Fluoride Action Network

Fluoride Studies funded by the U.S. Government

The first U.S. government-funded Mother-Offspring study on fluoride's neurotoxic effects was published in 2017 - some 67 years since fluoridation of drinking water began. There are now more studies since 2017 that have revealed that in fluoridated communities the fetus and the formula-fed infant are the most vulnerable to fluoride’s neurotoxicity. These and other studies funded by the U.S. government on fluoride's toxicity are presented here.

Other studies on Fluoride’s Toxicity

US-agencies funding the studies:

NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) has responsibility for the NTP (National Toxicology Program). The NIEHS is the research arm of U.S. regulatory agencies. The NTP is best known for its Reports on Carcinogens.

NIDCR (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research) is a pro-fluoridation federal agency. It funds the majority of studies on dental research.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has responsibility for ensuring “safe” fluoride levels in drinking water. The EPA has never performed a risk assessment on pregnant women, the fetus, or the formula-fed infant living in fluoridated communities. According to the Mother-Offspring fluoride studies, these are the very populations most at risk to fluoride’s neurotoxicity.

CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). The Division of Oral Health at the CDC are the nation’s promoters of fluoridation. They recently contracted to bring to market a system to fluoridate small communities using ‘sodium fluorosilicate tablets’ which they estimate will allow up to 19 million more Americans to drink fluoridated water.

NOTE: Not all studies funded by U.S. agencies are listed below, but we will attempt to identify all the studies as we find them. If you know of studies that should be included here, please email us

Year,
Grants

Author, Study

Finding

2021

NIEHS

Nov 24: Mailin et al., Fluoride Exposure and Age of Menarche: Potential Differences Among Adolescent Girls and Women in the United States. “… we observed a significant interaction between plasma fluoride and race/ethnicity in association with age of menarche (p = 0.01). Among Non-Hispanic Black adolescents, each IQR increase in plasma fluoride was associated with a 5-month earlier age of menarche (B = 0.42, 95%CI –  0.61, – 0.23, p < 0.001). Potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure on reproductive health outcomes are an important area of study. Current study findings, as well as potential health disparities due to disproportionate fluoride exposure should be examined in prospective studies…”

2021

NIH

Jan 29: Kyzer et al., Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluorine Compounds. The use of fluorine in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals has expanded dramatically since its first use in the 1950s. Its use is often tied to improved metabolic stability, selectivity, and solubility, which has been demonstrated for a variety of products. However, fluorinated compounds are not immune to metabolism and liberation of fluoride or low molecular weight fluorinated molecules from fluorine-containing drugs, and candidates must be monitored to avoid potentially lethal toxicity.”

2021

NIDCR,
NIH,
NIEHS

Hayes et al., A case-control study of topical and supplemental fluoride use and osteosarcoma risk.

“Supplemental and topical fluorides used in the dental office and in over-the-counter products are not related to an increased risk of developing osteosarcoma.”

Disclosures. Dr. Douglass has written reviews of the literature for a number of companies that sell, reimburse, or do research on preventive dentistry products, most notably GlaxoSmithKline, Colgate-Palmolive, Henry Schein, Dentsply, Quintiles, and Delta Dental Plans, as well as the US Public Health Service. Dr. Hayes has done limited consulting with Proctor & Gamble. None of the other authors reported any disclosures.”

2021

NIEHS,
NIH

Sept 7: Saylor et al. Early childhood fluoride exposure and preadolescent kidney function. Environmental Research.

2021

NIH,
EPA

June: Signes-Pastor et al., Exposure to a Mixture of Metals and Growth Indicators in 6–11-Year-Old Children from the 2013–2016 NHANES.

2021

NIEHS,
NIH

Oct 15: Khattak et al. Groundwater fluoride across the Punjab plains of Pakistan and India: Distribution and underlying mechanisms. Science of the Total Environment.

2020

NIEHS, NIH, EPA

Liu et al., Association between fluoride exposure and cardiometabolic risk in peripubertal Mexican children. • We examined the cross-sectional association between peripubertal exposure to fluoride and markers of cardiometabolic risk in 280 girls and 256 boys at age 10-18 years living in Mexico City.
• We found that higher peripubertal fluoride exposure at the levels observed in this study population was significantly associated with increased levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in Mexican girls but not boys.

