Fluoride Action Network

Oral health in Syria

Source: International Dental Journal (2004) 54:383-388 | September 1st, 2004 | By N. Beiruti and W.H. van Palenstein Helderman
Location: Syria


Other conditions [page 384]
There are several areas in Syria where the fluoride content of water is elevated, ranging from 0. to 1.9ppmF [reference 14]. These fluoride concentrations do not pose a general medical risk, but are responsible for the occurrence of dental fluorosis. For example, it was reported that 78% of 13-15-year-old children in Palmyra exhibited fluorosis of which 31% had it in a moderate to severe form [reference 15]. In Alhasaka, 15% of 12-year-old children were reported to have moderate to severe fluorosis [reference 14].

The prevealence of dental injuries to the permanent incisors of children in Damascus was 5% among 9-year-olds and 12% among 12-year-olds [reference 16]…

Low fluoride bottled water [page 387]
With regard to areas where dental fluorosis is endemic, it is not advisable to de-fluoridate drinking water in the range of 0.7-1.9ppm F. Such fluoride contents are effective in preventing the development of caries for all ages and do not pose any health risk besides dental fluorosis. The latter situation can be prevented if children under the age of 5 years drink fluoride free, bottled water.


14. Beiruti N, Menghini G, Taifour D et al. Study on the fluoride in drinking water in Syria. Syrian J Stomatol 1999 35:62-70.

15. Kalsbeek H, van Palenstein Helderman WH. Oral health in 13-15-year-old schoolchildren in Palmyra, Syrian Arab Republic. TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2004.

16. Marsenes W, Beiruti N, Taifour D et al. Epidemiology of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of 9-12-year-old schoolchildren in Damascus, Syria. Endod Dent Traumatol 1999. 55:117-123.

This article is available at http://www.who.int/oral_health/publications/orh_idj54_10_beiruti.pdf – If the article is no longer available at WHO site, it is available here.