Fluoride Action Network

References: Water Fluoridation and Environmental Justice

Fluoride Action Network | September 25, 2015

Water Fluoridation and Environmental Justice
Report by Fluoride Action Network
Submitted, September 25, 2015
To: Environmental Justice Interagency Working Committee

As the the pdf online document for this report was user unfriendly, the following are the live links for the references.

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Alberts B, Shine K. 1998. Letter to Albert Burgstahler, Ph.D., and others, Professor of Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence; from Bruce Alberts, PhD, President, National Academy of Sciences and Kenneth Shine, President, Institute of Medicine. November 20. http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/alberts-shine.iom-1998.pdf

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CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2010. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration, by State — National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004—2008. MMWR Mar 26;59(11);327-334. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5911a2.htm

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Dean, HT, McKay FS, Elvove E. 1938. Mottled Enamel Survey of Bauxite, Ark., Ten Years After a Change in the Common Water Supply. Public Health Reports 53:1736-1748.

Dean, HT, Elvove E, Poston RF. 1939. Mottled Enamel in South Dakota. Public Health Reports 54:212-228.

Dean HT, McKay FS. 1939. Production of Mottled Enamel Halted by a Change in Common Water Supply. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health, 29: 590-596.

Dean HT, Arnold Jr. FA, Elvove E. 1941. Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children. Public Health Reports 56:761–92.

Dean HT, Arnold Jr. FA, Elvove E. 1942. Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4425 White Children, age 12-14 years, of 13 Cities in 4 States. Public Health Reports 57(32): 1155–79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf

Denbesten, P. and W. Li, 2011. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis. Monographs in Oral Science 22:81–96. Abstract

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Donahue J. 2003. Presentation by Joyce Donahue, PhD, to the National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water Washington DC. August 12. http://fluoridealert.org/content/presentation-by-joyce-donahue-phd-to-the-national-research-council-committee-august-12-2003/

Dong Z, Wan C, Liu J. 1993. Determination of the contents of amino-acid and monoamine neurotransmitters in fetal brains from a fluorosis-endemic area. Journal of Guiyang Medical College 18(4):241-45. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15211/

Du L, Wan C, Cao X, Liu J. 1992. The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain. Chinese Journal of Pathology 21(4):218-20; republished in Fluoride 2008, 41(4):327–330. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15077/

Dye BA, Thornton-Evans G, Li X, Iafolla TJ. 2015. Dental Caries and Sealant Prevalence in Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011–2012. NCHS Data Brief, no. 191. National Center for Health Statistics. March. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/cdc.dye-20152.pdf

Egemen A, Kusin N, Aksit S, et al. 2002. A generally neglected threat in infant nutrition: incorrect preparation of infant formulae. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics Oct-Dec;44(4):298-303.
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Ekstrand J, Boreus LO, Chateau P. 1981. No evidence of transfer of fluoride from plasma to breast milk. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) Sep 19;283(6294):761-2.
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Ekstrand J, Spak CJ, Falch J, Afseth J, Ulvestad H. 1984. Distribution of fluoride to human breast milk following intake of high dose. Caries Research 18(1):93-5.
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EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2010b. Fluoride: Exposure and Relative Source Contribution Analysis. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. 820-R-10 -015.

Fagin D. 2008. Second Thoughts About Fluoride. Scientific American, January 21. Excerpts at

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2005. Fluoride Levels in Food. http://fluoridealert.org/researchers/pesticide/fluoride-residues-food/

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2005. Interview with Dr. Arvid Carlsson. October 4. http://fluoridealert.org/content/carlsson-interview/

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2006. Harvard/Bone Cancer Files.

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2007. Index to High Levels of Fluoride in U.S. Drinking Water.

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011a. Comments on the U.S. EPA’s Report. Fluoride: Dose Response Analysis for Non-Cancer Effects. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 19 (revised April 21).

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011b. Comments on the U.S. EPA’s Report Fluoride: Exposure and Relative Source Contribution Analysis. Prepared for the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, April 19 (revised April 21).

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011c. Civil Rights Leaders call for halt to water fluoridation. Press Release, Fluoride Action Network. April 14.

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2012a. Tooth decay trends in fluoridated vs. unfluroidated countries. http://fluoridealert.org/studies/caries01/

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2012b. Nutrient deficiencies enhance fluoride toxicity. http://fluoridealert.org/studies/nutrition/

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2013a. Environmental Justice: The Oral Health Crisis. Fluoride Action Network.

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2013b. America’s Dental Care Crisis. Fluoride Action Network.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2015a. Fluoridegate: More revelations. May 20 bulletin.

FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2015b. Fluoride & IQ: The 44 Studies.
http://fluoridealert.org/studies/brain01/ FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2015. About dental amalgam fillings. Online as of September 24, 2015, at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DentalProducts/DentalAmalgam/ – or pdf at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/mercury.dental-amalgam.about_.online-sept2015.pdf

Fisher RL, Medcalf TW, Henderson MC. 1989. Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression. A case report and review. Archives of Internal Medicine 149(3):697-700. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/16402/

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Galletti P, Joyet G. 1958. Effect of fluorine on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. 18(10):1102-1110. October. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15432/

Gracia N. 2011. Fluoridation issues in GA. Email sent to Howard Koh (HHS/OASH) and Dora Hughes (HHS/IOS). This email was one of a large number of responses to FOIA requests from Dan Stockin and others.

Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. 2014. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. Lancet Neurology, Feb 15;13:330-38.

Grossman D. 1990. Fluoride’s Revenge: Has this cure, too, become a disease? The Progressive. http://fluoridealert.org/articles/progressive-1990/

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Harvard Crimson Magazine. 2006. At the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, One Professor’s Flouride Scandal Stinks. September 28.


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HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2015. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Federal Register, 80 FR 24936, Notice. May 1. http://fluoridealert.org/news/public-health-service-recommendation-for-fluoride-concentration-in-drinking-water-for-prevention-of-dental-caries/

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(This was a sidebar article in a larger article titled: Fluoridation of Water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years, http://fluoridealert.org/articles/hileman/)

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See live links for the report’s

119 state Oral Health Reports

Table 3