Fluoride Action Network

“School Fluoridators” – the dosing of U.S. children with fluoride at school

By Ellen Connett | Fluoride Action Network | May 9, 2015 | Updated June 28, 2016

The fluoridation of public drinking water first began in the U.S. in January 1945 in Grand Rapids, Michigan. To put this into a U.S. perspective, World War 2 was still raging and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had not yet occurred.

“Fluoridator” was the term for the device that injected fluoride into a school’s water system. Very little has been written about this miserable “public-health” scheme. It appears it began in the late 1960s and ended sometime in the late 1990s. As far as we know there has been no acknowledgement of its history in the many schools that installed these devices. There have been some studies that reported overdosing with these devices, see for example Hoffman et al. (1980) and Vogt et al. (1982).

The schools that are listed below came from the Fluoridation Census 1992. Not all schools are listed and not all of the schools have a “start date.”

The “optimal level” of fluoride used in fluoridation schemes ranged between 0.7 – 1.2 mg/L and this was dependent on the annual average of maximum daily air temperature in each state. The higher the air temperature, the less fluoride was put into the drinking water. The “optimal fluoride” level was expected to reduce dental caries and minimize the risk of dental fluorosis (p iv, Fluoridation Census 1992).

For schools, the “optimal level” for fluoride was “4.5 times the optimal fluoride level for communities(p iv, Fluoridation Census 1992).

However, on April 27, 2015, the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) removed air temperature as the basis for “optimal fluoride” levels in community fluoridation schemes. HHS stated

Recent data do not show a convincing relationship between water intake and outdoor air temperature. Thus, recommendations for water fluoride concentrations that differ based on outdoor temperature are unnecessary.

Common sense would suggest the opposite – that the higher the air temperatures, the more fluid one would drink. In one study on children in Texas, the authors found this to be the case: “Children from homes which had air conditioning had a lower prevalence of mottling…” (Butler et al, 1985). The authors of the 2006 report of the National Research Council of the National Academies noted that one high fluoride intake group are “people living in very hot or dry climates” (page 30).

It appears that HHS needed some explanation to drop the levels of fluoride to 0.7 ppm for fluoridation schemes in their effort to reduce the gross prevalence of dental fluorosis in young teenagers, while staving off the inevitable end of fluoridation.

See also,
• 1995, Recommendations for fluoridated school public water supply system
• 1976, A Manual for Rural School Fluoridation (particularly for the state of Kentucky). By LW Sprouse & J Brooks for the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service.

Not all schools are listed below

School

Fluoride Level

ALASKA

Beringst SD – Shishmaref School
Nome County
5.0 ppm
Beringst SD – St Michael School
Nome County
Start Date January 1980 
5.0 ppm
Beringst SD – Stebbins School
Nome County
5.0 ppm
Unalaska School
Aleution Islands
5.0 ppm

