Fluoride Action Network

FAN Bibliography (A-C)


Aardema MJ, Gibson DP, LeBoeuf RA. 1989. Sodium fluoride-induced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: a proposed mechanism. Mutation Research. 223:191-203. [ Abstract ] **Erratum in: Mutat Res 1989 Aug;223(4):417.

Abukurah AR, Moser AM, Baird CL, Randall RE, Setter JG, Blanke RV. 1972. Acute Sodium Fluoride Poisoning. J Am Med Assoc 222:816-17. [Abstract ]

Adair SM. 1999. Overview of the history and current status of fluoride sup plementation schedules. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 1999 59(4):252-8. [ Abstract ]

Adamek E, Pawlowska-Goral K, Bober K.. 2005. In vitro and in vivo effects of fluoride ions on enzyme activity. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 51(2):69-85. [ Abstract ]

Adams PH, Jowsey J. 1965. Sodium fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Annals of Internal Medicine. 63(6): 1151-1155. [ Excerpt ]

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2003. Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Full Report

Agate JN, et al. 1949. Industrial fluorosis: A study of the hazard to man and animals near Fort William, Scotland. Medical Research Council Memorandum No. 22. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1993. Beryllium. ATSDR Toxicological Profile. Prepared by Syracuse Research Corporation under subcontract to Clement International Corporation under contract no. 205-88-0608. Prepared for US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. April. Full Report

Agalakova NI, Gusev GP. 2008. Diverse effects of fluoride on NA+ and K+ transport across the rat erythrocyte membrane. Fluoride 41(1)28–39. January-March. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Ahmadian MR, et al. 1997. Aluminum fluoride associates with the small guanine nucleotide binding proteins. FEBS Letters 408(3):315-8. [ Abstract ]

Ainsworth NJ. 1933. Mottled teeth. Brit. Dent. J., 55: 233-25- and 274-276.

Akdogan M, Eraslan G, Gultekin F, Sahindokuyucu F, Essiz D. 2004. Effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation in rabbits. Fluoride 37(3):185-189. [ Abstract Full Report ]

Akiniwa, K. 1997. Re-examination of acute toxicity of fluoride. Fluoride 30(2):89-104. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Alarcon-Herrera MT, et al. 2001. Well water fluoride, dental fluorosis, bone fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico. Fluoride. 34(2): 139-149. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Albanese R. 1987. Sodium fluoride and chromosome damage (in vitro human lymphocyte and in vivo micronucleus assays). Mutagenesis 2:497-9. [ Abstract ]

Albert DA, Findley S, Mitchell DA, Park K, McManus JM.  2002.  Dental caries among disadvantaged 3- to 4-year old children in northern Manhattan. Pediatr Dent. 24(3):229-33. May-June. [ Abstract ]

Alberts B, Shine K. 1998. Fluoride is not an essential element: Letter from Bruce Alberts, President, National Academy of Sciences, and Kenneth Shine, President, Institute of Medicine. November 18. [ See letter ]

Alhava EM, Olkkonen H, Kauranen P, Kari T. 1980. The effect of drinking water fluoridation on the fluoride content, strength and mineral density of human bone. Acta Orthop Scand. 51: 413-420. [ Abstract ]

Al-Hiyasat AS, Elbetieha AM, Darmani H. 2000. Reproductive toxic effects of ingestion of sodium fluoride in female rats. Fluoride 33(2):79-84. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Alkhatib MN, Holt R, Bedi R. 2004. Aesthetically objectionable fluorosis in the United Kingdom. British Dental Journal 197:325-28. [ Abstract ]

Allain P, Gauchard F, Krari N. 1996. Enhancement of aluminum digestive absorption by fluoride in rats. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 91(2):225-31. February. [ Abstract ]

Allen K, Agosta C, Estafan D. 2004. Using microabrasive material to remove fluorosis stains. Journal of the American Dental Association 135(3):319-23. [ Abstract ]

Allmann DW, et al. 1986. Stimulation of cAMP accumulation in rat aorta and diaphragm by fluorine containing compounds. Res Comm Chem Pathol Pharmacol 52(3):275-84. [ Abstract ]

American Dental Association (ADA). 1979. White Paper on Fluoridation.  http://www.fluoridealert.org/content/1979-ada-white-paper/

American Dental Association (ADA). 2006. Interim Guidance on Reconstituted Infant Formula. ADA,eGRAM. November 9. Available at http://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/19192/

Amini H, Taghavi Shahri SM, Amini M, et al. 2011. Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure: an environmental study. Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1-3):157-63. [ Abstract ]

An JA, Mei SZ, Liu AP et al. 1992. The effects of high fluoride on the level of intelligence of primary and secondary students. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 7(2):93-94. [Chinese text | FAN’s translation]

An L, et al. 2004. Combined effects of vitamin E and fluoride on reproductive function in male mice. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Disease. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DYBF200403001.htm

Anand JK, Roberts JT. 1990. Chronic fluorine poisoning in man: a review of literature in English (1946-1989) and indications for research. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 44(8):417-420.

Anasuya A. 1982. Role of fluoride in formation of calculi: studies on rats. Journal of Nutrition. 112(9):1787-95. [ Abstract ]

Anasuya A, Rao BS. 1983. Effect of fluoride, silicon and magnesium on the mineralizing capacity of an inorganic medium and stone formers urine tested by a modified in-vitro method. Biochem Med. 30:146. [ Abstract ]

Andersen, et al. 1982. Risk of cancer in the Norwegian aluminum industry. International Journal of Cancer 29: 295-298.

Ando M, Tadano M, Yamamoto S, Tamura K, et al. 2001. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning. Science of the Total Environment 271(1-3):107-16. [ Abstract ]

Andreatini R, Chioca LR, Rauppp IM, Da Cunha, Losso EM. 2007. Memory impairment induced by chronic sodium fluoride intake. Neurotoxicol Teratol 24, 751–757. In: Neuropharmacology page S247, P.1.c.009. [ Excerpt ]

Angmar-Mansson B, Whitford GM. 1984. Enamel fluorosis related to plasma F levels in the rat. Caries Research 18(1):25-32. [ Abstract ]

Anon. 1999. Dosage schedule for dietary fluoride supplements. Proceedings of a workshop. Chicago, Illinois, USA. January 31-February 1, 1994. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59(4):203-204. Fall.

Aoba T, Fejerskov O. 2002. Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 13(2):155-70. [ Abstract ]

Applbaum YK. 2010. Imaging of the skeleton and the joints in CKD. p. 208. In: The Spectrum of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease. (Olgaard K, Salusky IB, Silver J, eds.) Oxford University Press.