2020

NIDCR,
NIEHS,
NIH

Kim et al., A Case-Control Study of Fluoridation and Osteosarcoma. “Findings from this study demonstrated that community water fluoridation is not associated with an increased risk for osteosarcoma.”

2020

NIH

December: Carwile et al., Predictors of Plasma Fluoride Concentrations in Children and Adolescents. “… The participants who consumed fluoridated (>0.7 mg/L) tap water (n = 560, 16%) versus those who did not had 36% (95% CI: 22, 51) higher plasma fluoride. Children who drank black or green tea (n = 503, 13%) had 42% higher plasma fluoride concentrations (95% CI: 27, 58) than non-tea drinkers… The consumption of fluoridated tap water and tea substantially increases plasma fluoride concentrations in children. Quantifying the contribution of diet and other sources of fluoride is critical to establishing safe target levels for municipal water fluoridation.”

2020

NIEHS,
NIH

Green et al., Associations between Urinary, Dietary, and Water Fluoride Concentrations among Children in Mexico and Canada. “We found that childhood urinary fluoride levels are comparable among children in Mexico City and fluoridated Canadian communities, despite distinct sources of exposure. Community water fluoridation is a major source of fluoride exposure for Canadian children.”

2020

NIEHS,
NIH

Godebo et al., Bone quality in fluoride-exposed populations: A novel application of the ultrasonic method.

2019

NIEHS, NIH, EPA

Liu et al. Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City. “Childhood fluoride exposure, at the levels observed in our study, was associated with later pubertal development among Mexican boys at age 10-17 years. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.”

2019

NIEHS,
EPA

Cantoral et al., Fluoride Content in Foods and Beverages From Mexico City Markets and Supermarkets. “The food groups with the lowest and highest fluoride content were eggs (2.32 µg/100 g) and seafood (371 µg/100 g), respectively. When estimating the amount of fluoride per portion size, the lowest content corresponded to eggs and the highest to fast foods. Meats and sausages, cereals, fast food, sweets and cakes, fruits, dairy products, legumes, and seafood from Mexico presented higher fluoride contents than similar foods from the United States or the United Kingdom. Drinks and eggs from the United States exhibited the highest contents, while this was the case for pasta, soups, and vegetables from the United Kingdom… Data generated provide the first and largest table on fluoride content, which will be useful for future comparisons and estimations.”

2019

NIEHS

Godebo et al., Biomonitoring of metals and trace elements in urine of central Ethiopian populations. “Fluoride concentrations fell between 0.44 and 44.6mg/L (mean:10.1±7.1 mg/L). More than 96% of the urine samples contained F at levels higher than the Biological Exposure Index (BEI) value of 2mg/L established by industrial hygienists as a guideline for occupational exposure (ACGIH, 2012). The maximum of 44.6mg/L is much higher than reported levels seen in other studies including from endemic areas (e.g., ). We also compared our data with Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs), which refer to the concentration or range of concentrations of chemicals in a biological medium that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. The F range we have obtained in our study is far beyond the established range for BEs (1.1-2.1mg/L) (), indicating high potential health risks to the Rift population.”

2019

NIEHS

Malin et al., Fluoride exposure and liver function among adolescents in the United Stares: NHANES, 2013-2016. See Mt. Sinai press release on study.

2018

NIH

Zelko F. 2018. Optimizing nature: Invoking the “natural” in the struggle over water fluoridation. On the history of fluoridation.
“…One of the attractions of water fluoridation is its affordability: the fluoride compounds are sourced from the phosphate and aluminum industries, for whom they would otherwise constitute an annoying waste disposal problem. Despite this, proponents have nonetheless succeeded in shaping a narrative that casts fluoridation as “natural” or at least mimicking nature.”

2017

NIH

Zheng et al.,Environmental exposures and pediatric kidney function and disease: A systematic review.

” We identified two studies that showed a positive association between fluoride levels and urine NAG levels. This suggests that there is a possible association between fluoride and kidney function.

