treatment. No adverse effects indicated. Parental NOEL: 60 ppm (based upon reduced body weight gain in the 300 and 600 ppm F1 generation males and females); Reproductive NOEL: 600 ppm; Developmental NOEL: 60 ppm (based upon reduced body weight gain of pups during lactation period). Study acceptable. (Moore, 8/1/96)
Ref: August 24, 2001 - Summary of Toxicological Data. California EPA. Department of Pesticide Regulation. Medical Toxicology Branch. Also available at: http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/toxsums/pdfs/3938.pdf

Chlorodifluoromethane - Insecticide, Fungicide, Propellant - CAS No. 75-45-6

Long-term exposures to 50,000 ppm (v/v) of vapors produced organ weight increases and a decrease in body weight gain...
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Freon 22. DuPont. 1996.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Chlorodifluoromethane.MSDS.pdf

Clodinafop-propargyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 105512-06-9

SUBCHRONIC AND CHRONIC TOXICITY
-- 870.3100/ 13 Week Oral Toxicity in Rodent NOAEL = M: 0.9 mg/kg; F: 8.2 mg/kg/day LOAEL = M: 120 ppm (8.2 mg/kg/day); F: 1000 ppm (71.1 mg/kg/day) decreased body weight; based on increased liver weights and enzymes (AlPtase);
decreased thymus weight (atrophy). Reversed after 28 day recovery period.
-- 870.3700b Prenatal Developmental Toxicity in Rabbits Maternal NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day Maternal LOAEL = 125 mg/kg/day based on mortality, clinical signs and body weight loss Developmental NOAEL = 125 mg/kg/day Developmental LOAEL >125 mg/kg/day
-- 870.3800 Two Generation Rat Reproduction Study Parental/Systemic NOAEL= 3.2 mg/kg/day. Parental/Systemic LOAEL = 31.7 mg/kg/day based on decrease in body weight gain, reduced food consumption, increased liver and kidney weights and histopathological changes in the liver and renal tubules.
Offspring NOAEL = 3.2 mg/kg/day Offspring LOAEL = 31.7 mg/kg/day based on reduced viability, decreased pup body weight and dilatation of renal pelvis. Reproductive NOAEL = 64.2 mg/kg/day. Reproductive LOAEL 64.2 mg/kg/day
-- 870.4100b Chronic Toxicity -Nonrodent NOAEL = M: 3.38 mg/kg/day; F: 3.37 mg/kg/day LOAEL = M: 15.2 mg/kg/day ; F: 16.7 mg/kg/day based on occurrence of skin lesions, clinical signs, and reduced body weight gain and food consumption.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration. June 6, 2000.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/clodinafop.pdf

Cloransulam-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 147150-35-4

-- Developmental Toxicity (rabbit): Maternal NOEL = 100 mg/kg/day Maternal LOEL = 300 mg/kg/day based on reduced weight gain, food efficiency, increased abortions, and cesarean section observations. Developmental NOEL = 300 mg/kg/day (HDT)
Ref: USEPA. Pesticide Fact sheet. Cloransulam-methyl. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration Date Issued: October 29, 1997.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/cloransulam.pdf

-- In a two-year carcinogenicity study, XDE-565 (98.2% purity) was administered to 60 B6C3F1 mice/sex/dose at dose levels of 0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg bw/d in the diet for 24 months (with an interim sacrifice of 10 mice/sex/dose at 12 months). No treatment-related clinical signs were observed throughout the study duration. A treatment-related effect on mean body-weight gain was observed. On average, body-weight gains in high-dose males and mid- and high-dose females were suppressed relative to controls... Based on decreased body-weight gain in females at $100 mg/kg bw/d, the NOAEL in male and female mice was determined to be 10 mg/kg bw/d.
-- In a combined chronic and carcinogenicity study, XDE-565 (98.2% purity) was administered to 60 Fischer 344 rats/sex/dose at 0, 10, 75 or 325 mg/kg bw/d in the diet for 24 months (with an interim sacrifice of 10 rats/sex/dose at 12 months). Aside from an increase in the incidence of perineal soiling in female rats at 75 and 325 mg/kg bw/d, no other treatment-related clinical findings were observed. A treatment-related effect on mean body weight and body-weight gain was observed. Relative to controls, body weight and body-weight gain were suppressed in high-dose males and females for a good portion of the dosing period.
Ref: Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Regulatory Note REG2001-08.

