• Impact of F, Cd & Pb on human health is related to the various routes of exposure.
  • Cd, Pb & F levels in human blood was higher around the phosphate plant in Togo.
  • Cd, Pb &F content in human blood declined while moving away from phosphate plant.
  • Biochemical parameters revealed renal & liver disease risk to people near factory.
  • High F along with biochemical parameters signals risk of renal & hepatic diseases.

Togo’s phosphate processing plant at Kpeme discharges waste, containing Cd, Pb, and fluoride, into the sea and on the soil. Heavy metals toxicity on kidneys and the liver has been studied. However, fluoride toxicity on these organs remains to be investigated. The present study deals with the variation in renal and hepatic functioning parameters due to fluoride, Cd and Pb. Totally, 350 volunteers were recruited from five different localities around this phosphate processing plant for sample collection. Cd and Pb contents in blood samples were determined by spectrophotometry and fluoride by the titanium chloride method. Biochemical parameters were measured using Biolab kits. The pollutant contents were elevated in polluted areas where ASAT, ALAT, creatinine, and urea increased, and total protein decreased. Correlation and multivariate tests showed that fluoride is related to the various pathologies mentioned. PCA revealed that phosphate processing in Togo is a source of renal and hepatic toxicity.

Graphical abstract