Araibi AA, et al. 1989. Effect of high fluoride on the reproductive performance of the male rat. Journal of Biological Sciences Research 20: 19-30. [ Abstract ]

Armfield JM, Spencer AJ. 2004. Consumption of nonpublic water: implications for children’s caries experience. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 32:283-296.

Armstrong B, et al. 1994. Lung cancer mortality and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: A case-cohort study of aluminum production workers in Arvida, Quebec, Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology 139: 250-262.

Arnala I, et al. 1985. Effects of fluoride on bone in Finland. Histomorphometry of cadaver bone from low and high fluoride areas. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 56:161-6. [ Abstract ]

Arnala I, Alhava EM, Kivivouri R, Kauranen P. 1986. Hip fracture incidence not affected by fluoridation. Osteofluorosis studied in Finland. Acta Orthop. Scand. 57:344-348.[ Abstract ]

Arnold CM, Bailey DA, Faulkner RA, McKay HA, McCulloch RG. 1997. The effect of water fluoridation on the bone mineral density of young women. Canadian Journal of Public Health 88(6):388-91. [Abstract ]

Arthaud LE, Loomis TA. 1975. The relationship of the total dose and duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia to renal toxicity in Fischer 344 rats. Toxic. Applied Pharmacol. 33: 176.

Astrom AN, Mashoto K. 2002. Determinants of self-rated oral health status among school children in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 12:90-100.

Athanassouli I, et al. 1994. Dental caries changes between 1982 and 1991 in children aged 6-12 in Athens, Greece. Caries Research 28(5):378-82.

Augenstein WL, Spoerke DG, Kulig KW, Hall AH, Hall PK, Riggs BS, el Saadi M, Rumack BH. 1991. Fluoride ingestion in children: a review of 87 cases. Pediatrics 88: 907-12. [ Abstract ]

Awadia AK, Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O, Bjorvatn K. 2002. Caries experience and caries predictors – a study of Tanzanian children consuming drinking water with different fluoride concentrations. Clin Oral Invest (2002) 6:98-103.

Ayoob S, Gupta AK. 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: a review on the status and stress effects. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36:433–487. [ Abstract ]


Ba Y, Ren LJ, Yin GJ. 2009. Effect of different fluoride and iodine concentration in drinking water on children’s dental fluorosis and thyroid function. Chinese Journal of Public Health 25(8):942-43. [ Abstract ]

Babbitt HE, Doland JJ. 1939. Quality of water supplies in water supply engineering. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York. p. 454.

Bachinskii PP, Gutsalenko OA, Naryzhniuk ND, Sidora VD, Shliakhta AI. 1985. Action of the body fluorine of healthy persons and thyroidopathy patients on the function of hypophyseal-thyroid the system. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 31(6):25-9. [AbstractEnglish Translation ]

Bai X. 1992. Radiological analysis in 23 cases of endemic fluorsis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB199204012.htm

Bai G, et al. 2005. Radiological analysis of endemic skeletal fluorosis in Dingbian county, Shaanxi province. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 24:73-74.

Balabolkin MI, Mikhallets ND, Lobovskaia RN, Chernousova NV. 1995. [The interrelationship of the thyroid and immune statuses of workers with long-term fluorine exposure] [Article in Russian] Ter Arkh. 67(1):41-2. [ Abstract ]

Balena R, Kleerekoper M, Foldes JA, Shih MS, Rao DS, Schober HC, Parfitt AM. 1998. Effects of different regimens of sodium fluoride treatment for osteoporosis on the structure, remodeling and mineralization of bone. Osteoporos Int. 8(5):428-35. [ Abstract ]

Bang S, Boivin G, Gerster JC, Baud CA. 1985. Distribution of fluoride in calcified cartilage of a fluoride-treated osteoporotic patient. Bone 6(4):207-210. [ Abstract ]

Bang S. 1978. Biophysical study of compact bone tissue in demic fluorosis. In: B Courvoisier B, et al. (1978). Fluoride and Bone; Proceedings of the Second Symposium CEMO, Nyon, Switzerland, Oct. 9-12, 1977. Hans Huber Publishers, Bern. pp. 77-81.

Bang S, et al. 1978. Morphometric and biophysical study of bone tissue in industrial fluorosis. In: B Courvoisier, A Donath, CA Baud, eds. Fluoride and Bone. Hans Huber Publishers, Bern. pp. 168-175.

Bano R, Sahdey S, Lall SB. 1996. Biochemical changes in the testes of Swiss albino mice exposed to chronic ingestion of sodium fluoride. Indian Journal of Environment and Toxicology 6:19-21.

Bansal R, Tiwari SC. 2006. Back pain in chronic renal failure. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 21:2331-2332. [ Abstract ]

Bao W, et al. 2003. [Investigation of osteoarthritis in Fengjiabao, Asuo, Qiancheng villages—to research the relationship between Fluorosis and Osteoarthritis. [Article in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200306012.htm

Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Del Razo LM. 2010. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions 188(2):319-33. [ Abstract ]

Bardsen A, Bjorvatn K. 1998. Risk periods in the development of dental fluorosis. Clinical Oral Investigations 2:155-160. [ Abstract ]

Barnes GP, Parker WA, Lyon TC, Drum MA, Coleman GC. 1992. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children. Public Health Reports 107(2):167-73. March-April. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Barot VV. 1998. Occurrence of endemic fluorosis in human population of North Gujarat, India: human health risk. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61(3):303-10. [ Abstract ]

Basch CH, Hammond R, Guinta A, Rajan S, Basch CE. 2013. Advertising of toothpaste in parenting magazines. Journal of Community Health 38(5):911-4. October. [ Abstract ]

Basha PM, Sujitha NS. 2012. Combined impact of exercise and temperature in learning and memory performance of fluoride toxicated rats. Biological Trace Element Research 150(1-3):306-13. [ Abstract ]

Basha MP, Sujitha NS. 2011. Chronic fluoride toxicity and myocardial damage: antioxidant offered protection in second generation rats. Toxicol Int 18(2):99-104. [ Abstract ]

Basha PM, et al. 2011. Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 144(1-3):1083-94. [ Abstract ]

Bashash M, Thomas D, Hu H, Martinez-Mier EA, Sanchez BN, Basu N, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Wright R, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Téllez-Rojo MM, and Hernández-Avila M. 2017. Prenatal fluoride exposure and cognitive outcomes in children at 4 and 6–12 years of age in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives. Sep 19;125(9):097017. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp655/

Baskaradoss JK, Clement RB, Narayanan A. 2008. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: a cross sectional survey. Indian J Dent Res. 19(4):297-303. Oct-Dec.