INDIANA

Atwood Elementary
Kosciusko County
Start Date 1985
4.5 ppm
Blue River Elem
Henry County
Start Date 1977
 4.5 ppm
Boone Grove School
Porter County
Start Date 1978
 4.5 ppm
Brummitt Elem
Porter County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Carroll Elementary
Carroll County
 4.5 ppm
College Corner Elem
Madison County
Start Date 1977
 4.5 ppm
Concord Ox-Bow Elem
Elkhart County
 4.5 ppm
Concord South Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Coolspring Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1979
 4.5 ppm
Cowan Elem
Delaware County
Start Date 1977
 4.5 ppm
Critchfield, FW Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1978
 4.5 ppm
Cross Cliff Elem
Bartholomew County
Start Date 1977
 4.5 ppm
Cumberland Road Elem
Hamilton County
Start Date 1980
 4.5 ppm
Cunningham Elem
Madison County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Daleville Elem
Delaware County
Start Date 1977
 4.5 ppm
Dayton Elem
Tippencanoe County
Start Date 1974
4.5 ppm
Desoto Elem
Delaware County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Durbin Elem
Hamilton County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
East Elem
Madison County
4.5 ppm
Eastlawn School
White County
4.5 ppm
Eden Elem
Hancock County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Eggleston Elem
St Joseph County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Eminence Elem
Morgan County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Fall Creek Elem
Hamilton County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Galana Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1990
4.5 ppm
Green Twp Elem
Morgan County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Greene Elem & Middle
St Joseph County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Harley-Hoblen Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Harrison Elem
Delaware County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Hershey Elem
Tippecanoe County
4.5 ppm
Honeyville Elem
LaGrange County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Hudson Lake Elem
LaPorte County
Start Date 1990
4.5 ppm
Indian Trail Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1992
4.5 ppm
Jackson Elem
Porter County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Jackson Elem
Madison County
Start Date 1981
4.5 ppm
Jefferson Elem
Elkhart
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Jimtown Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
John Wood Elem
Lake County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Killbuck Elem
Madison County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Kingsbury Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
Lake Village Elem
Newton County
Start Date 1974
4.5 ppm
Laville Elem
St Joseph County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Leach Elem
Madison County
Start Date 1981
4.5 ppm
Leesburg School
Kosciusko County
Start Date 1985
4.5 ppm
Liberty Elem
Porter County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Lincoln Elem
Newton County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Maxwell Middle
Hancock County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Monterry Elem
Marshall County
Start Date 1991
4.5 ppm
Morgan Twp School
Porter County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
New Paris Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1992
4.5 ppm
North Madison Elem
Morgan County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
North Miami Elem
Miami County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Oregon-Davis School
Starke County
4.5 ppm
Perry Elem
Delaware County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Pine Elem
Porter County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Pine Village Elem
Warren County
Start Date  1973
4.5 ppm
Pleasant Lake Elem
Steuben County
Start Date 1969
4.5 ppm
SE Fountain School
Fountain County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Seeger & Warren Central School
Warren County
4.5 ppm
South Central
La Porte County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Springfield Elem
La Porte County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Triton Elem
Shelby County
Start Date 1976
4.5 ppm
Triton Middle
Shelby County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Union Center Elem
Porter County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Union Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1979
4.5 ppm
Union Middle
Porter County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Warren Elem
St Joseph County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Washington Twp School
Porter County
Start Date 1977
4.5 ppm
Wes-Del Middle
Delaware County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
West Central Elem
Pulaski County
Start Date 1982
4.5 ppm
Westwood Elem
Jasper County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Winfield Elem
Lake County
Start Date 1974
4.5 ppm
Wood, John Elem
Lake County
Start Date 1978
4.5 ppm
York Elem
Elkhart County
Start Date 1984
1.0 ppm

KENTUCKY

Arlie Boggs Elem School
Letcher County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Arnette, John T Elem School
Magoffin County
Start Date 1974
4 ppm
Beaver Creek Elem School
Knott County
Start Date1974
4 ppm
Beckham Bates Elem
Letchner County
4 ppm
Beckham Combs Elem School
Knott County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Beech Fork Elem
Leslie County
4 ppm
Big Creek Elem
Leslie County
4 ppm
Big Creek Elem Sch
Perry County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Big Creek Elem School
Cray County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Big Sinking Elem School
Wayne County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Black Mt Elem School
Harlan County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Blaine Elem School
Lawrence County
Start Date 1977
4 ppm
Brushy Elem School
Pike County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Buckhorn Elem School
Perry County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Campbells Br Elem School
Letcher County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Caney Creek Elem
Knott County
4 ppm
Carlisle
Carlisle County
Start Date 1979
4 ppm
Carr Creek Elem School
Knott County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Carter Elem School
Carter County
Start Date 1977
4 ppm
Cordia Elementary/High School
Knott County
4 ppm
Cowan Elem School
Letchner County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Cranks Elem School
Harlan County
Start Date 1980
4 ppm
Crockett Elem School
Morgan County
Start Date 1977
4 ppm
Cuba Elem School
Graves County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Cubbage Elem School
Bell County
Start Date 1979
4 ppm
Douglas Elem School
Casey County
Start Date 1977
4 ppm
Emmalena Elem School
Knott County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Ezel Elem School
Morgan County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Garrett Elem School
Casey County
Start Date 1977
4 ppm
Hacker Elem School
Clay County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Hayes Lewis Elem School
Leslie County
Start Date1973
4 ppm
Hemphill Elem School
Letcher County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Holmes Mill Elem School
Harlan County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Isonville Elem School
Elliott County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Jackson Rowe Elem School
Pike County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Jones Fork Elem School
Knott County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Kingdom Come
Letcher County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Leatherwood Elem School
Perry County
Start Date 1980
4 ppm
Letcher School
Letcher County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Lost  Creek School
Perry County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Majestic School
Pike County
Start Date 1974
4 ppm
Martha Jane Potter Elem School
Letchre County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Melvin Elem School
Floyd County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Milner Elem
Breckinridge County
4 ppm
Nevisdale
Whitley County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Nicholas Elem School
Bullitt County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Nicholas Elem School
Bullitt County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Oldtown Elem School
Greenup County
Start Date 1979
4 ppm
Osborne Elem School
Floyd County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Phelps Elem & High School
Pike County
Start Date 1974
4 ppm
Poplar Creek Elem School
Whitley County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Powersburg Elem School
Wayne County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Red Bird Elem
Clay County
4 ppm
Robinson Elem School
Perry County
Start Date 1974
4 ppm
Rocky Branch Elem School
Wayne County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Rosspoint Elem School
Harlan County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Rousseau Elem School
Breathitt County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Sycamore Elem School
Pike County
Start Date 1976
4 ppm
Turner Elem School
Breathitt County
Start Date 1975
4 ppm
Verda Elem School
Harlan County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Viper Elem School
Perry County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Wallins Elem School
Harlen County
Start Date 1973
4 ppm
Willard Elem
Perry County
4 ppm
Wrigleu Elem School
Morgan County
Start Date 1973

