Fluoride Action Network

Fluoride Studies funded by the U.S. Government

The first U.S. government-funded Mother-Offspring study on fluoride's neurotoxic effects was published in 2017 - some 67 years since fluoridation of drinking water began. There are now more studies since 2017 that have revealed that in fluoridated communities the fetus and the formula-fed infant are the most vulnerable to fluoride’s neurotoxicity. These and other studies funded by the U.S. government on fluoride's toxicity are presented here.


The human studies funded by U.S. government agencies, particularly Bashash 2017, Green 2019 and Till 2020, reveal that in fluoridated communities the fetus and the formula-fed infant are the most vulnerable to fluoride’s neurotoxicity.

Certain high levels of fluoride in the pregnant women’s urine were found to significantly impact the IQ, or neurodevelopment, of the offspring. These high urinary fluoride levels are found in pregnant women living in fluoridated areas in the U.S. and Canada, where the level fluoride added to drinking water is the same: 0.7 ppm. The same issue will impact residents living in naturally-occurring high fluoride areas.

U.S. agencies funding the studies:

NIH (National Institute of Heath). The NIEHS and the NIDCR come under the aegis of the NIH.

• NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) has responsibility for the NTP (National Toxicology Program). The NIEHS is the research arm of U.S. regulatory agencies and has been able to perform good science amidst a battlefield of conflicting inter-agency interests but yet it is not immune to government-induced pressure on controversial toxics. The NTP is best known for its Reports on Carcinogens. Under the leadership of Dr. Linda Birnbaum, the director of the NIEHS and NTP from 2009 to 2019, the funding of the studies on fluoride’s neurotoxicity began.

• NIDCR (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research) is a staunchly pro-fluoridation federal agency. It funds thousands of studies, but has only funded one human study on fluoride’s neurotoxicity: the Broadbent et al. 2015 New Zealand IQ study, which found no effect. NIDCR’s continuous funding of millions of dollars each year to academic and dental institutions, and university researchers, can influence strong partisanship to NIDCR’s positions, and in the case of fluoride, to their unwavering promotion of fluoridation. See here for some of the hundreds of studies that NIDCR funded.

• EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has responsibility for ensuring “safe” fluoride levels in drinking water. Yet it has an out-dated contaminant level for fluoride in drinking water that that was set 46 years ago, and that is non-protective of American’s health. EPA says it’s legal to have up to 2 mg/L fluoride in drinking water.

CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). The Division of Oral Health at the CDC are the promoters of fluoridation. They recently contracted to bring to market a system to fluoridate small communities with “tablets” which they estimate will allow up to 19 million more Americans to drink fluoridated water.

NOTE: Not all the fluoride studies funded by U.S. agencies are listed in the following pages, but we will attempt to identify all the studies as we find them. If you know of studies that should be included here, please email us.


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