Water Fluoridation and Environmental Justice
Report by Fluoride Action Network
Submitted, September 25, 2015
To: Environmental Justice Interagency Working Committee
As the the pdf online document for this report was user unfriendly, the following are the live links for the references.
Ainsworth NJ. 1933. Mottled teeth. Brit. Dent. J., 55: 233-25- and 274-276.
Albert DA, Park K, Findley S, Mitchell DA, McManus JM. 2002. Dental caries among disadvantaged 3- to 4-year old children in northern Manhattan. Pediatric Dentistry, May;24(3):229-33. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/19188/
Alberts B, Shine K. 1998. Letter to Albert Burgstahler, Ph.D., and others, Professor of Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence; from Bruce Alberts, PhD, President, National Academy of Sciences and Kenneth Shine, President, Institute of Medicine. November 20. http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/alberts-shine.iom-1998.pdf
American Thyroid Association. http://www.thyroid.org/media-main/about-hypothyroidism/
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2003. Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. Public Health Service. September. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/atsdr.final_.toxprofile.2003.pdf
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2004. Interaction Profile for: Cyanide, Fluoride, Nitrate, and Uranium. May. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/atsdr-2004.interaction-profile.pdf
Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Del Razo LM. 2010. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions, Nov5;188(2):319-33.
Bassin EB. 2001. Association between fluoride in drinking water during growth and development and the incidence of osteosarcoma for children and adolescents. Doctoral Thesis, Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Excerpts: http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/bassin-2001.pdf
Bassin EB, Wypij D, Davis RB, Mittleman MA. 2006. Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes & Control May; 17(4):421-8.
Beltran E. 2007. Prevalence of Enamel Fluorosis Among 12–19 Year-Olds, U.S., 1999- 2004 (Abstract). Int. Assoc. Dental Res. Conference, March 2007.
Beltrán-Aguilar ED et al. 2005. Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002. MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. Aug 26;54(03);1-44. See Table 23. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm
Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker L, Dye B. 2010. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004. NCHS Data Brief No. 53. U.S. DHHS, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/beltran-2010.pdf
Black GV, McKay FS. 1916. An Investigation of Mottled Teeth: An Endemic Developmental Imperfection of the Enamel of the Teeth, Heretofore Unknown in the Literature of Dentistry. Dental Cosmos 58: 129–56, 477–84, 627–44, 781–92, 894–904.
Brunelle JA, Carlos JP. 1990. Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. Journal of Dental Research 69 Spec No:723-7; discussion 820-3. http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/nidr-dmfs.html
Butler WJ, Segreto V, Collins E. 1985. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities. American Journal of Public Health 75(12):1408-12.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1999. Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. (MMWR). 48(41): 933-940 October 22, 1999.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2010. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration, by State — National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004—2008. MMWR Mar 26;59(11);327-334. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5911a2.htm
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. Disparities in Oral Health. Division of Oral Health. Page updated: March 20, 2015. Online as of September 24, 2015, at http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth/oral_health_disparities/index.htm and a pdf of this page, http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/cdc.disparities-in-oral-health.sept2015.pdf
Chachra D, Limeback H, Willett TL, Grynpas MD. 2010. The long-term effects of water fluoridation on the human skeleton. Journal of Dental Research, Nov; 89(11):1219-1223.
Choi AL, Sun G, Zhang Y, Grandjean P. 2012. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, Oct; 120(10):1362-8. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17299/
Churchill HV. 1931. Occurrence of fluorides in some waters of the United States. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Sept;23:996.
Clean Water Portland (Oregon). 2013. Portland’s Vote Reflects Recent Scientific Findings on Fluoridation’s Risks. Press Release. May 22. http://fluoridealert.org/news/cwp_may22/
Colby SL, Ortman JM. 2014. Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060, Current Population Reports, P25-1143, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf
Counter SA, Buchanan LH. 2004. Mercury exposure in children: a review. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 198: 209–230. http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/cehsweb/kiddiekollege/documents/counter04_mercuryexpochildren.pdf
Dean HT. 1933. Distribution of Mottled Enamel in the United States. Public Health Reports 48:703-734.
Dean HT. 1934. Classification of Mottled Enamel Diagnosis. Journal of the American Dental Association 21:1421-1426.
Dean HT, Evolve F. 1935. Studies on the Minimal Threshold of the Dental Sign of Chronic Endemic Fluorosis (Mottled Enamel). Public Health Reports Dec 6;50:1719. Repr. 1721.
