Fluoride Action Network

Fluoride concentration in bottled drinking water from a fluoride endemic area: a market-based survey

Source: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN | November 1st, 2021 | By Kerdoun MA, Bouaziz H, Adjaine OEK, Mekhloufi S, Bechki Z, Belkhalfa H.
Location: Algeria


Drinking water is the primary source of fluoride intake for humans around the world. In southern Algeria, dental fluorosis is considered an epidemic that is spreading among the population by health professionals. Thus, the consumption of bottled water is important because it is considered safer for health.


This study aims to determine the fluoride concentrations of bottled water commercially available in southern Algeria and report the non-carcinogenic health risk via daily human intake.

Material and methods

By 2021, 28 commercial brands were obtained from different supermarkets in Ouargla, Algeria. Fluoride was measured using a validated spectrophotometric method. The fluoride risk quotient (HQ) and the estimated daily intake (EDI) were calculated.


All the brands did not mention the fluoride content on the label. The mean level was 0.40 ± 0.42 mg/L, and a wide range was found [0.00 to 1.65 mg/L]. The average was below the WHO standard. Most samples (75%, n=21) contained less than 0.50 mg/L, which can cause dental caries. The HQ values average ??were less than 1, suggesting no health risk associated with drinking bottled water.


With the increasing consumption of bottled water, this work is important for primary prevention programs for dental caries. The main contribution is the constitution of a database concerning the fluoride levels in bottled water marketed in southern Algeria. Labelling of fluoride concentrations by manufacturers should be mandatory.


Bottled water
Risk assessment