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pmra-arla/english/pdf/reg/reg2001-08-e.pdf

Cryolite - Insecticide - CAS No. 15096-52-3

-- CHRONIC FLUORINE POISONING OCCURS AMONG MINERS OF CRYOLITE/ LOSS OF WEIGHT, ANOREXIA, ANEMIA, WASTING ... AND DENTAL DEFECTS ARE AMONG COMMON FINDINGS IN CHRONIC FLUORINE POISONING. THERE MAY BE AN EOSINOPHILIA, AND IMPAIRMENT OF GROWTH IN YOUNG WORKERS. SYMPTOMS OF INTOXICATION INCLUDE GASTRIC, INTESTINAL, CIRCULATORY, RESP AND NERVOUS COMPLAINTS AND SKIN RASHES. [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1427]
-- Chronic poisoning: Intake of more than 6 mg of fluoride per day results in fluorosis. Symptoms are weight loss, brittleness of bones, anemia, weakness, general ill health, stiffness of joints. ... /Fluoride/ [Dreisbach, R. H. Handbook of Poisoning. 9th
ed. Los Altos, California: Lange Medical Publications, 1977. 207]
Ref: TOXNET from Hazardous Substances Data Bank for ALUMINUM SODIUM FLUORIDE (Cryolite).

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Cryolite.TOXNET.HSDB.htm

Cyfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 68359-37-5

Two rat developmental toxicity studies via the inhalation route of exposure were also conducted... In the second study, the maternal NOAEL and LOAEL were < 0.46 mg/ M3, based on decreased body weight gain and reduced relative food efficiency. The developmental NOAEL was 0.46 mg/M3 and the developmental LOAEL was 2.55 mg/M3, based on reduced fetal and placental weight, and reduced ossification in the phalanx, metacarpals, and vertebrae.
Ref: Federal Register: November 26, 1997. Cyfluthrin; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Cyfluthrin.FR.Nov.26.1997.htm

-- Cyfluthrin. 28-Day oral toxicity NOAEL = 15.0 (males & females) based on minimal decrease in blood glucose. LOAEL = 50 based on, gait abnormalities, salivation, nervousness, decrease in body weight, food consumption, changes in hematological, clinical chem. & urinalysis parameters, increases in selected organ wts., cytoplasmic swelling of glandular epithelium of submaxillary gland, minimal degrees of fiber degeneration in sciatic nerve (# not reported) which disappeared after recovery period.
-- Cyfluthrin (94.9% a.i.). 90-Day inhalation toxicity study--rats. NOAEL = 0.00009 mg/liter (L) (0.02 mg/kg/day; both sexes) LOAEL = 0.00071 mg/L (0.16 mg/kg/day) based on decreased body weights and body weight gains in males and clinical signs in females
-- Cyfluthrin (93.8% a.i.). 4-Week inhalation toxicity study--rats. NOAEL = 0.00044 mg/L (0.12 mg/kg/day; males & females) LOAEL = 0.006 mg/L (1.6 mg/kg/day; males & females) based on decreases in body weight and body weight gain in males, hypothermia, reduction in leukocyte counts (F) and low serum protein.

-- Cyfluthrin (96% a.i.). Prenatal developmental toxicity--rabbits
. Maternal NOAEL = 20.0 Developmental NOAEL = 180.0 Maternal LOAEL = 60.0 based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption during the dosing period Developmental LOAEL > 180 mg/kg/day
-- Cyfluthrin (96.2%). Prenatal developmental toxicity via inhalation- rat
. Maternal NOAEL <0.00046 mg/L (< 0.125 mg/kg/ day)Developmental NOAEL = 0.00046 mg/L (0.125 mg/ kg/day) Maternal LOAEL = 0.00046 mg/L (0.125 mg/kg/ day) based on decreased body weight gain and relative food efficiency Developmental LOAEL = 0.00255 mg/L (0.692 mg/ kg/day) based on reduced fetal and placental weights and reduced ossification in phalanx, metacarpals, vertebrae
-- Cyfluthrin (95.4% a.i.). Reproduction and fertility effects study-- rat (dietary)
. Parental NOAEL = Parental: 3/4 (M/F) Offspring NOAEL = 7 (M/F) Parental LOAEL = 9/10 (M/F) based on reductions in body weights and food consumption. Offspring LOAEL = 19 based on coarse tremors in pups during lactation and decreases in mean litter weight .
-- Cyfluthrin (95.7-96.2% a.i.). Pilot 1-generation reproduction study--rat
. Parental systemic NOAEL = 22.9 Offspring systemic NOAEL = 7.8 Parental systemic LOAEL = 59.6 based on hind leg splay, ataxia, reduction in body weight gain. Pup systemic LOAEL = 22.9 based on tremors during lactation and pup weight decreases.
-- Cyfluthrin. Multigeneration reproduction study--rats
. Parental NOAEL = 12.3/15.1 Offspring NOAEL = 5.4 Parental LOAEL = 37.2/48.5 based on decreased body weight gain. Offspring LOAEL = 15.1 based on decreased viability during lactation period and decreased body weight gains