Dean HT, Dixon RM, Cohen C. 1935. Mottled Enamel in Texas. Public Health Reports 50:424-442.
Dean HT, Evolve E. 1936. Some Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health June 26:567.
Dean HT, Evolve E. 1937. Further Studies on the Minimal Threshold of Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis. Public Health Reports Sept. 10;52:1249. Repr. 1857.
Dean, HT, McKay FS, Elvove E. 1938. Mottled Enamel Survey of Bauxite, Ark., Ten Years After a Change in the Common Water Supply. Public Health Reports 53:1736-1748.
Dean, HT, Elvove E, Poston RF. 1939. Mottled Enamel in South Dakota. Public Health Reports 54:212-228.
Dean HT, McKay FS. 1939. Production of Mottled Enamel Halted by a Change in Common Water Supply. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health, 29: 590-596.
Dean HT, Arnold Jr. FA, Elvove E. 1941. Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children. Public Health Reports 56:761–92.
Dean HT, Arnold Jr. FA, Elvove E. 1942. Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4425 White Children, age 12-14 years, of 13 Cities in 4 States. Public Health Reports 57(32): 1155–79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf
Denbesten, P. and W. Li, 2011. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis. Monographs in Oral Science 22:81–96. Abstract
de Vrese M, Stegelmann A, Richter B, Fenselau S, Laue C, Schrezenmeir J. 2001. Probiotics: compensation for lactase insufficiency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Feb;73(2 Suppl):421S-429S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/2/421s.long
Donahue J. 2003. Presentation by Joyce Donahue, PhD, to the National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water Washington DC. August 12. http://fluoridealert.org/content/presentation-by-joyce-donahue-phd-to-the-national-research-council-committee-august-12-2003/
Dong Z, Wan C, Liu J. 1993. Determination of the contents of amino-acid and monoamine neurotransmitters in fetal brains from a fluorosis-endemic area. Journal of Guiyang Medical College 18(4):241-45. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15211/
Du L, Wan C, Cao X, Liu J. 1992. The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain. Chinese Journal of Pathology 21(4):218-20; republished in Fluoride 2008, 41(4):327–330. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15077/
Dye BA, Thornton-Evans G, Li X, Iafolla TJ. 2015. Dental Caries and Sealant Prevalence in Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011–2012. NCHS Data Brief, no. 191. National Center for Health Statistics. March. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/cdc.dye-20152.pdf
Egemen A, Kusin N, Aksit S, et al. 2002. A generally neglected threat in infant nutrition: incorrect preparation of infant formulae. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics Oct-Dec;44(4):298-303.
Ekstrand J, Boreus LO, Chateau P. 1981. No evidence of transfer of fluoride from plasma to breast milk. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) Sep 19;283(6294):761-2.
Ekstrand J, Spak CJ, Falch J, Afseth J, Ulvestad H. 1984. Distribution of fluoride to human breast milk following intake of high dose. Caries Research 18(1):93-5.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2010b. Fluoride: Exposure and Relative Source Contribution Analysis. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. 820-R-10 -015.
Fagin D. 2008. Second Thoughts About Fluoride. Scientific American, January 21. Excerpts at
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2005. Fluoride Levels in Food. http://fluoridealert.org/researchers/pesticide/fluoride-residues-food/
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2005. Interview with Dr. Arvid Carlsson. October 4. http://fluoridealert.org/content/carlsson-interview/
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2006. Harvard/Bone Cancer Files.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2007. Index to High Levels of Fluoride in U.S. Drinking Water.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011a. Comments on the U.S. EPA’s Report. Fluoride: Dose Response Analysis for Non-Cancer Effects. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 19 (revised April 21).
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011b. Comments on the U.S. EPA’s Report Fluoride: Exposure and Relative Source Contribution Analysis. Prepared for the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, April 19 (revised April 21).
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2011c. Civil Rights Leaders call for halt to water fluoridation. Press Release, Fluoride Action Network. April 14.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2012a. Tooth decay trends in fluoridated vs. unfluroidated countries. http://fluoridealert.org/studies/caries01/
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2012b. Nutrient deficiencies enhance fluoride toxicity. http://fluoridealert.org/studies/nutrition/
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2013a. Environmental Justice: The Oral Health Crisis. Fluoride Action Network.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2013b. America’s Dental Care Crisis. Fluoride Action Network.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2015a. Fluoridegate: More revelations. May 20 bulletin.
