The eruption of Laki in Iceland in 1783 caused about 9,350 deaths in Iceland. Although there was little direct impact, the eight-month emission of sulfuric aerosols resulted in a large distribution of the ash cloud (Figure 14) causing one of the most important climatic and socially repercussive events of the last millennium. The consequences for Iceland – known as the Mist Hardships – were catastrophic. An estimated 20–25% of the population died in the famine and from fluorine poisoning after the fissure eruptions ceased. Around 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle, and 50% of horses died because of dental and skeletal fluorosis from the 8 million tons of hydrogen fluoride that were released. There is evidence that the Laki eruption weakened African and Indian monsoon circulations, reducing precipitation over areas in Africa. The resulting famine that afflicted Egypt in 1784 cost it roughly one-sixth of its population. The eruption also affected the southern Arabian Peninsula and India. In Great Britain, the summer of 1783 was known as the ‘sand-summer’ because of the ash fallout. An estimated 25,000 people died in the UK because of breathing problems. Impacts were reported throughout Europe, North America, and the Gulf of Mexico. The eruptions contributed to several years of extreme weather in Europe.