-- Cyfluthrin (93.9% a.i.). Carcinogenicity feeding study--mice. NOAEL = 31.9 (males) and 140.6 (females) LOAEL = 114.8 (males) based on ear skin lesions and reduced body weight gains. 309.7 (females) based on clinical signs; macroscopic and microscopic pathology findings; and reduced body weights, body weight gains, and food consumption. Under the conditions of this study, there was no evidence of carcinogenic potential.
-- Cyfluthrin (94.7% a.i.). Combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity feeding study--rat. NOAEL = 2.6 (males), 3.3 (females) LOAEL = 11.6 (males), 14.4 (females) based on overall declines in body weight gain by 12 and 10% in males and females, respectively. No carcinogenic effects.
-- Cyfluthrin (49.7-51.0%).. Combined chronic toxicity/ carcinogenicity feeding study--rat. NOAEL = 6.19 (males), 8.15 (females) LOAEL = 19.20 (M), 25.47 (F) based on decreased body weights and body weight gains. No carcinogenic effects.
Ref: Federal Register. September 27, 2002. Cyfluthrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Cyfluthrin.FR.Sept.27.2002.htm

Cyhalofop-butyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 122008-85-9

-- Acute Dermal (Rat) LD50 & 35000 mg/kg (2.5 x the limit dose) Chromodacryorrhea was observed in 2/ 5 males on day 2 only. Delayed weight gain was observed in all rats, with the females being most affected. There was no dermal irritation. Toxicity Category IV
Ref: Federal Register: June 4, 2002. Cyhalofop-butyl; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Cyhalofop-Butyl.FR.June4.02.htm

Cyhalothrin - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 68085-85-8

-- Cyhalothrin. 13-Week feeding - rat. 00154805. NOAEL: 2.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL: 12.5 mg/kg/day decreased body weight gain in males.
-- Cyhalothrin. 28-Day feeding - rat. 00153029. NOAEL: 2 mg/kg/day LOAEL: 10 mg/kg/day clinical signs of neurotoxicity. At higher doses, decreases in body weight gain and food consumption and changes in organ weights.
-- cyhalothrin. 28-Day feeding - rat. 00154806. NOAEL: 1.0 mg/kg/day LOAEL: 2.0 mg/kg/day decreases in mean body weight gain in females.
-- cyhalothrin. 4-Week feeding - mouse. 43241901. NOAEL: 64.2/77.9 mg/kg/ day LOAEL: 309/294 mg/kg/ day mortality, 64.2, 309 mg/kg/day clinical signs of toxicity, decreases in bodyweight gain and food consumption. changes in hematology and organ weights, minimal centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement.
-- cyhalothrin. 28-Day feeding - rat. 00153029. NOAEL: 2 mg/kg/day 1984/Acceptable LOAEL: 10 mg/kg/day nonguideline. clinical signs of 0, 2, 10, 25, 50, 75 mg/ neurotoxicity. At kg/day. higher doses, decreases in body weight gain and food consumption and changes in organ weights.
-- cyhalothrin. 21-Day dermal toxicity
-rabbit. 00154869. NOAEL: 100 mg/kg/day LOAEL: 1,000 mg/kg/day significant weight loss
-- cyhalothrin. Developmental toxicity - rat. 00154800. Maternal NOAEL: 10 mg/kg/day. Maternal LOAEL: 15 mg/ kg/day. uncoordinated limbs, reduced body weight gain and food consumption. Developmental NOAEL: 15 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested (HDT) Developmental LOAEL: >15 mg/kg/day
-- cyhalothrin. Developmental toxicity - rat. 00154801. Maternal NOAEL: 10 mg/kg/day. Maternal LOAEL: 30 mg/ kg/day. reduced body weight gain and food consumption. Developmental NOAEL: 30 mg/kg/day (HDT) Developmental LOAEL: >30 mg/kg/day
-- cyhalothrin. 3-Generation Reproduction - rat. 00154802. arental/Offspring NOAEL: 1.5 mg/kg/day. Parental/Offspring LOAEL: 5.0 mg/kg/day. decreased parental body weight and body weight gain during premating and gestation periods and reduced pup weight and weight gain during lactation). Reproductive NOAEL: 5.0 mg/kg/day (HDT).
-- cyhalothrin.
Carcinogenicity - mouse. 00150842. NOAEL: 15 mg/kg/day. LOAEL: 75 mg/kg/day. increased incidence of piloerection, hunched posture; decreased body weight gain in males. Not oncogenic under conditions of study. HDT inadequate. New study not required at this time. [FAN Note: The study cited was performed in 1984.]
-- cyhalothrin.
00154803. Chronic/Carcinogenicity - rat. NOAEL: 2.5 mg/kg/day. LOAEL: 12.5 mg/kg/day. decreases in mean body weight. Not oncogenic under conditions of study.
Ref: Federal Register: September 27, 2002. Lambda-cyhalothrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Lambda.Cyhalot.FR.Sept27.02.htm