MINNESOTA

Afton-Lakeland School
Washington County
Start Date January 1988
5.4 ppm
Alborn Elem School
St Louis County
Start Date November 1986
5.4 ppm
Albrook School
St Louis County
Start Date November 1986
5.4 ppm
Cotton School
St Louis County
Start Date January 1988
5.4 ppm
Marine Elem School
Washington County
Start Date January 1988
 5.4 ppm

NORTH CAROLINA

Bee Log
Yancey County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Bethel Elem
Watauga County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Bethel Hill Elem
Person County
Start Date January 1980
4.5 ppm
Boomer-Ferguson
Wilkes County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Buladean
Mitchell County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Cameron
Moore County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Carver County
Vance County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Clearmont
Yancey County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Clement
Sampson County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Copeland
Surry County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Courtney
Yadkin County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
East Duplin
Duplin County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Fariview Elem
Jackson County
Start Date January 1981
4.5 ppm
Fall Creek
Yadkin County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Fines Creek
Haywood County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Fleetwood
Ashe County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Forbush
Yadkin County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Francisco Elem
Stokes County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Germanton Elem
Stokes Elem
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Glade Creek
Alleghany County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Grady, B F
Duplin County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Halls Piney Grove
Sampson County
Start Date January 1970
4.5 ppm
Hargrove
Sampson County
Start Date January 1970
4.5 ppm
Helena Elem
Person County
Start Date January 1981
4.5 ppm
Hobbton
Sampson County
Start Date January 1979
4.5 ppm
Low Gap
Surry County
Start Date January 1982
4.5 ppm
Mabel
Watauga County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
 Micaville
Yancey County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Midway
Sampson County
Start Date January 1976
4.5 ppm
Monroeton
Rockingham County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Mountain Park
Surry County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Mt Pleasant
Wilkes County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
New Hope Elem
Vance County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Oak Lane Elem
Person County
Start Date January 1981
4.5 ppm
Pine Hall Elerm
Stokes County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Pinebrook
Davie County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Piney Creek
Alleghany County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Reynolds, Nancy
Stokes County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Riverside Elem
Avery County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Riverview
Ashe County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Ronda-Clingman
Wilkes County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Rose Hill/Magnolia
Duplin County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Rosman Elem
Transylvania County
Start Date January 1980
4.5 ppm
Sandhills Farmlife
Moore County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Sandy Ridge Elem
Stokes County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Shoals Elem
Surry County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Smokey Mt Elem
Jackson County
Start Date January 1981
4.5 ppm
South Toe
Yancey County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
Sunnyview
Polk County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Tipton Hill
Mitchell County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Topsail Middle
Pender County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Topsail Primary
Pender County
Start Date January 1977
4.5 ppm
Traphill
Wilkes County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
Union Elem
Sampson County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Valle Crucis
Watauga County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Wallace
Duplin County
Start Date January 1975
4.5 ppm
West Hoke
Hoke County
Start Date January 1974
4.5 ppm
West Yadkin
Yadkin County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Westfield
Surry County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
White Plains
Surry County
Start Date January 1972
4.5 ppm
Williamsburg
Rockingham County
Start Date January 1973
4.5 ppm
Woodland Elem
Person County
Start Date January 1980
4.5 ppm