FAN (Fluoride Action Network). 2015b. Fluoride & IQ: The 44 Studies.
http://fluoridealert.org/studies/brain01/ FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2015. About dental amalgam fillings. Online as of September 24, 2015, at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DentalProducts/DentalAmalgam/ – or pdf at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/mercury.dental-amalgam.about_.online-sept2015.pdf
Fisher RL, Medcalf TW, Henderson MC. 1989. Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression. A case report and review. Archives of Internal Medicine 149(3):697-700. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/16402/
Fox MK, Cole N. 2004. Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low. Income Populations: Volume I, Food Stamp Program Participants and Nonparticipants. Chapter 2: Usual Intake of Food Energy and Nutrients E-FAN No. (04014-1) 393 pp. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. December.
Galletti P, Joyet G. 1958. Effect of fluorine on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. 18(10):1102-1110. October. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15432/
Gracia N. 2011. Fluoridation issues in GA. Email sent to Howard Koh (HHS/OASH) and Dora Hughes (HHS/IOS). This email was one of a large number of responses to FOIA requests from Dan Stockin and others.
Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. 2014. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. Lancet Neurology, Feb 15;13:330-38.
Grossman D. 1990. Fluoride’s Revenge: Has this cure, too, become a disease? The Progressive. http://fluoridealert.org/articles/progressive-1990/
Hart R, Feelemyer J, Gray C, Lodise T, Patel N, Wymer S, McNutt LA. 2009. Relationship between municipal water fluoridation and preterm birth in Upstate New York. Abstract presented at American Public Health Association, November 7-9. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17140/
Harvard Crimson Magazine. 2006. At the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, One Professor’s Flouride Scandal Stinks. September 28.
He H, Cheng Z, Liu W. 1989. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 4(3):136-138, 1989; republished in Fluoride 2008, 41(4):321–326. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15080/
Heller KE, Eklund SA, Burt BA. 1997. Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations. Journal of Public Health Dentistry Summer;57(3):136-143.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1991. Review of fluoride: benefits and risks. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. Public Health Service.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2000. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2011a. EPA and HHS Announce New Scientific Assessments and Actions on Fluoride. Joint press release with DHHS and EPA. January 7. http://fluoridealert.org/content/epa-hhs-press-release-2011/
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2011b. Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Federal Register, 76 FR 2383, Notice. January 13. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2011/01/13/2011-637/proposed-hhs-recommendation-for-fluoride-concentration-in-drinking-water-for-prevention-of-dental#footnote-5
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2015. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Federal Register, 80 FR 24936, Notice. May 1. http://fluoridealert.org/news/public-health-service-recommendation-for-fluoride-concentration-in-drinking-water-for-prevention-of-dental-caries/
Hileman B. 1988. Some studies indicate that dental fluorosis is increasing. Chemical & Engineering News. http://fluoridealert.org/articles/hileman-sidebar02/
(This was a sidebar article in a larger article titled: Fluoridation of Water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years, http://fluoridealert.org/articles/hileman/)
Hong L, Levy S, Warren J, Broffitt B, Cavanaugh J. 2006a. Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars. Caries Research 40(6):494-500. Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17063020
Hong L, Levy S, Broffitt B, Warren J, Kanellis M, Wefel J, Dawson D. 2006b. Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology Aug;34(4):299-309.
Hunt CD and Stoecker BJ. 1996. Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints, and paradigms for boron, chromium and fluoride dietary recommendations. The Journal of Nutrition Sept;126(9 Suppl):2441S-2451S. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/126/9_Suppl/2441S.full.pdf
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, pps. 288–313. http://www.nap.edu/read/5776/chapter/1
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Improving Access to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable and Underserved Populations. Committee on Oral Health Access to Services; Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council of the National Academies. National Academies Press. Washington DC. Note: This study was supported by Contract No. HHSH25034002T between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Contract No. 15328 between the National Academy of Sciences and the California HealthCare Foundation. http://www.nap.edu/read/13116/chapter/1
Ismail AI, Tellez M, Sohn W. 2006. Severity of dental caries among African American children in Detroit. Presented at the 35th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the AADR (American Association for Dental Research), Orlando, Florida. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/22805/
Jacob M. 2012. A Prevention Agenda to Improve Children’s Oral Health, Florida Oral Health Conference. The Pew Center on the States. August 23. PowerPoint, page 33.
