“Cryolite is an uncommon mineral of very limited natural distribution. Mostly considered a one locality mineral, although there are a few other minor localities, it was only found in large quantities on the west coast of Greenland. It was used as a solvent of the aluminum rich ore, bauxite… It is very difficult to remove atoms of aluminum from atoms of oxygen which is necessary in order to produce aluminum metal. Cryolite made an excellent flux to make the process less expensive. Now it is too rare to be used for this purpose and sodium aluminum fluoride is produced artificially to fill the void…” Reference.
Pesticide Action has the latest use information:
Top 50 Crops and Sites for for Cryolite use in California in 2009
where all or part
|All Sites (00)||471,490||68,479||78,312|
|Table and Raisin Grapes (29141)||387,527||59,444||69,710|
|Bell Peppers (11003)||17,864||1,965||2,144|
|Wine Grapes (29143)||7,551||1,400||1,433|
|Outdoor Container Nursery (154)||1,719||235.0||274.9|
|Right of Way (40)||668.2||5.00||5.00|
|Greenhouse Plants (153)||54.7||–||120.0|
|Greenhouse Flowers (151)||0.12||10.0||2.00|
Regional Use for Cryolite on All Sites in 2009
where all or part
|Los Angeles (19)||1,210||140.0||106.0|
|San Joaquin (39)||432.0||45.0||45.0|
|Santa Barbara (42)||0.12||10.0||2.00|
1932: Massive Fluorosis of Bones and Ligaments by PF Moller and SV Gudjonsson. Acta Radiologica, 13:269-294.
The authors record the results of their clinical examination of 78 workers engaged in the crushing and refining of cryolite. Beside silicosis (to as much as the second degree) which was present in 39, the following three diseases were found to be common in these workers:
- 1) A curious sclerotic affection of bones, ligaments, and muscular attachments, probably due to the deposition of calcium-fluoride (7789755) in the bones (The authors believe that the occurrence of this disease in man has not been described before. It was found in 30 of the workers examined.);
- 2) an acutely arising and acutely revolving affection of the stomach, supposedly due to a slight corrosion of the mucous lining of that organ, owing to some of the fluorine (7782414) contained in the swallowed cryolite-dust being changed by the hydrochloric-acid (7647010) of the stomach into hydrofluorine; and
- 3) a pronounced oligemia, found in 11 of the 30 workers in whom pathological changes in the bones were observed.
These changes in the bones are described in detail, and the causes of their occurrence, as well as that of the other symptoms, and the connection of these with the fluorine contained in the cryolite, are discussed. The results of the investigation are compared with those of an investigation made of 21 other workers from industries where fluorine and materials containing fluorine are used. Also animal experiments with experimental feeding with cryolite are spoken of, but a more detailed description of these is reserved for a future communication.