Cyhalothrin, gamma - Insecticide - CAS No. 76703-62-3

Reproductive and developmental toxicity. A developmental toxicity study in rats given gavage doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 mg/kg/day with no developmental toxicity observed under the conditions of the study. The developmental no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is greater than 2 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested (HDT). The maternal NOAEL and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) are established at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively, based on reduced body weight, body weight gain, and feed consumption.
Subchronic toxicity. A 90-day feeding study in rats fed doses of 0, 2.5, 10, 50, and 100 parts per million (ppm) with a NOAEL of 50 ppm and a LOAEL of 100 ppm based on mortality, decreased feed consumption, decreased body weights, and increased relative liver and kidney weight at 100 ppm.
Ref: Federal Register: February 25, 2004. Gamma-Cyhalothrin; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/gamma.cyhal.fr.feb25.2004.htm

Cyhalothrin, lambda - Insecticide - CAS No. 91465-08-6

-- lambda-cyhalothrin. 13-Week feeding - rat. 00153028. NOAEL: 2.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL: 12.5 mg/kg/day reduced body weight gain and food consumption in both sexes and food efficiency in females.
-- lambda-cyhalothrin. 21-Day dermal toxicity - rat. 44333802. NOAEL: 10 mg/kg/day. LOAEL: 50 mg/kg/day. clinical signs of toxicity, decreased body weight and body weight gain.
-- lambda-cyhalothrin. 21-Day inhalation toxicity - rat. 41387702. NOAEL: 0.08 mg/kg/day. LOAEL: 0.90 mg/kg/day. clinical signs of neurotoxicity, decreased body weight gains, increased incidence of punctuate foci in cornea, slight reductions in cholesterol in females, slight changes in selected urinalysis parameters
Ref: Federal Register: September 27, 2002. Lambda-cyhalothrin; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Lambda.Cyhalot.FR.Sept27.02.htm

-- A carcinogenicity study in mice fed dose levels of 0, 20, 100, or 500 ppm (0, 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day) in the diet for 2 years. A systemic NOEL was established at 100 ppm and systemic LOEL at 500 ppm based on decreased body weight gain in males throughout the study at 500 ppm. The Agency has determined that the chemical was not tested at a sufficiently high dose level for carcinogenicity testing in female mice. In addition, due to an equivocal finding for mammary tumors in females (1/52, 0/52, 7/52, 6/52), the Agency classified the chemical as a Group D carcinogen.
-- A developmental toxicity study in rats given gavage doses of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day with no developmental toxicity observed under the conditions of the study. Developmental NOEL is greater than 15 mg/ kg/day. Maternal NOEL and LOEL are established at 10 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Reduced body weight and food consumption were observed during the dosing period.
-- A developmental toxicity study in rabbits given gavage doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day with no developmental toxicity observed under the conditions of the study. The maternal NOEL and LOEL are established at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively (decreased body weight gain was observed during the dosing period). The developmental NOEL is 30 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested).
-- A three-generation reproduction study in rats fed diets containing 0, 10, 30, and 100 ppm with no developmental toxicity observed at 100 ppm, highest dose tested. The maternal NOEL and LOEL for the study are established at 30 (1.5 mg/kg/day) and 100 ppm (5 mg/ kg/day), respectively, based upon decreased parental body weight gain. The reproductive NOEL and LOEL are established at 30 (1.5 mg/kg/day) and 100 ppm (5 mg/kg/day), respectively, based on decreased pup weight gain during weaning.
Ref: Federal Register: March 27, 1995. Lambda-Cyhalothrin; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Lambda-Cyhal.FR.Mar.27.1995.htm