Jaquiss N. 2013.Visits from the Tooth Fairy. Willamette Week (Portland, Oregon). April 24. http://fluoridealert.org/news/visits-from-tooth-fairy/
Jones RL, Homa DM, Meyer PA, Brody DJ, Caldwell KL, Pirkle JL, Brown MJ. 2009. Trends in Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Testing Among US Children Aged 1 to 5 Years, 1988-2004. http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/metals1.pdf
Kaste LS, Selwitz RH, Oldakowski RJ, Brunelle JA, Winn DM, Brown LJ. 1996. Coronal caries in the primary and permanent dentition of children and adolescents 1-17 years of age: United States 1988-91. Journal of Dental Research 75 Spec No:631-41.
Kumar JV, Swango PA. 1999. Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 27(3):171-80. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17922/
Kumar JV, Swango PA. 2000. Low birth weight and dental fluorosis: is there an association? Journal of Public Health Dentistry 60(3):167-71. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17923/
Langlois D. 2014. The great fluoride debate. Sun Times (Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada). January 31. Online at http://www.owensoundsuntimes.com/2014/01/30/the-great-fluoride-debate; pdf at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/langlois-sun-times.owen-sound.jan31.2014.pdf
Leite GAS, Sawan RMM, Teófilo JM, et al. 2011. Exposure to lead exacerbates dental fluorosis. Archives of Oral Biology Jul;56(7):695-702. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15122/
Li Y, Liang C, Slemenda CW, Ji R, et al. 2001. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 16(5):932-9. May.
Lillie Center. 2011. Atlanta Civil Rights leaders call for halt to water fluoridation. Media Release from The Lillie Center, Inc. April 13.
Lin FF, Aihaiti, Zhao HX, Lin J, Jiang JY, Malmaiti, and Aiken. 1991. The relationship of a low-iodine and high fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter. January. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/14770/
Littleton J. 1999. Paleopathology of skeletal fluorosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 109(4):465-483. August.
Liu ?H, Niu R, Wang J, He Y, Wang J. 2008.?Changes caused by fluoride and lead in energy metabolic enzyme activities in the reproductive system of male offspring rats. Fluoride, July?Sept;41(3):184-91. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/15112/
Luke J. 1997. The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. PhD Dissertation, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, UK. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17954/
Luke J. 2001. Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Research Mar-Apr; 35(2):125-8. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17953/
Maas RP, Patch SC, Christian AM, Coplan MJ. 2007. Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts. Neurotoxicology Sep;28(5):1023-31. From Table 3, p 1029. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17217/
Maddox C. 2003. Race Matters: Disparities in African-American Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. http://forms.gradsch.psu.edu/diversity/mcnair/2003/maddox.pdf
Maier FJ. 1962. Memorandum to Chief, Disease Control Branch, Division of Dental Public Health and Resources, from Sanitary Engineer, Division of Dental Public Health and Resources. January 10. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/1962_01_10_Blacks_Fluorosis.pdf
Maier FJ. 1950. Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies. Paper presented on October 17, 1950 at Southwest Section meeting, New Orleans, La. Journal of the American Water Works Association, Dec;42(12):1120-1132.
Maier FJ. 1947. Methods of Removing Fluorides from Water. American Journal of Public Health 37(12):1559-1566. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1624276/?page=1
Malin AJ, Till C. 2015. Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association. Environmental Health, February 27. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/21323/
Marier JR, Rose D, Boulet M. 1963. Accumulation of skeletal fluoride and its implications. Archives of Environmental Health, May;6:664-71.
Marthaler TM. 2000. Salt fluoridation in Europe, comparisons with Latin America. Paper available online, http://www.sph.emory.edu/PAMM/SALT2000/marthaler.pdf
Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. 2010. Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 70(3):234-40. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17921/
Massler M, Schour I. (1952). Relation of endemic dental fluorosis to malnutrition. Journal of the American Dental Association, Feb; 44(2):156-165.
Masters RD, Coplan M. 1999. Water treatment with silicofluorides and lead toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Science 56:435-449.
Masters RD, Coplan M. 2001. Guest editorial: Silicofluorides and fluoridation. Fluoride 34(3):161-164. http://www.fluorideresearch.org/343/files/FJ2001_v34_n3_p161-164.pdf
McGuire SM, Vanable ED, McGuire MH, Buckwalter JA, Douglass CW. 1991. Is there a link between fluoridated water and osteosarcoma? Journal of the American Dental Association 122:39-45. Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2022786
McKay FS. 1928. The Relation of Mottled Enamel to Caries. Journal of the American Dental Association 15(8): 1429–37.
