Fluoride Action Network

Fluoride occurrence in groundwater systems at global scale and status of defluoridation – State of the art

Source: Groundwater for Sustainable Development - Volume 9 | June 11th, 2019 | By V. Kimambo, P. Bhattacharya, F. Mtalo, J. Mtamba, and A Ahmad.
Location: International
Industry type: Water Treatment


  • Random scattering of information about fluoride and defluoridation techniques.
  • The exposure routes and occurrences of fluoride.
  • Fluoride dissipation in the groundwater and soil were reviewed.
  • The advantages and disadvantages of various defluoridation techniques.
  • Optimum conditions for fluoride adsorption of different adsorbents.


Occurrence of elevated concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water supply in many regions of the world has caused widespread dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this paper the studies available on the routes of fluoride exposure, regions with excess fluoride in water sources and various defluoridation techniques has been reviewed. It is evident from the literature survey that no single technique fits for diverse technical and socioeconomic situations and there is a pressing need to develop suitable defluoridation techniques for household and community level water supply system in order to prevent fluorosis.

*Abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352801X18301887