Bassin EB. 2001. Association between fluoride in drinking water during growth and development and the incidence of ostosarcoma for children and adolescents. Doctoral Thesis, Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

Bassin EB, Wypij D, Davis RB, Mittleman MA. 2006. Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 17: 421-8. [ Abstract ]

Bataineh HN, Nusierb MK. 2006. Impact of 12-week ingestion of sodium fluoride on agression, sexual behavior, and fertility in adult male rats. Fluoride 39(4):293-301. October-December. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Baud CA, Bang S. 1970. Fluoride and bone mineral substance. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 27-36.

Baud CA, et al. 1978. Value of the bone biopsy in the diagnosis of industrial fluorosis. Virchows Archiv A. Pathological Anatomy and Histology 380(4):283-97. [ Abstract ]

Bayley TA, Harrison JE, Murray TM, et al. 1990. Fluoride-induced fractures: relation to osteogenic effect. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 5(Suppl 1):S217-22. [ Abstract ]

Baylink DJ, Bernstein DS. 1967. The effects of fluoride therapy on metabolic bone disease. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 55: 51-85.

Baylink D, et al. 1970. Effects of fluoride on bone formation, mineralization, and resorption in the rat. In: TL Vischer, ed. Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 37-69.

Beary DF. 1969. The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur. Anat Rec. 164(3):305-316. [ Abstract ]

Behrendt A, Oberste V, Wetzel WE. 2002. Fluoride concentration and pH of iced tea products. Caries Research 36(6):405-410. [ Abstract ]

Belanger LF, Visek WJ, Lotz WE, Comar CL. 1958. Rachitomimetic effects of fluoride feeding on the skeletal tissues of growing pigs. American Journal of Pathology 3(1):25-36. [ Abstract ]

Beltran E. 2007. Prevalence of enamel fluorosis among 12-19 year-olds, U.S., 1999-2004. IADR/AADR/CADR 85th General Session and Exhibition, March 21-24. [ AbstractOriginal ]

Beltran-Aguilar ED et al. 2005. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999—2002. MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 54(03);1-44. August 26. Online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm

Bennett P, Williams D, Chestnutt I, Hood K, Lowe R. 2008. A reaction-time study of social, health, and personal attributions in relation to fluorosed teeth. Psychology, Health & Medicine 13:75-86. [ Abstract ]

Bentley EM, Ellwood RP, Davies RM. 1999. Fluoride ingestion from toothpaste by young children. Br Dent J 186(9):460-2. [ Abstract ]

Bera I, Sabatini R, Auteri P, Flace P, et al. 2007. Neurofunctional effects of developmental sodium fluoride exposure in rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 11(4):211-24. July-August. [ Abstract ]

Bernard SM, McGeehin MA. 2003. Prevalence of blood lead levels >5 micro g/dL among US children 1 to 5 years of age and socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with blood of lead levels 5 to 10 micro g/dL, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Pediatrics 112(6 Pt 1):1308-13.

Bharati P, Kubakaddi A, Rao M, Naik RK. 2005. Clinical symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis in Gadag and Bagalkot Districts of Karnataka. J. Hum. Ecol., 18(2):105-107. [ Abstract ]

Bhatnagar M, Rao P, Sushma J, Bhatnagar R. 2002. Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40: 546-54. [Abstract]

Bhatnagar M, Rao P, Saxena A, Bhatnagar R, Meena P, Barbar S, Chouhan A, Vimal S. 2006. Biochemical changes in brain and other tissues of female mice from F in their drinking water. Fluoride 39(4):280–284. October-December. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Bhavsar BS, Desai VK, Mehta NR, Vashi RT, Krishnamachari KAVR. 1985. Neighborhood fluorosis in Western India Part II: population study. Fluoride 18(2):86-92. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/bhavsar-1985.pdf

Bigay J, Deterre P, Pfister C, Chabre M. 1985. Fluoroaluminates activate transducin-GDP by mimicking the gamma-phosphate of GTP in its binding site. FEBS Letters 191(2):181-185. October 28. [ Abstract ]

Bigay J, Deterre P, Pfister C, Chabre M. 1987. Fluoride complexes of aluminium or beryllium act on G-proteins as reversibly bound analogues of the gamma phosphate of GTP. European Molecular Biology Organization Journal 6(10):2907-2913. October. [ Abstract ]

Binbin W, Baoshan Z, Hongying W, Yakun P, Yuehua T. 2005. Dental caries in fluorine exposure areas in China. Environ Geochem Health. 27(4):285-8. [ Abstract ]

Binus W, Lowinger K, Walther G. 1989. [Caries decline and changing pattern of dental therapy] [Article in German] Stomatol DDR 39: 322-6.

Bird DM, Carriere D, Lacombe D. 1992. The effect of dietary sodium fluoride on internal organs, breast muscle, and bones in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22(2):242-6. February. [ Abstract ]

Birkeland JM, Ibrahim YE, Ghandour IA, Haugejorden O. 2005. Severity of dental caries among 12-year-old Sudanese children with different fluoride exposure. Clin Oral Invest 9: 46–51. March. [ Abstract ]

Birkner E, et al. 2006. Influence of sodium fluoride and caffeine on the kidney function and free-radical processes in that organ in adult rats. Biological Trace Element Research 109(1):35-48. January. [ Abstract ]

Birkner E, Grucka-Mamczar E, Stawiarska-Pieta B, Birkner K, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Kasperczyk S, Kasperczyk A. 2009. The influence of rich-in-cholesterol diet and fluoride ions contained in potable water upon the concentration of malondialdehyde and the activity of selected antioxidative enzymes in rabbit liver. Biol Trace Elem Res. 129(1-3):137-42. [ Abstract ]

Blasik LG, Spencer SK. 1979. Fluoroderma. Archives of Dermatology 115:1334-5. [ Abstract ]

Blen M, Narendran S, Jones K.  1999.  Dental caries in children under age three attending a university clinic.  Pediatr Dent. 21(4):261-4.  July-August. [ Abstract ]

Blood DC, Henderson JA, Radostits OM, eds. 1979. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pgs and Horses. 5th Edition. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

Blue JA. (1938). Mottled enamel in Oklahoma Panhandle, and its possible relations to child development. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association 31:295-301. [ Abstract ]

Bo Z, Mei H, Yongsheng Z, Xueyu L, Xuelin Z, Jun D. 2003. Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25: 421-31. [ Abstract ]

Bobek S, Kahl S, Ewy Z. 1976. Effect of long-term fluoride administration on thyroid hormones level blood in rats. Endocrinol Exp 10(4):289-95. [ Abstract ]

Bober J, Kwiatkowska E, Kedzierska K, Olszewska M, Estachowska E, Ciechanowski K, Chlubek D. 2006. Fluoride aggravation of oxidative stress in patients with chronic renal failure. Fluoride 39(4):302–309. October-December. [ Abstract Full Report ]

Bohannan HM, et al. 1985. Effect of secular decline on the evaluation of preventive dentistry demonstrations. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 45: 83-89.