McLeod DSA, Caturegli P, Cooper DS, Matos P, Hutfless S. 2014. Variation in Rates of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease by Race/Ethnicity in US Military Personnel. Journal of the American Medical Association. 311(15):1563-1565. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.285606. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1860451
Mesh A. 2013. Portland NAACP opposes fluoridation. Willamette Week, April 17. http://fluoridealert.org/news/portland-naacp-opposes-fluoridation/
MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report). 2013. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 1–5 Years — United States, 1999–2010. Apr 5; 62(13);245-248. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6213a3.htm
Mullen J. 2005. History of water fluoridation. British Dental Journal 199:1–4. http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v199/n7s/full/4812863a.html
Murray MM, Wilson DC. 1948. Fluorosis and nutrition in Morocco; dental studies in relation to environment. British Dental Journal 84(5):97-100.
Newman A. 2014. Feds: Blacks suffer most from fluoride, fluoridate anyway. New American. October 16. http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/health-care/item/19317-feds-blacks-suffer-most-from-fluoride-fluoridate-anyway
Nielsen FH. 1996. How should dietary guidance be given for mineral elements with beneficial actions or suspected of being essential? J. Nutrition 126: 2377S–2385S. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/126/9_Suppl/2377S.full.pdf
Niu R, Sun Z, Wang J, et al. 2008. Effects of fluoride and lead on locomotor behavior and expression of Nissl Body in brain of adult rat. Fluoride 41(4):276-82.
Niu R, Sun Z, Cheng Z, et al. 2009. Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 28(2):254-58. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17909/
NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1977. Effects of fluoride on human health: nervous system. In: Fluorides. Committee on Biological Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. Washington, D.C. https://books.google.com/books/about/Fluorides.html?id=M2crAAAAYAAJ
NRC (National Research Council). 1951. Report of the ad hoc Committee on Fluoridation of Water Supplies. Division of Medical Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. November 29.
NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Food and Nutrition Board. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, p. 235.
NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Health effects of ingested fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington DC. Pages 44-45. http://www.nap.edu/read/2204/chapter/1
NRC (National Research Council of the National Academies). 2006. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press. Washington DC. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11571/fluoride-in-drinking-water-a-scientific-review-of-epas-standards
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1990. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Fluoride (CAS No. 7681-49-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C371 Mice (Drinking Water Studies). Technical Report Series, No. 393. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/ntp-1990.pdf
Pandit CG, Raghavachari TN, Rao DS, Krishnamurthi V. 1940. Endemic fluorosis in South India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 28:533-558.
Panov VG, Katsnelson BA, Varaksin AN, et al. 2015. Further development of mathematical description for combined toxicity: A case study of lead–fluoride combination. Toxicology Reports 2:297-307. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/panov-2015.pdf
Parraga IM, Weber MA, Engel A, Reeb KG, Lerner E. 1988. Feeding patterns of urban black infants. Journal of the American Dietetic Association Jul;88(7):796-800.
Peckham S, Lowery D, Spencer S. 2015. Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water. Journal of Community Health & Epidemiology, February 24.
Presidential Executive Order 12898 of February 11, 1994. Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. Federal Register 59:12. February 16, 1994. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/fr.ej_.2-16-94.pdf
Rocha-Amador D, Navarro M, Trejo-Acevedo A, Carrizales L, Perez-Maldonado I, D?az-Barriga F, Calderon J. 2009. Use of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test for neurotoxicity evaluation of mixtures in children. NeuroToxicology 30: 1149-1154.
Russell AL. 1962. Dental fluorosis in Grand Rapids during the seventeenth year of fluoridation. Journal American Dental Association. 65:608-12.
Sanders B, 2012. Dental Crisis in America. The need to expand access. A report from Chairman Bernie Sanders, Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions. February 20. http://www.sanders.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/DENTALCRISIS.REPORT.pdf
Sawan RMM, Leite GAS, Saraiva MCP, Barbosa F Jr., Tanus-Santos JE, Gerlach RF. 2010. Fluoride increases lead concentrations in whole blood and in calcified tissues from lead-exposed rats. Toxicology 271(1-2):21-26.