VIRGINIA

Schools not easily identifiable

Cumberland Elem
Cumberland County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Cumberland High
Cumberland County
Start Date 1980
4.5 ppm
Lee Jackson
Matthews County
4.5 ppm
Mathews Intermediate
Matthews County
4.5 ppm
Nansemond Correctional
Isle of Wight County
3.4 ppm
Natural Level

VERMONT

Charlotte
Chittenden County
Start Date September 1977
4.9 ppm
Chelsea
Orange County
Start Date November 1973
4.9 ppm
Fairfax
Franklin County
Start Date May 1973
4.9 ppm
Fayston
Washington County
Start Date November 1977
4.9 ppm
Georgia
Franklin County
Start Date August 1977
4.9 ppm
Huntington
Chittenden County
Start Date January 1974
4.9 ppm
North Hero
Grand Isle County
Start Date June 1974
4.9  ppm
Pownal
Bennington County
Start Date November 1978
4.9 ppm
Saxtons River
Windham County
4.9 ppm
Sunderland
Bennington County
Start Date August 1989
4.9 ppm
Tunbridge
Orange County
Start Date November 1973
4.9 ppm
Underhill Center
Chittenden County
Start Date January 1973
4.9 ppm
Vershire
Orange County
Start Date March 1974
4.9 ppm
Waitsfield
Washington County
Start Date March 1974
4.9 ppm
Warren
Washington County
Start Date April 1974
4.9 ppm
Washington
Orange County
Start Date June 1973
4.9 ppm
West Fairlee
Orange County
Start Date November 1973
4.9 ppm

VIRGINIA

Haynesville Correctional
Richmond County
1.9 ppm
Natural Level
Nansemond Correctional
Isle of Wight
3.4 ppm
Natural Level

WEST VIRGINIA

Geary School
Roane County
4.5 ppm

 

The following are naturally-occurring levels in the school’s drinking water:

Naturally-occurring fluoride levels in some schools

School

Fluoride Level

SOUTH CAROLINA

(These are NATURALLY-OCCURRING LEVELS)

Baptist Hill School
Charleston County
2.1 ppm
Natural Level
Bells Elem
Colleton County
1.2 ppm
Natural Level
C C Blaney Sch
Charleston County
1.9 ppm
Natural Level
Cainhoy School
Berkeley County
1.1 ppm
Natural Level
Cottageville Day Care
Colleton County
1.6 ppm
Natural Level
Cottageville Elem
Colleton County
1.4 ppm
Natural Level
Deep Creek School
Georgetown County
2.3 ppm
Natural Level
G S Baptist Sch
Horry County
4.0 ppm
Natural Level
G S Floyds Elem
Horry County
0.8 ppm
Natural Level
G S Floyds Mid
Horry County
1.2 ppm
Natural Level
Givhans Elem
Dorchester County
0.8 ppm
Natural Level
Green Pond Day Care
Colleton County
1.3 ppm
Natural Level
H Timrod Elem
Florence County
1.0 ppm
Natural Level
Hannah Elem School
Florence County
1.3 ppm
Natural Level
Ivenia Brown Elem
Colleton County
0.9 ppm
Natural Level
Jack and Jill Nursery
Horry County
1.6 ppm
Natural Level
Lakewood Sch
Horry County
4.8 ppm
Natural Level
LCCA Head Start
Colleton County
1.6 ppm
Natural Level
Lobeco Head Start
Beaufort County
1.1 ppm
Natural Level
Neyles Day Care
Colleton County
1.4 ppm
Natural Level
St Paul Academy
Charleston County
2.8 ppm
Natural Level
St Paul Primary
Clarendon County
0.8 ppm
Natural Level
Socastee Elem
Horry County
3.6 ppm
Natural Level
Waccamaw Adult Ed
Horry County
2.2 ppm
Natural Level
Whitesville Sch
Berkeley County
2.7 ppm
Natural Level

VIRGINIA

Schools not identifiable

Christchurch School
Middlesex County
2.1 ppm
Natural Level
Haynesville Correctional
Richmond County
2.1 ppm
Natural Level
Lancaster CT HS
Lancaster County
2.8 ppm
Natural Level
Nansemond Correctional
Isle of Wight County
3.4 ppm
Natural Level

VIRGINIA

Haynesville Correctional
Richmond County
1.9 ppm
Natural Level
Nansemond Correctional
Isle of Wight
3.4 ppm
Natural Level