Bohatyrewicz A. 1999. Effects of fluoride on mechanical properties of femoral bone in growing rats. Fluoride 32(2):47-54. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Bohatyrewicz A. 2001. Bone fluoride in proximal femur fractures. Fluoride 34(4):227-235. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Boillat MA, Garcia J, Velebit L. 1980. Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 5(3):161-165. [ Abstract ]

Boivin G, Chavassieux P, Chapuy MC, Baud CA, Meunier PJ. 1989. Skeletal fluorosis: histomorphometric analysis of bone changes and bone fluoride content in 29 patients. Bone 10(2):89-99. [ Abstract ]

Boivin G, Duriez J, Chapuy MC, Flautre B, Hardouin P, Meunier PJ. 1993. Relationship between bone fluoride content and histological evidence of calcification defects in osteoporotic women treated long term with sodium fluoride. Osteoporosis International 3:204-208. [ Abstract ]

Bond AM, Murray MM. 1952. Kidney function and structure in chronic fluorosis. Br J Exp Pathol. 33: 168-176. [ Abstract ]

Borke JL, Whitford GM. 1999. Chronic fluoride ingestion decreases 45Ca uptake by rat kidney membranes. J Nutr. 129(6):1209-13. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Bouaziz H, Soussia L, Guermazi F, Zeghal N. 2005. Fluoride-induced thyroid proliferative changes and their reversal in female mice and their pups. Fluoride 38(3):185–192. [ Abstract Full Report ]

Bouaziz H, Ghorbel H, Ketata S, Guermazi F, Zeghala N. 2005b. Toxic effects of fluoride by maternal ingestion on kidney function of adult mice and their suckling pups. Fluoride 38(1):23–31. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Bouaziz H, Croute F, Boudawara T, Soleilhavoup JP, Zeghal N. 2007. Oxidative stress induced by fluoride in adult mice and their suckling pups. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 58(5):339-349. April. [ Abstract ]

Bouletreau PH, Bost M, Fontanges E, Lauverjat M, Gutknecht C, Ecochard R, Delmas PD, Chambrier C. 2006. Fluoride exposure and bone status in patients with chronic intestinal failure who are receiving home parenteral nutrition1–3. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1429 –37. [ Abstract ]

Bovenmyer D. 1985. Aggravation of dermatitis herpetiformis by dental fluoride treatments. Letter. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology 12(4):719-720. April.

Boyd JC, Wessels NE.  1951. Epidemiological studies in dental caries. III. The interpretation of clinical data relating to caries advance. J. Am. Public Health, 51: 967-986. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Boyle DR, Chagnon M. 1995. An incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with groundwaters of the maritime carboniferous basin, Gaspe region, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 17: 5-12. [ Abstract ]

Bratthall D, Hansel-Petersson G, Sundberg H. 1996. Reasons for the caries decline: what do the experts believe? European Journal of Oral Science 104:416-22. [ Abstract ]

Brody DJ, et al. 1994. Blood lead levels in the US population. Phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988 to 1991). Journal of the American Medical Association 272(4):277-83.

Broffitt B, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Cavanaugh JE. 2007. An investigation of bottled water use and caries in the mixed dentition. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 67(3):151-8. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Bronckers AL, Woltgens JH. 1985. Short-term effects of fluoride on biosynthesis of enamel-matrix proteins and dentine collagens and on mineralization during hamster tooth-germ development in organ culture. Archives of Oral Biology 30(2): 181-91. [ Abstract ]

Bronstein AC, et al. 2009. 2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 47:911-1084.

Bronstein AC, et al. 2010. 2009 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 27th Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 48:979-1178.

Brothwell D, Limeback H. 2003. Breastfeeding is protective against dental fluorosis in a nonfluoridated rural area of Ontario, Canada. Journal of Human Lactation 19(4):386-90. November. [ Abstract ]

Brun G, Buchwald H, Roholm K. 1941. [The excretion of fluorine in the urine of cryolite workers with chronic fluorine poisoning]. [ In German ] Acta Medica Scandinavica 106: 261-273.

Brun R. 2004. Recurrent benign aphthous stomatitis and fluoride allergy. Dermatology 208(2):181. [ Full Text ]

Brunelle JA, Carlos JP. 1990. Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. J. Dent. Res 69, (Special edition), 723-727. http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/nidr-dmfs.html

Bruns BR, Tytle T. 1988. Skeletal fluorosis: a report of two cases. Orthopedics 11(7):1083-1087. [ Abstract ]

Bryson C. 2004. The fluoride deception. Seven Stories Press, NY. [ Reviews ]

Bucher J. 1990. Testimony at Board of Scientific Counselors, National Toxicology Program; Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Thursday, April 26, 1990.

Bucher JR, Hejtmancik MR, Toft 2nd JD, Persing RL, Eustis SL, Haseman JK. 1991. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program’s rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Int J Cancer 48:733-737. [ Abstract ]

Budipramana ES, et al. 2002. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in the fluorosis endemic area of Asembagus, Indonesia. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 12: 415-22. [ Abstract ]

Burgi H, et al. 1984. Fluorine and the Thyroid Gland: A Review of the Literature. Klin Wochenschr. 1984 Jun 15;62(12):564-9.

Burgstahler AW. 1975. Editorial Review: Fluoride and Down’s Syndrome (Mongolism). Fluoride 8(1):1-11. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Burgstahler AW, Robinson MA. 1997. Fluoride in California wines and raisins. Fluoride 30(3):142-146.

Burgstahler AW, Freeman RF, Jacobs PN. 2008. Toxic effects of silicofluoridated water in chinchillas, caimans, alligators, and rats held in captivity. Fluoride 41(1):83–88. January-March. [ Abstract Full Report ]

Burkhart JM, Jowsey J. 1968. Effect of variations in calcium intake on the skeleton of fluoride-fed kittens. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 72(6):943-50. [ Abstract ]

Burnell TW, Peo ER Jr, Lewis AJ, Crenshaw JD. 1986. Effect of dietary fluorine on growth, blood and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 63(6):2053-67. [ Abstract ]

Burns KN, Allcroft R. 1964. Fluorosis in Cattle. 1 – Occurrence and Effects in Industrial Areas of England and Wales 1954-57. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Animal Disease Surveys Report No 2, Part I. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

Burt BA, Kolker JL, Sandretto AM, Yuan Y, Sohn W, Ismail AI. 2006. Dietary patterns related to caries in a low-income adult population. Caries Res. 2006 ; 40(6):473–480. [ Abstract ]

Burt BA. 1994. Letter. Fluoride. 27(3):180-181.

