Return to Index
Return to Adverse Effects
Note: The following is a limited selection of abstracts from 1994
Due to length, we present this as a separate section
• Click here to return to the 4-part Liver
for fluorine & organofluorine pesticides.
When time allows more information will be added.
J Inorg Biochem 2003
inhibition of rat liver and kidney arginase with fluoride
Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant,
MI 48858, USA. email@example.com
Abstract: Fluoride is an uncompetitive inhibitor
of rat liver arginase. This study has shown that fluoride
caused substrate inhibition of rat liver arginase at substrate concentrations
above 4 mM. Rat kidney arginase was more sensitive
to inhibition by fluoride than liver arginase. For both liver
and kidney arginase preincubation with fluoride had no effect on
the inhibition. When assayed with various concentrations of L-arginine,
rat kidney arginase did not have Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Lineweaver-Burk
and Eadie-Hofstee plots were nonlinear. Kidney arginase showed strong
substrate activation at concentrations of L-arginine above 4 mM.
Within narrow concentrations of L-arginine, the inhibition of kidney
arginase by fluoride was uncompetitive. Fluoride caused substrate
inhibition of kidney arginase at L-arginine concentrations above
1 mM. The presence of fluoride prevented the
substrate activation of rat kidney arginase.
Lik Sprava 2002
[Article in Russian]
[Features of the effects
of zinc and fluorine on functional status of rat liver]
Abstract: Intoxication of rats of both sexes three months
in duration leads to development of cytolysis and hepatocellular
insufficiency, with females displaying a higher degree of it. At
the same time, fluorine promotes development
of hypolipoperoxidation in males. In females, unlike males,
intensification of LPO tended to grow higher and was to be seen
with both agents. SOD activation has been revealed in exposure of
females to zinc and of males to both fluorine and zinc. Also revealed
in the animals was activation of catalase, especially so in males.
Activation of membranodestructive processes in the liver of test
animals brings about a decline in the pharmacometabolizing function
of the organ.
lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems of young rats in chronic
YM et al.
Abstract: Summary: A
study was made of the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress in
rats during their early stages in life. Wistar albino rats were
exposed to 30 ppm and 100 ppm fluoride (from sodium fluoride) in
drinking water during the last one week of intrauterine life and
then up to ten weeks after birth...
-- Excerp ... Increased free radical generation and lipid peroxidation
are proposed to mediate the toxic effects of fluoride on soft tissues
(10-12). Earlier, we reported increased lipid peroxidation and disturbed
antioxidant defense systems in brain, erythrocytes and liver of
rats exposed to high-fluoride intake during the stages of
life after weaning (13). There is, however a paucity of studies
on the effect of fluoride intoxication during the early developing
stages of life on oxidative stress. Recently, we observed increased
lipid peroidation and altered levels
of antioxidants in the blood of children with endemic skeletal fluorosis
(14) and in the liver of young rats exposed
to high levels of fluoride in drinking water during the early stages
of life (15)...
Full report available at
Effect of fluoride intoxication
on lipid peroxidation and antitoxidant systems in rats;
YM Shivarajashankara, AR Shivashankara, P
Gopalakrishna Bhat, S Hanumanth Rao.
Abstract: SUMMARY: The effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid
peroxidation and anti-oxidant systems in the blood, brain, and liver
of rats was studied. Twelve one-month-old albino rats were administered
100-ppm fluoride (as NaF) in their drinking water for four months.
In the red blood cells the levels of malondial-dehyde (MDA) and
glutathione (GSH) increased, along with the activity of glutathione
peroxidase (GSH-Px), but the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)
decreased. In the plasma the level of ascorbic acid increased while
that of uric acid decreased. In the brain
and liver, MDA and GSH levels increased, as did the activities of
GSH-Px and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The
level of ascorbic acid increased in the brain, but it decreased
in the liver. These results suggest that fluoride
enhances lipid peroxidation in the red blood cells, brain and liver
of rats and causes increased or decreased enzyme activity associated
with free radical metabolism.
of fluoride-induced hepatoxicity in rabbits
and SP Thapar.
Abstract: SUMMARY: The
effect of chronic and acute exposure to sodium fluoride (5, 10,
20, and 50 mg/kg body weight/day) for fifteen weeks on hepatic damage
in young albino rabbits was evaluated. Histopathological
examination revealed increasing degrees of hepatocellular necrosis,
degenerative changes, hepatic hyperplasia, extensive vacuolization
in hepatocytes, and centrilobular necrosis in the liver of the exposed
animals. The central vein and sinusoids of the liver were dilated
and engorged with blood and were associated with small areas of
haemorrhages. These effects were not observed in the control
available at http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sodium-fl.journal.v.33.00.pdf
Fluoride Vol. 33 No. 1 6-16 2000
Liver Morphology and histochemistry
in rats resulting from ingestion of Sodium selenite and Sodium fluoride
L Kolodziejczyk (a), A Put (b), P Grzela (b)
(a) For correspondence: Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology,
Medical University, 70-111 Szczecin, al. Powsta n´ ców
Wielkopolskich 72, Poland.
(b) Department of Toxicology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin,
Abstract: SUMMARY: A morphological and histochemical assessment
was made of the effect of sodium selenite and sodium fluoride on
oxidative and lysosomal enzyme activity in the liver of male rats.
The compounds were administered separately and together for a period
of three months. Oxidative enzyme activity of a-glycerophosphate
dehydrogenase (a -GlDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) increased
with sodium selenite and decreased with sodium fluoride
and with both compounds together. Sodium selenite in a dose of 1
0 µg/kg body weight and sodium fluoride
in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight caused an increase in the activity
of acid phosphatase (AcP), while the combined dose caused a decrease
in the activity of this enzyme.