Scrimshaw NS, Murray EB. 1988. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48(4 Suppl):1079-1159. Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3140651
Sener Y, Tosun G, Kahvecloglu F, Gokalp A, Koc H. 2007. Fluoride levels of human plasma and breast milk. European Journal of Dentistry 1:21–24. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/22783/
Smith MC, Lantz EM, Smith HV. 1931.The Cause of Mottled Enamel, A Defect of Human Teeth. Technical Bulletin (University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station) No. 32.
Sohn W, Heller KH, Burt BA. 2001. Fluid consumption related to climate among children in the United States. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 61(2):99-106.
Sohn W, Noh H, Burt BA. 2009. Fluoride ingestion is related to fluid consumption patterns. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Fall;69(4):267-75.
Stein L. 2008. Warning: A little water can hurt babies—So don’t dilute infant formula. Scientific American Blogs, December 4.
Stevens AL. 1995. Lead Poisoning: The Plague of America’s Inner Cities. USA TODAY, July. https://www.questia.com/read/1G1-17321004/lead-poisoning-the-plague-of-america-s-inner-cities
Stockin D. 2015. Freedom of Information Act responses. http://nebula.wsimg.com/51323d3b31e96a0ae2c62fba885641b0?AccessKeyId=A4D71DDB38C1C74A9260&disposition=0&alloworigin=1
Teotia SPS, Teotia M, Singh DP, Anand V, Singh CV, Tomar S. 1984. Environmental fluoride and metabolic bone disease: an epidemiological study (fluoride and nutrition interactions). Fluoride. 17(1):14-22.
Sutton PRN. 1959. Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 1st ed. Australia: Melbourne University Press.
Sutton PRN. 1960. Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 2nd ed. Australia: Melbourne University Press.
Sutton PRN. 1996. The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation. Lorne, Australia: A Factual Book, Kurunda Pty. Ltd.
Thiessen K. 2011. Comments on EPA’s Fluoride Risk Assessment and Relative Source Contribution Documents. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at the request of the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology. April 19. http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/thiessen.4-19-11.pdf
Thiessen K. 2015. Comments on the HHS recommendation released April 27, 2015 (Public Health Reports, July-August 2015, Vol. 130). May 5.
Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. 2009. Report on Water Fluoridation. Transportation & Works, Environment division. Report No. 2009.123. July 20. http://fluoridealert.org/news/thunder-bays-report-on-water-fluoridation/
U.S. Renal Data System. 2005. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
U.S. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for the Prevention of Dental Caries. April 2015.
Velu H. 1931. Dystrophie Dentaire des Mammiferes des Zones Phopshates (Darmous) et Fluorose Chronique. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, Nov; 58:750.
Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, Li J, Sang ZP, Zhang XD, et al. (2007). Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children’s IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr; 115(4):643-7. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17867/
Warren JJ, Kanellis MJ, Levy SM. 1999. Fluorosis of the primary dentition: what does it mean for permanent teeth? Journal of the American Dental Association March;30(3):347-56.
WBUR (Boston Radio). 2015. Two views on water fluoridation: Grandjean vs Pollick. http://fluoridealert.org/news/massachusetts-two-views-on-water-fluoridation-grandjean-vs-pollick/
Weno K. 2015. Statement of the evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of fluoridation. Director, Division of Oral Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 2. http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/cdc-april-2015.pdf
Westendorf J. 1975. The kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the influence of fluoride and fluoride complexes on the permeability of erythrocyte membranes. Ph.D. Dissertation in Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany. http://www.dartmouth/~masters/West7.doc
Williams JE, Zwemer JD. 1990. Community water fluoride levels, preschool dietary patterns, and the occurrence of fluoride enamel opacities. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Summer;50(4):276-81. Abstract: http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/16880/
Xiang Q, Liang Y, Chen L, Wang C, Chen B, Chen X, Zhou M. 2003a. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 36(2):84-94. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/17868/
Xiang Q, Liang Y, Zhou M, Zang H. 2003b. Blood lead of children in Wamiao-Xinhuai intelligence study (Letter). Fluoride 36(3):198-199. http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/14801/
Yu Y, Yang W, Dong Z, Wan C, Zhang J, Liu J, Xiao K, Huang Y, Lu B. 1996. Neurotransmitter and receptor changes in the brains of fetuses from areas of endemic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 15:257-259; re-published in Fluoride 2008, 41(2):134–138.
See live links for the report’s