Burt BA. 1999. The case for eliminating the use of dietary fluoride supplements for young children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59: 260-274. [ Abstract ]

Burt BA, Eklund SA. 1999. Dentistry, dental practice, and the community (5th Ed). WB Saunders Co; Philadelphia.

Burt BA, Keels MA, Heller KE. 2000. The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis. J Dent Res. 79(2):761-9. February.

Burt BA, Kolker JL, Sandretto AM, Yuan Y, Sohn W, Ismail AI. 2006. Dietary patterns related to caries in a low-income adult population. Caries Research 40(6):473-80.

Butler WJ, Segreto V, Collins E. 1985. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities.Am J Public Health. 75(12):1408-12.[ Abstract ]

Buzalaf MA, et al. 2002. Correlation between plasma and nail fluoride concentrations in rats given different levels of fluoride in water. Fluoride 35(3):185-192. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Buzalaf M, Damante CA, Trevizani LM, Granjeiro JM. 2004. Risk of fluorosis associated with infant formulas prepared with bottled water. Journal of Dentistry for Children 71:110-113. May-August. [ Abstract ]

Buzalaf MA, Caroselli EE, Cardoso de Oliveira R, Granjeiro JM, Whitford GM. 2004. Nail and bone surface as biomarkers for acute fluoride exposure in rats. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, May-June, 8(4):249-52. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Byers KG, Savaiano DA. 2005. The myth of increased lactose intolerance in African-Americans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24(6 Suppl):569S-73S.

Bylgyly A, et al. 2004. The effects of fluoride on thyroid hormones in rabbits. Indian Veterinary Journal 81:986-988. 


Cai Q, Li Hong. 2009. Effects of fluoride on the thyroid morphology and thyroid peroxidase and serum thyroid hormones. Journal of Liaoning Medical University. [ Abstract ]

Cai Z. 2006. Determination the changes of rooster sperm quality induced by chronic fluorosis. Livestock and Poultry Industry. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XQYI200612009.htm

Calderon J, Blenda M, Marielena N, et al. 2000. Influence of fluoride exposure on reaction time and visuospatial organization in children. Epidemiology. 11(4): S153. [ Abstract ]

Caldwell KL, et al. 2008. Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Thyroid 18(11):1207-14.

California Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane ®). Risk Characterization Document. Volume I. Health Risk Assessment. Medical Toxicology Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation,California Environmental Protection Agency. July. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/sf-ca.epa_.hra_.july_.2006.pdf

Call RA, Greenwood DA, Lecheminant WH, et al. 1965. Histological and chemical studies in man on effects of fluoride. Public Health Reports. 80: 529-538. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Calvert GM, et al. 1998. Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. Am J Public Health. 88(12):1774-80.

Camarasa JG, Serra-Baldrich E, Lluch M, Malet A. 1993. Contact urticaria from sodium fluoride. Contact Dermatitis 28(5):294. May. [ Abstract ]

Campagna L, Tsamtsouris A, Kavadia K. 1995. Fluoridated drinking water and maturation of permanent teeth at age 12. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 19(3):225-8. Spring.

Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment (CAPE). 2008. Statement on drinking water fluoridation. September. Available at http://fluoridealert.org/content/cape-2008/

Cao J, Zhao Y, Liu J. 2001. Prevention of brick teas fluorosis in rats with low-fluoride brick tea on laboratory observation. Food & Chemical Toxicology 39(6):615-619. June.

Cao J, et al. 2003. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41:535-42. [ Abstract ]

Cao J, et al. 2004. Fluoride in newer tea commodities. Fluoride 37(4):296-300. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Cao J, Zhao Y, Li Y, Deng HJ, Yi J, Liu JW. 2006. Fluoride levels in various black tea commodities: measurement and safety evaluation. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44(7):1131–1137. July. [ Abstract ]

Carlos JP. 1983. Comments on fluoride. J Pedodontics. Winter: 135-136.

Carlsson A. 1978. Current problems relating to the pharmacology and toxicology of fluorides. Lakartidningen 25:1388-1392. [ Abstract ]

Carnow BW, Conibear SA. 1981. Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 14(4):172-181. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Carter DR, Beaupre GS. 1990. Effects of fluoride treatment on bone strength. J Bone Miner Res. 5 Suppl 1:S177-84. [ Abstract ]

Carton R. 1994. Middletown Maryland: latest city to receive toxic spill of fluoride in their drinking water. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. October 15. 1124.

Carton RJ. 2006. Review of the 2006 United States National Research Council report: Fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride 39(3)163-172. July-September. Available at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/carton-20061.pdf

Carvalho JC, Van Nieuwenhuysen JP, D’Hoore W. 2001. The decline in dental caries among Belgian children between 1983 and 1998. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 29(1):55-61. February. [ Abstract ]

Caspary WJ, Myhr B, Bowers L, McGregor D, Riach C, Brown A. 1987. Mutagenic activity of fluorides in mouse lymphoma cells. Mutation Research. 187(3):165-80. [ Abstract ]

Cass RM, Croft JD Jr, Perkins P, Nye W, Waterhouse C, Terry R. 1966. New bone formation in osteoporosis following treatment with sodium fluoride. Archives of Internal Medicine 118(2):111-116. August.

Cauley J, Murphy PA, Riley TJ, Buhari AM. 1995. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Min Res 10(7): 1076-86. [ Abstract ]

Caverzasio J, Palmer G, Bonjour JP. 1998. Fluoride: mode of action. Bone 22(6):585-9. June. [ Abstract ]

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1974. Acute fluoride poisoning — North Carolina. MMWR 23:199.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1980. Fluoride intoxication in a dialysis unit-Maryland. MMWR 29:134-136.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1999. Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. (MMWR). 48(41): 933-940 October 22, 1999. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm
NOTE: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin – as cited in Scott Tomar’s Curriculam Vitae; paper number 27 on page 27 at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2001. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. (MMWR). August 17. 50(RR14):1-42. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2002. Prevalence of self-reported arthritis and chronic joint symptoms among adults. MMWR 2002;51:948-950. Online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5142a2.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis–United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. MMWR Surveill Summ 54(3):1-43. Online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2011. Osteoarthritis. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/osteoarthritis.htm

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. 2003. What the ‘York Review’ on the fluoridation of drinking water really found. University of York.