Diclosulam - Herbicide - CAS No. 145701-21-9

-- Chronic toxicity. EPA has established a chronic RfD of 0.05 mg/ kg/day NOAEL equals 5 mg/kg/day; Uncertainty Factor (UF) = 100) for use in assessing chronic dietary risk. This chronic RfD is based on the 2- year combined chronic feeding/carcinogenicity study in rats, in which the following effects were observed at the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 100 mg/kg/day in both sexes: statistically significant decreases in body weight gain, changes in renal tubule and kidney function parameters, and increased incidence of male kidney pelvic epithelium hyperplasia.
-- Short- and intermediate-term toxicity. The toxicological endpoint for short- and intermediate-term inhalation risk assessments is a maternal/developmental no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 10 milligrams/kilograms/day (mg/kg/day) based on the dose-dependent increased abortions, and decreased maternal body weight gain, food consumption, and fecal output in the rabbit oral developmental study.
Ref: Federal Register: March 8, 2000 (Volume 65, Number 46)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 12129-12134]. Diclosulam; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/diclosulam.fr.march8.2000.htm

Diflufenican - Herbicide - CAS No. 83164-33-4

--Subacute toxicity studies... In a 13-week oral study in the dog, the minimum effect level was 250 mg/kg bw based on enemis and increased cholesterol levels at the 250 mg/kg bw/day dose level. The observed effects at higher dose levels included impaired body weight gain, emesis, increased plasma cholesterol and increase in the relative thymus weights.
-- Subchronic/chronic toxicity studies... The NOAEL in the 104-week mouse study was 500 ppm (approximately 60 - 70 mg/kg bw/day) based on minimal reduction in body weight gain at the 500 ppm dose level and significant reduction in body weight gain and increase in the absolute and relative liver weight in females at the higher dose level. Diflufenican was not tumourigenic in the mouse. The NOEL in the 52-week oral study in the dog was 100 mg/kg bw/day based on significant increase in liver weight at the higher dose level.
-- Reproductive toxicity studies. In a teratogenicity study in the rat, the minimum effect level for maternal toxicity was 50 mg/kg bw/day based on reductions in weight gain at all dose levels...
-- Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The acceptable daily intake of 0.2 mg/kg bw/day is derived from the critial minimum effect level of 500 ppm (24 mg/kg bw/day), derived from the 24-month chronic dietary study in the rat or the multigeneration study in the rat and allows for a 100-fold safety factor. The observed effects included minimal reductions in body weight gain and a slight reduction in thymus weights at the 500 ppm dose level.
Ref: September 1995. Evaluation on Diflufenican. Evaluation of fully approved or provisionally approved products. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX, UK. Available at:

http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/evallist_alphabet.htm

Diflufenzopyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 109293-97-2

-- In a developmental toxicity study, technical diflufenzopyr was administered by gavage to female Sprague Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day from days 6 through 15 of gestation. The maternal NOAEL is 300 mg/kg/day and the maternal LOAEL is 1000 mg/kg/day based on decreases in food consumption and weight gain. Developmental effects, characterized as significantly lower fetal body weights in males and skeletal variations, exhibited as incompletely ossified and unossified sternal centra and reduced fetal ossification sites for caudal vertebrae, were observed at 1000 mg/kg/day. The developmental LOAEL is 1000 mg/kg/day, based on decreased fetal body weights and skeletal variations. The developmental NOAEL is 300 mg/kg/day.
Ref: US EPA Fact Sheet. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration Date Issued: January 28, 1999.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/diflufenzopr.pdf

Dithiopyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 97886-45-8

In a 2-generation rat reproduction study, decreased body weight, diffuse hepatocellular swelling, and ``white spots'' on the livers were observed in the offspring of rats administered greater than or equal to 16.4 mg/kg/day...
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Epoxiconazole - Fungicide - CAS No. 135319-73-2 (formerly 106325-08-0)

iii. An oncogenicity study in mice fed dosages of 0, 0.17, 0.81, 35.3, and 70.4 (males) or 205.4 (females) mg/kg/day with a NOAEL of 0.81 mg/kg/day for male and female mice based on the following effects: a. Highly significant decreased body weights were observed in both male and/or female mice at the mid-high and highest dose tested.
Ref: Federal Register: September 22, 2000. [Page 57338-57344]. Notice of Filing Pesticide Petitions to Establish Tolerances for Certain Pesticide Chemicals in or on Food.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Epoxiconazole.FR.Sept.2000.htm

Ethalfluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 55283-68-6

-- In the developmental toxicity study in rats, the maternal (systemic) NOAEL was 50 milligrams/ kilograms/day (mg/kg/day), based on decreased body weight gain and dark urine at the LOAEL of 250 mg/kg/day. The developmental (fetal) NOAEL was 1,000 mg/kg/day the highest dose tested (HDT).
-- In the developmental toxicity study in rabbits, the maternal (systemic) NOAEL was 75 mg/kg/day, based on abortions and decreased food consumption at the LOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day.
-- In a 3-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats, the parental (systemic) NOAEL was 12.5 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased mean body weight gains in males in all generations at the LOAEL of 37.5 mg/kg/day. The reproductive (pup) NOAEL was 37.5 mg/kg/day the HDT.
Ref: Federal Register: August 8, 2001. Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Ethalfluralin.FR.Aug8.2001.htm

Ethalfluralin was evaluated for developmental toxicity. The test material was administered orally to 14, 13, 15, and 13 inseminated Dutch-Belted rabbits in doses of 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively, on days 6-18 of gestation. Four, 9, and 7 rabbits of the 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day groups, respectively, aborted and were killed. Abortions were preceded by extended periods of anorexia and weight loss. Anorexia and substantial weight loss were observed during dosing at 250 mg/kg/day and above. Decreased live litter size and an increase in resorption incidence occurred at 500 and 750 mg/kg/day. No live fetuses were recovered at 750 mg/kg/day. No effects on sex distribution or weight were observed. No treatment related skeletal or visceral defects were observed. The authors concluded that maternal toxicity was observed at all dose levels. No teratogenicity was observed at any dose level.
Ref: 1992. INITIAL SUBMISSION: A TERATOLOGY STUDY WITH ETHALFLURALIN IN DUTCH-BELTED RABBITS WITH COVER LETTER DATED 08-21-92. ELI LILLY & CO. The National Technical Information Service. Report Number: NTIS/OTS0545185.

Ethalfluralin was evaluated for developmental toxicity. Fourteen, 11, and 14 pregnant Dutch-Belted rabbits were administered 0, 75, and 250 mg/kg/day of the test substance respectively, on days 6-18 of gestation. An increase in the number of anorectic rabbits occurred at 250 mg/kg/day. Four and 3 rabbits of the 75 and 250 mg/kg/day dose group, respectively, died or aborted. The abortions were preceded by anorexia and weight loss. Nine, 9, and 12 rabbits of the 0, 75, and 250 mg/kg/day dose groups were available for evaluation. Live litter size, resorption occurrence, fetal viability, and sex distribution were unaffected by treatment. Mean fetal weights of the treatment groups were lower than controls but the differences were not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of skeletal abnormalities, including cleft palate and crooked ribs, was observed at 250 mg/kg/day. No treatment related visceral abnormalities were observed. The 250 mg/kg/day dose was maternally toxic but not teratogenic since the increased incidence of fetal defects was associated with anorexic dams. The 75 mg/kg/day dose was a no-effect level.
Ref: 1992. INITIAL SUBMISSION: A TERATOLOGY STUDY WITH ETHALFLURALIN IN DUTCH-BELTED RABBITS WITH COVER LETTER DATED 08-21-92. ELI LILLY & CO. The National Technical Information Service. Report Number: NTIS/OTS0545085.

Etoxazole - Miticide, Ovicide - CAS No. 153233-91-1

Subchronic/Chronic Toxicity
Study # 870.3200. 21-Day Dermal Tox Rat. NOAEL = 1000 LOAEL > 1000, no effects noted. 870.3700 Developmental Tox Rabbit NOAEL = Maternal: 200 Developmental: 200 LOAEL = Maternal: 1000, based on liver enlargement
and decreased body weight gains and food consumption Developmental: 1000, based on increased incidences of 27 presacral vertebrae and 27 presacral vertebrae with 13 ribs (skeletal variations) in the fetuses
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. August 2002.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/etoxazole.pdf

 
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