Fluoride Action Network

Data on fluoride contents in groundwater of Bushehr province, Iran

Source: Data in Brief - 17:1158-1162. | April 1st, 2018 | By Dobaradaran S, Khorsandd M, Hayatid A, Moradzadehe R, Pouryousefie M, Ahmadie M.
Location: Iran


In this article, we measured the levels of fluoride in groundwater. The samples were taken from groundwater in Bushehr’s province, Iran. After the collection of samples, the concentration levels of fluoride were determined by the standard SPADNS method using spectrometer. The mean concentration levels of fluoride in water of all stations were higher than the WHO drinking water guideline. Microsoft Office Excel 2016 was used for calculation of mean values. The mean concentration level of fluoride instatement were in the range of 1.52 to 3.64 mgl-1.

Value of the data

  • The maximum and minimum daily intake of fluoride based on 2 l daily water on consumption reached 3.04 and 7.88 mg day-1 respectively.
  • The data presented here showed the Removal of high concentration of fluoride (F) from drinking water is necessary in this region and measures should be taken to supply water after removal of fluoride for the betterment of the livelihood in the area.
  • Data shown here may serve as benchmarks for other groups working or studying in the field of pollution control, aquatic ecosystem.

1. Data

In the data, as shown in Table 1, the mean±SD concentration levels of fluoride in groundwater samples in all station samples were 2.08 ± 0.7 mgl-1. The lowest and highest F concentration levels were 1.52 mgl-1 and 3.94 mgl-1 in samples S19 (Kangan) and S4 (Tange eram) respectively. As shown in Table 2, the concentration levels of fluoride in water of all stations were higher than the WHO and USA, UK, Canada drinking water guidelines for fluoride. As seen Table 1, it shows that the mean value daily intakes of fluoride based on 2 l daily drinking water consumption reach 0.36 mg day-1with a range of 0–0.96 mg day-1.

Table 1. Concentrations of fluoride (mgl-1) in groundwater samples of measured stations (maximum values are expressed as bold italics; minimum values as bold underlined).

Station Location Fluoride concentration (mg?l-1) Daily intake (mg?day-1) X Y
S1 Anarestan 2.1 4.2 605,849 3,101,575
S2 Bushkan 3.18 6.36 569,098 3,189,677
S3 Tange eram 3.66 7.32 550,690 3,225,304
S4 Tange eram 3.94 7.88 550,744 3,252,570
S5 Khormooj 1.83 3.66 537,788 3,168,812
S6 Khormooj 1.76 3.52 538,788 3,169,065
S7 Khormooj 2.44 4.88 538,661 3,169,531
S8 Khormooj 2.44 4.88 540,084 3,173,759
S9 Khormooj 1.71 3.42 538,650 3,169,533
S10 Dayyer 1.54 3.08 595,733 3,088,740
S11 Shonbe 1.84 3.68 575,367 3,141,132
S12 Shonbe 1.72 3.44 575,297 3,141,223
S13 Kaki 1.63 3.26 552,561 3,136,027
S14 Kaki 1.61 3.22 552,876 3,136,136
S15 Kaki 1.62 3.24 552,719 3,135,654
S16 Kaki 1.63 3.26 552,845 3,135,284
S17 Kalame 1.72 3.44 546,346 3,197,877
S18 Kangan 1.53 3.06 601,058 3,084,484
S19 Kangan 1.52 3.04 604,915 3,080,492
S20 Kangan 1.62 3.24 602,845 3,087,254
S21 Kangan 2.74 5.48 604,010 3,081,587
Mean ± SD 2.08±0.7 4.16±1.4
Median 1.72 3.44

*Based on 2 l daily drinking water consumption and concentration levels of fluoride in drinking waters.

Table 2. Different drinking water quality guidelines for fluoride.

Drinking water quality guidelines Fluoride (mg?l-1) Reference
WHO 0.5–1.5 [1]
USA 0.7–1.2 [2]
Canada 0.8–1.0 [3]
UK 0.3–0.7 [3]

2. Experimental design, materials and methods

2.1. Study area description

Nine town in Bushehr province, Iran were selected as sampling points including Anarestan, Bushkan, Tange eram, Khormouj, Dayyer, Shonbe, Kaki, Kalame and Kangan (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Fig. 1. Locations of groundwater sample stations.

2.2. Sample collection and analytical procedures

Water samples were collected by using 200?mL polyethylene bottles that were washed three times with deionized water; prior to collecting each sample, and then bottles were labeled with the sample number and location for identification. All samples were stored in a dark place at room temperature until analysis. After that, for the fluoride analyses, the SPADNS colorimetric method was used with a spectrometer [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]. Daily fluoride intakes were calculated based on 2 l daily drinking water consumption and concentration levels of fluoride in waters. Microsoft Office Excel 2016 was used for calculation of mean values.


The authors are grateful to the Urban Water and Wastewater Company Bushehr (Grant no. 1053) for financial support. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, or preparation of the manuscript.

Transparency document. Supplementary material


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