Chaabane M, et al. 1995. [Rare causes of ossification of the posterior common vertebral ligament causing cervical compression. Apropos of 2 cases]. [Article in French] J Radiol. 76(1):43-6. [ Abstract ]

Chabre M. 1990. Aluminofluoride and beryllofluoride complexes: a new phosphate analogs in enzymology. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15: 6-10. [ Abstract ]

Chachra D, Turner CH, Dunipace AJ, Grynpas MD. 1999. The effect of fluoride treatment on bone mineral in rabbits. Calcified Tissue International 64:345-351. [ Abstract ]

Chachra D.  2001.  The influence of lifelong exposure to environmental fluoride on bone quality in humans.  A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada.  Full study online at https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/16482/1/NQ59027.pdf

Chachra D, et al. (2010). The long-term effects of water fluoridation on the human skeleton. Journal of Dental Research 89:1219-1223.

Chan JT, Koh SH. 1996. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas. Caries Research 30:88-92. [ Abstract ]

Chan MM, et al. 1973. Effect of fluoride on bone formation and strength in Japanese quail. Journal of Nutrition. 103: 1431-1440.

Chankanka O, et al. (2011). Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 71(4):289-300.

Chankanka O, et al. (2011). Mixed dentition cavitated caries incidence and dietary intake frequencies. Pediatric Dentistry 33(3):233-40.

Charen J, et al. 1979. Bone fluoride concentrations associated with fluoridated drinking water. Calcified Tissue International 27(2):95-9.

Chavassieux P, Seeman E, Delmas PD. 2007. Insights into material and structural basis of bone fragility from diseases associated with fractures: how determinants of the biomechanical properties of bone are compromised by disease. Endocrine Reviews 28(2):151–164. April. [ Abstract ]

Chehoud KA, Chiba FY, Sassaki KT, Garbin CAS, Sumida DH. 2008. Effects of fluoride intake on insulin sensitivity and insulin signal transduction. Fluoride 41(4)270-275. October-December. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/chehoud-2008.pdf

Chen J, Chen X, Yang K. 2000. [Effects of selenium and zinc on the DNA damage caused by fluoride in pallium neural cells of rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 29: 216-7. [ Abstract ]

Chen J, Chen X, Yang K, Xia T, Xie H. 2002. [Studies on DNA damage and apoptosis in rat brain induced by fluoride]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 36: 222-224. [ Abstract ]

Chen J, Shan KR, Long YG, Wang YN, Nordberg A, Guan ZZ. 2003. Selective decreases of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in PC12 cells exposed to fluoride. Toxicology 183: 235-42. [ Abstract ]

Chen L, Mulligan ME. 2011. Medication-induced periostitis in lung transplant patients: periostitis deformans revisited. Skeletal Radiol. 40(2):143-8.

Chen P, et al. 1997. Effects of hyperfluoride on reproduction-endocrine system of male adults. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 12(2):57-58. [See study]

Chen SJ, et al. 2008. Testis damage induced by chronic fluorosis and antagonism of taurine-zinc. Journal of Environment and Health. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-HJYJ200801019.htm

Chen X. 1988. Radiological analysis of fluorotic cubital arthritis in 1090 cases. Journal of Guiyang Medical College. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GYYB198802043.htm

Chen X, et al. 1991. [Bone x-ray analysis of patients with combined fluoride-aluminium toxicosis. Journal of Guiyang Medical College.] Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GYYB199103005.htm

Chen X, et al. 1996. Skeletal radiographic appearances of high aluminum fluorosis caused by domestic coal fuel (analysis of 39cases). Chinese Journal of Radiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZHGS604.015.htm

Chen YC, et al. 1997. Nutrition survey In dental fluorosis-afflicted areas. Fluoride. 30(2):77-80. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chen-1997.pdf

Chen Y, Han F, Zhou Z, Zhang H, Jiao X, Zhang S, Huang M, Chang T, Dong Y. 2008. Research on the intellectual development of childen in high fluoride areas. Fluoride 41(2)120–124. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/chen.2008.pdf

Cheng KK, Chalmers I, Sheldon TA. 2007. Adding fluoride to water supplies. British Medical Journal 335(7622):699-702. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/cheng-2007.pdf

Chibole O. 1988. Dental caries among children in high fluoride regions of Kenya. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 108(1): 32-33. February.

Chikte UM, et al. 2001. Perceptions of fluorosis in northern Cape communities. SADJ. 56(11):528-32.

Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E. 1989. Effects of fluoride on the histoarchitecture of reproductive organs of the male mouse. Reprod Toxicol. 3(4):261-7. [ Abstract ]

Chinoy NJ, Rao MV, Narayana MV, Neelakanta E. 1991. Microdose vasal injection of sodium fluoride in the rat. Reprod Toxicol. 5(6): 505-12. [ Abstract ]

Chinoy NJ , Sequeira E, Narayana MV. 1991. Effects of vitamin C and calcium on the reversibility of fluoride-induced alterations in spermatozoa of rabbits. Fluoride 24(1): 29-39. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1991.pdf

Chinoy NJ, et al. 1992. Effects of fluoride ingestion on the physiology of reproductive organs of male rats. Journal of Environmental Biology 13: 55-61.

Chinoy NJ , Sequeira E. 1992. Reversible fluoride induced fertility impairment in male mice. Fluoride 25(2):71-76. [ Abstract Full Report ]

Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV. 1994. In vitro fluoride toxicity in human spermatozoa. Reprod Toxicol. 8(2):155-9. March-April. [ Abstract ]

Chinoy NJ, et al. 1994. Transient and reversible fluoride toxicity in some soft tissues of female mice. Fluoride. 27(4):205-214. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1994.pdf

Chinoy NF, Reddy VVPC, Michael M. 1994. Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid and calcium on reproductive functions of sodium fluoride-treated prepubertal male rats. Fluoride 27(2):67-75. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1994b.pdf

Chinoy NF, et al. 1995. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity in some accessory reproductive glands and spermatozoa of rat. Fluoride 28(2):75-86. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1995.pdf

Chinoy NJ, et al. 1997. Fluoride toxicity in the testis and cauda epididymis of guinea pig and reversal by ascorbate. Medical Science Research 25: 97-100.

