July 19, 2005

Submission to:
National Research Council Committee:
Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water; BEST-K-02-05-A
c/o Susan Martel <smartel@nas.edu>

Ellen Connett
Fluoride Action Network Pesticides Project
82 Judson Street, Canton NY 13617
Email: pesticides@fluoridealert.org
Tel: 315-379-9200

Re: Update on Fluoride's Adverse Effects on the Brain and Male Reproduction.

Dear Committee Members,

Due to a rather remarkable rat study published in June 2005 (Pushpalatha et al.), that reported significant effects on both brain and testicular index at low fluoride levels, I feel obligated to refer this to the Committee's attention, even at this late date. The full paper is attached as: Pushpalatha-2005.pdf

It is important to note that as in the Varner 1998 (1) study the fluoride levels which caused an effect were remarkably low. In the Pushpalatha et al. study, adverse effects were found at concentrations of just 4.5 ppm and 9.0 ppm sodium fluoride in the rats’ water. These are particularly low concentrations when considering that rats are more resistant to fluoride toxicity than humans due to the attainment of lower respective serum fluoride levels at the same dose (by bodyweight) of exposure.

The following is the study abstract:

Biometals. 2005 Jun;18(3):207-12.
Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats.
Pushpalatha T, Srinivas M, Sreenivasula Reddy P.
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502, India.

Abstract: Sodium fluoride (NaF) administered orally to adult male rats at a dose level of 4.5 ppm and 9.0 ppm for 75 days caused significant decrease in the body weight, brain index and testicular index. A significant decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm function (HOS positive) with increased sperm abnormalities was also observed in NaF-exposed male rats. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) were significantly decreased in NaF-treated rats indicating decreased steroidogenesis and in turn spermatogenesis in rats exposed to NaF.

Last year I sent to the Committee sixty animal studies(2) which reveal considerable evidence of fluoride's direct toxic effects on the brain, even at levels as low as 1 ppm fluoride in water (Varner 1998). Some of the effects reported include:

-- reduction in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors;
-- reduction in lipid content;
-- impaired anti-oxidant defense systems;
-- damage to the hippocampus;
-- damage to the purkinje cells;
-- increased uptake of aluminum;
-- formation of beta-amyloid plaques (the classic brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease);
-- exacerbation of lesions induced by iodine deficiency;
-- interference with the metabolism of brain phospholipid;
-- accumulation of fluoride in the pineal gland.

I also submitted to the Committee fifty-two animal studies(3) which reveal fluoride's potential to affect male fertility.


Ellen Connett

1. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity.
Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. Brain Res. 1998 Feb 16;784(1-2):284-98.

2. April 19, 2004. Fluoride's effect on the brain.
on line at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/nrc.brain.april.2004.htm

3. May 3, 2004. Fluoride's adverse effects on the Male Reproductive system.
Online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/nrc.male.repro.april.2004.htm


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