“Our review identified several gaps in scientific knowledge. These include a critical need for additional studies of environment chemicals exposures and renal health, including but not limited to lead, arsenic, manganese, cadmium, fluoride, Bisphenol A, PFOA, and PAH compounds.”

2017

NIEHS

Victory et al., Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community.

“Compared to the general United States (U.S.) population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health…

“Low-income Latino households (n?=?90) who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited…

“Low-income children in this region may benefit from regular access to fluoride varnishing treatments.”

2014

NIEHS,
NIH

Jayarathne et al., Emissions of fine particle fluoride from biomass burning. “Based on recent evaluations of global biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning releases 76 Gg F- yr(-1) to the atmosphere, with upper and lower bounds of 40-150 Gg F- yr(-1). The estimated F- flux from biomass burning is comparable to total fluorine emissions from coal combustion plus other anthropogenic sources. These data demonstrate that biomass burning represents a major source of fluorine to the atmosphere in the form of fine particles, which have potential to undergo long-range transport.”

2012

NIH

Ngoc et al., Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. “In summary, our findings demonstrate that NaF influences the viability and survival of mESCs [mouse embryonic stem cells] according to the exposed concentrations. In high doses (from 2 mM), NaF induces cell death mainly by apoptosis through mitochondrial stress and caspase- and JNK-mediated
pathways, where ROS play important roles as upstream effectors. It is also believed that hydroxyl radicals generated by H2O2 might cause acute damage to cellular macromolecules in NaF-exposed cells, especially DNA, thereby leading to necrotic cell death. It is considered that fluoride uptake by water fluoridation or by treating osteoporosis does not
result in severe problems which can occur by an acute and high-concentration exposure, mainly by inhalation in occupational settings (Fordyce, 2011). However, the present findings suggest that fluoride above a threshold concentration exert toxic effects sensitively on stem cells and thus the younger should pay the more caution before its treatment.”

2011

NIEHS,
NIDCR,
NIH

Kim et al., An Assessment of Bone Fluoride and Osteosarcoma.

“This study did not demonstrate an association between fluoride levels in bone and osteosarcoma.”

“Footnote: CWD [CW Douglass] has written reviews of the literature for several companies that sell, reimburse for, or do research on preventive dentistry products, most notably GlaxoSmithKline, Colgate- Palmolive, Dentsply, Quintile, Delta Dental Plans, and the United States Public Health Service (USPHS). CH [C. Hayes] has done limited consulting with Procter & Gamble. All other authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

2008

EPA

Final Report: The Development of an Indigenous Fluoride Filter. The objective of this research is to develop a truly sustainable filter for the removal of fluoride ions from groundwater that can, in principle, be used worldwide. Principal requirements for the filter are that, where possible, it uses indigenous materials for both the housing and filter media, and that the design be potentially accessible by all. It is our intent that neither skilled labor nor specialized components be required for construction of the filter housing, and that the design of the filter be available through a set of simple drawings and instructions for construction. Since, the most important component of any filter is the material used to remove the undesired chemicals or particulate matter, the adsorption media should be indigenous, freely available and not require special preparation in the form of chemical treatment or high temperature processing.

2006

NIEHS,
NIDCR,
NIH

 

Bassin et al., Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States).

“Conclusions: Our exploratory analysis found an association between fluoride exposure in drinking water during childhood and the incidence of osteosarcoma among males but not consistently among females. Further research is required to confirm or refute this observation.”

 

1994

NIEHS

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE ADMINISTRATION ON RADIATION INDUCED OSTEOSARCOMAS

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES
Principal Investigator: Hong,H L 

1987

NIEHS

CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS OF SODIUM FLUORIDE

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BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Principle Investigator: PETERS, ARTHUR C
Grant: $85,747

1987

NIEHS

CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS OF SODIUM FLUORIDE

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BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Principle Investigator: PETERS, ARTHUR C
Grant: $105,570

1986

NIEHS

CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS OF SODIUM FLUORIDE

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1985

NIEHS

CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS OF SODIUM FLUORIDE

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BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Principle Investigator: PETERS, ARTHUR C
Grant:
$516,431

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