Chinoy NJ, et al. 1997. Fluoride toxicity on rat testis and cauda epididymal tissue components and its reversal. Fluoride 30(1):41-50. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1997.pdf

Chinoy NJ, Sharma A. 1998. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity by vitamin E and D in reproductive functions of male mice. Fluoride 31(4):203-216. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-1998.pdf

Chinoy NJ, Mehta D. 1999. Effects of protein supplementation and deficiency on fluoride-induced toxicity in reproductive organs of male mice. Fluoride 32: 204-214.

Chinoy NJ, Sharma A. 2000. Reversal of fluoride-induced alteration in cauda epididymal spermatozoa and fertility impairment in male mice. Environmental Sciences 7: 29-38.

Chinoy NJ, Patel TN. 2001. Efects of sodium fluoride and aluminium chloride on ovary and uterus of mice and their reversal by some antidotes. Fluoride 34(1): 9-20. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-2001.pdf

Chinoy NJ, et al. 2004. Biochemical effects of sodium fluoride and arsenic trioxide toxicity and their reversal in the brain of mice. Fluoride 37(2):80-87. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-2004.pdf

Chinoy NJ, Tewari K, Jhala DD. 2004. Fluoride and/or arsenic toxicity in mice testis with giant cells and subsequent recovery by some antidotes. Fluoride 37(3):172-184. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chinoy-2004b.pdf

Chinoy NJ, et al. 2006. Effects of fluoride ingestion with protein deficient or protein enriched diets on sperm function of mice. Fluoride 39:11-16.

Chioca LR, Raupp IM, Da Cunha C, Losso EM, Andreatini R. 2008. Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 579(1-3):196-201. January 28. [ Abstract ]

Chirumari K, Reddy PK. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of fluoride on neurochemical milieu in the hippocampus and neocortex of rat brain. Fluoride 40(2):101-110. April-June. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/chirumari-2007.pdf

Chlubek D. 2003. Fluoride and oxidative stress. Fluoride 36(4):217-228. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/chlubek-2003.pdf

Chlubek D, et al. 2003. Activity of pancreatic antioxidative enzymes and malondialdehyde concentrations in rats with hyperglycemia caused by fluoride intoxication. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 17:57-60.

Choi A, Grandjean P. 2007. Potentials for developmental fluoride neurotoxicity. Abstract Number 15. XXVII Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research, October 9-12, 2007, Beijing, China. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/choi-2007.abstract.15.pdf

Choi AL, Sun G, Zhang Y, Grandjean P. 2012. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(10):1362-8, http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/choi-2012.pdf

Choubisa SL, Choubisa L, Choubisa DK. 2001. Endemic fluorosis in Southern Rajasthan, India. Fluoride 34(1):61-70. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/choubisa-2001.pdf

Chouhan S, et al. (2010). Fluoride-induced changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, neurological variables and tissue histopathology of rats. J Appl Toxicol. 30(1):63-73.

Chouhan S, Flora SJ. 2008. Effects of fluoride on the tissue oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats: biochemical assays supported by IR spectroscopy data. Toxicology. 2008 Dec 5;254(1-2):61-7. [ Abstract ]

Christie DP. 1980. The spectrum of radiographic bone changes in children with fluorosis. Radiology 136:85-90. [ Abstract ]

Chubb C. 1985a. Reversal of the endocrine toxicity of commercially produced perfluorochemical emulsion. Biology of Reproduction 33(4):854-8.

Chubb C. 1985b. Reproductive toxicity of fluoride. Journal of Andrology 6: 59.

Churchill, H. V. 1931. The occurrence of fluorides in some waters of the United States. Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 996-998.

Cicek E, Aydin G, Akdogan M, Okutan H. 2005. Effects of chronic ingestion of sodium fluoride on myocardium in a second generation of rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 24(2):79-87. February. [ Abstract ]

Cimasoni G. 1970. Fluoride and enzymes. In: TL Vischer, ed. 1970. Fluoride in medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 14-26.

Cinar A, Selcuk M. 2005. Effects of chronic fluorosis on thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and protein-bound iodine in cows. Fluoride 35:65-68. [See study]

Cittanova ML, et al. 2002. Fluoride ion toxicity in rabbit kidney thick ascending limb cells. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 19(5):341-9. [ Abstract ]

Claassen H, Cellarius C, Scholz-Ahrens KE, Schrezenmeir J, Gluer CC, Schun M, Kurz B. 2006. Extracellular matrix changes in knee joint cartilage following bone-active drug treatment. Cell Tissue Res Cell Tissue Res. 324(2):279-89. May. [ Abstract ]

Clark DC, Hann HJ, Williamson MF, Berkowitz J. 1993. Aesthetic concerns of children and parents in relation to different classifications of the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 21(6):360-4. [ Abstract ]

Clark DC, Hann HJ, Williamson MF, Berkowitz J. 1994. Influence of exposure to various fluoride technologies on the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 22(6): 461-4. [ Abstract ]

Clarkson BH, Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt BA. 1996. Rational use of fluoride in caries control. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B, Eds. Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd Edition. Munksgaard, Denmark. p 347-357.

Cohen-Solal ME, et al. 1996. Osteomalacia is associated with high bone fluoride content in dialysis patients. Bone 19: 135S.

Cohen-Solal ME, et al. 2002. Fluoride and strontium accumulation in bone does not correlate with osteoid tissue in dialysis patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 17: 449–454.

Cohn PD. 1992. A brief report on the association of drinking water fluoridation and the incidence of osteosarcoma among young males. New Jersey Department of Health Environ. Health Service: 1- 17. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/cohn-1992.pdf

Cole J, Muriel WJ, Bridges BA. 1986. The mutagenicity of sodium fluoride to L5178Y [wild-type and TK+/- (3.7.2c)] mouse lymphoma cells. Mutagenesis 1:157-67. [ Abstract ]

Collins TFX, Sprando RL. 2005. Fluoride–toxic and pathologic effects: Review of current literature on some aspects of fluoride toxicity. Reviews in Food and Nutrition Toxicity. 105-41.

Colon PG. 1972. Removal of Tooth Stains in Prisoner Rehabilitation. Dental Survey 48: 30.

Colquhoun J. 1984. New evidence on fluoridation. Social Science & Medicine 19:1239-46.

Colquhoun J. 1985. Influence of social class and fluoridation on child dental health. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 13:37-41.

Colquhoun J. 1987. Education and fluoridation in New Zealand: an historical study. PhD thesis, University of Auckland, NZ.

Colquhoun J. 1987. Child dental health differences in New Zealand. Community Health Studies 11:87-104.

Colquhoun J. 1990. Flawed foundation: a re-examination of the scientific basis for a dental benefit from fluoridation. Community Health Studies 14:288-96.

Colquhoun J. 1992. Possible explanations for decline in tooth decay in New Zealand. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1992 20:161-6.

Colquhoun J. 1995. Dental caries among children in New Zealand. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 23:381.

Colquhoun J. 1997. Why I changed my mind about fluoridation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41(1):29-44. [ Excerpt ]

Comar CL, et al. 1953. Effects of fluorine on calcium metabolism and bone growth in pigs. American Journal of Anatomy 92: 361-362. [ Abstract ]

Compston JE, et al. 1980. Osteomalacia developing during treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride and vitamin D. British Medical Journal 281: 910-911. [ Abstract ]

Connett E, Connett M, Connett P, Neurath C, Wiles R, Feldman J. e-2005. Issues for an evidentiary hearing concerning sulfuryl fluoride tolerances. Submission to USEPA by Fluoride Action Network, Environmental Working Group and Beyond Pesticides. December 15. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett.e-2005.pdf

Connett M. 2004. Fluoride & cancer: new report + background. Submission to National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water; BEST-K-02-05-A. May 27. Full submission at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/connett.m-2004.pdf

Connett M. 2005. Blood fluoride levels as a tool for assessing risk of fluoride toxicity. Abstract 9. Paper presented at the XXVIth. ISFR conference in Wiesbaden, Germany, Sept. Fluoride 38(3):226. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett.m.-2005.pdf

Connett M, Limeback H. 2008. Fluoride and its effect on human intelligence. A systematic review. International Association for Dental Research 83rd General Session and Exhibition. Toronto, Canada. Poster 2205. July 4. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/connett.limeback.pdf

Connett P. 2000. Fluoride: a statement of concern. Waste Not #459. January 2000. Waste Not. 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617. http://www.fluoridealert.org/fluoride-statement.htm

Connett P, Connett E, Connett M, Neurath C. 2005. Submission to: National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water; BEST-K-02-05-A. March 30. Availaable at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett-2005.pdf

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005a. Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection the context of Elise Bassin’s findings: Part I. Submitted to the National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC) review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water. March 2. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett.2005a.pdf

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005b. Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection in context of Elise Bassin’s findings: Part II. Submitted to the NRC review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water March 21, 2005 (revised April 8, 2005). Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett.2005b.pdf

Connett P, Neurath C, Connett M. 2005c. Osteosarcoma Revisited. Abstract 10. Paper presented at the XXVIth. ISFR conference in Wiesbaden, Germany, Sept. Fluoride 38(3):227. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett-2005c.pdf

Connett P. 2008. The arguments against the proposal to fluoridate Southampton UK. Submission to South Central Strategic Health Authority (SHA). December 18. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/connett.2008.pdf

Connett P. 2009. Comments on behalf of adding fluoride chemicals and cancer to Proposition 65. Submitted to Cynthia Oshita, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Proposition 65 Implementation, Sacramento, California. May 4. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/ca.prop65.connett.html

Cook HA. 1971. Fluoride studies in a patient with arthritis. The Lancet 1: 817. See http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/bone/fluorosis/arthritis/cook1971.html

Cook HA. 1972. Crippling fluorosis related to fluoride intake (case report). Fluoride 5(4):209-213. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Cooper C, Wickham C, Barker DJP, Jacobsen SJ. 1991. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. JAMA 266: 513-514 (letter, a reanalysis of data presented in 1990 paper). [ See letter ]

Cooper C, Wickham C, Lacey RF, Barker DJ. 1990. Water fluoride concentration and fracture of the proximal femur. J Epidemiol Community Health. 44(1):17-19. [ Abstract ]

Coplan MJ, Masters RD. 2001. Silicofluorides and fluoridation. Guest Editorial. Fluoride. 34(3):161-220.

Coplan MJ, Patch SC, Masters RD, Bachman MS. 2007. Confirmation of and explanations for elevated blood lead and other disorders in children exposed to water disinfection and fluoridation chemicals. Neurotoxicology 28(5):1032-42. [ Abstract ]

Cordy PE, et al. 1974. Bone disease in hemodialysis patients with particular reference to the effect of fluoride. Transactions of the American Society of Artifical Internal Organs 20: 197-202. [ Abstract ]

Cortes DF, Ellwood RP, O’Mullane DM, Bastos JR. 1996. Drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, and caries experience in Brazil. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 56: 226-8. [ Abstract ]

Cotton M, Claing A. 2009. G protein-coupled receptors stimulation and the control of cell migration. Cellular Signalling 21(7):1045-1053. July. [ Abstract ]

Cousins MJ, et al. 1983. Anaesthesia and the kidney. Anaesth Intensive Care. 11(4):292-320. [ Abstract ]

County of San Diego (California). 2005. Office of the Medical Examiner. Amended Autopsy Report of Linh Da Willams. August 23.

Cox, G.J. 1937. Experimental dental caries. I. Nutrition in relation to the development of dental caries. Dental Rays, 13:8-10.

Cox, G.J. 1939. New knowledge of fluorine in relation to dental caries. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 31:1926-1930.

Cox GJ, Hodge HC. 1950. The toxicity of fluorides in relation to their use in dentistry. Journal of the American Dental Association 40:440-51.

Crespi CL, Seixas GM, Turner T, Penman BW. 1990. Sodium fluoride is a less efficient human cell mutagen at low concentrations. Environmental Molecular Mutagenesis 15:71-7. [ Abstract ]

Cui LX, et al. 2003. Experimental study on effect of fluoride on reproductive system of male rats. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB406.007.htm

Cunha-Cruz J, Nadanovsky P. 2005. Dental fluorosis increases caries risk. Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice 5: 170-171.

Curtis GH. 1951. Cutaneous hypersensitivity due to beryllium. AMA Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology 64: 470-482.

Czerny B, Pawlik A, Juzyszyn Z. Mysliwiec Z. 2004. The effect of tamoxifen and fluoride on bone mineral density, biomechanical properties and blood lipids in ovariectomized rats. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 95(4):162–165. October [ Abstract ]

Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. 1977. Fluoride-induced changes in 60 retired aluminum workers. Fluoride 10(3):125-136. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. 1978. Skeletal changes in industrial and endemic fluorosis. Fluoride 11(1):29-32. [ AbstractFull Report ]

Czerwinski E, Nowak J, Dabrowska D, Skolarczyk A, Kita B, Ksiezyk M. 1988. Bone and joint pathology in fluoride-exposed workers. Arch Environ Health 43(5):340-3. [ Abstract ]

For Authors Last Name beginning with:

A-C | D-F | G-I J-L | M-O | P-R | S-U | V-Z

back to top