Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (D-F)


Dabrowska E, Letko R, Balunowska M. 2006. Effect of sodium fluoride on the morphological picture of the rat liver exposed to NaF in drinking water. Adv Med Sci. 51 Suppl 1:91-5. [ Abstract ]

Dai G. 1988. Quantitative epidemiologic study of the relationship between the content of fluoride and endemic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB198801007.htm

Dai G, et al. 2004. Distributive regulation of bone substance change in various population sub-groups with different fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200402031.htm

Daijei H. 1984. Further observations on radiological changes of endemic foodborne skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride 17(1) 9-14. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/huo-1984.pdf – NOTE: see Huo D. 1984.

Daley R, et al. -1967. The effects of sodium fluoride on osteoporotic rats. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. (Abstract). 49A:796.

Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. 1992. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah’s elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 268(6):746-748. August. [ Abstract ]

Das S, et al. 2005. Induction of oxidative stress on reproductive and metabolic organs in sodium fluoride-treated male albino rats: protective effect of testosterone and vitamin e coadministration. Toxicol Mech Methods. 15(4):271-7.

Das TK, Susheela AK, Gupta IP, Dasarathy S, Tandon RK. 1994. Toxic effects of chronic fluoride ingestion on the upper gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Gastroenterol 18(3):194-9. April. [ Abstract ]

Dasarathy S, Das TK, Gupta IP, Susheela AK, Tandon RK. 1996. Gastroduodenal manifestations in patients with skeletal fluorosis. J Gastroenterol 31(3):333-7. June. [ Abstract ]

Daston GP, Rehnberg BF, Carver B, Kavlock RJ. 1985. Toxicity of sodium fluoride to the postnatally developing rat kidney. Environ Res. 37(2):461-74. August. [ Abstract ]

Day TK, Powell-Jackson PR. 1972. Fluoride, water hardness, and endemic goitre. Lancet 1:1135-1138.

de la Sota M. 1997. [Changes in bone mass and glucose homeostasis in subjects with high spontaneous fluoride intake] (Article in Spanish). Medicina 57(4): 417-20.

Dean HT. 1934. Classification of mottled enamel diagnosis. J.Amer.Dent.Assoc., 21: 1421-1426.

Dean HT, Elvove E. 1935. Studies on the minimal threshold of the dental sign of chronic endemic fluorosis (mottled enamel). Pub. Health Rep. 50: 1719 –1729.

Dean HT. 1936. Chronic endemic dental fluorosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 107: 1269-1273. [ Excerpt ]

Dean HT, Elvove E. 1936. Some epidemiologic aspects of chronic endemic dental fluorosis. Am J Pub Health, 26:567-75. See full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/dean-1936.pdf

Dean HT, Elvove E. 1937. Further studies on the minimal threshold of chronic endemic fluorosis. Pub. Health Rep. 52, 1249 –1264.

Dean HT. 1938. Endemic fluorosis and its relation to dental caries. Pub. Health Rep. 53, 1443-1452.

Dean HT. 1938. Mottled enamel survey of Bauxite, Ark., 10 years after a change in the common water supply. Pub. Health Rep. 53, 1736-1748.

Dean HT, Jay P, Arnold FA, Elvove E. 1941. Domestic water and dental caries. I. A dental caries study, including L.acidophilus estimations, of a population severely affected by mottled enamel and which for the past 12 years has used a fluoride-free water. Pub. Health Rep. 56, 365-381.

Dean HT, Arnold FA Jr, Elvove E.  1942.  Domestic water and dental caries.  Pub. Health Rep.  57:1155-1179, August 7.

Dede O, et al. 2011. Chronic fluoride exposure has a role in etiology of coronary artery ectasia: sialic acid/glycosaminoglycan ratio. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:695-701.

de Liefde B. 1998. The decline of caries in New Zealand over the past 40 Years. New Zealand Dental Journal. 94(417):109-113. September. [ Abstract ]DenBesten PK, Crenshaw MA. 1984. The effects of chronic high fluoride levels on forming enamel in the rat. Archives of Oral Biology 29(9):675-9. [ Abstract ]

DenBesten PK, Crenshaw MA, Wilson MH. 1985. Changes in the fluoride-induced modulation of maturation stage ameloblasts of rats. Journal of Dental Research 64(12):1365-70. December. [ Abstract ]

DenBesten P. 1999. Biological mechanism of dental fluorosis relevant to the use of fluoride supplements. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 27(1):41-7. February. [ Abstract ]

DenBesten PK, Yan Y, Featherstone JD, Hilton JF, Smith CE, Li W. 2002. Effects of fluoride on rat dental enamel matrix proteinases. Archives of Oral Biology 47(11):763-770. November. [ Abstract ]

DePaola PF et al. 1981.  Changes in caries prevalence of Massachusetts children over thirty years. J Dental Res; 60:360

Department of Health & Human Services. (U.S. DHHS). 2000. Oral health in America: a report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health.

Department of Health & Human Services. (U.S. DHHS). 1991. Review of fluoride: benefits and risks, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. Department of Health and Human Services, USA.

DePaula CA, et al. 2002. Changing the structurally effective mineral content of bone with in vitro fluoride treatment. J Biomech. 35(3):355-61.

Derryberry OM, Bartholomew MD, Fleming RB. 1963. Fluoride exposure and worker health. The health status of workers in a fertilizer manufacturing plant in relation to fluoride exposure. Archives of Environmental Health 6: 503-514. February.

De Paola PF, Soparkar P, Allukian M, De Velis R, Resker M. 1981.  Changes in caries prevalence of Massachusetts children over thirty years. J Dental Res; 60:360.

Desai VK, et al. 1986. Symptomatology of Workers in the Fluoride Industry and Fluorspar Processing Plants. Studies in Environmental Science 27:193-99.

Desai VK, et al. 1993. Epidemiological study of goitre in endemic fluorosis district of Gujarat. Fluoride. 26:187-90. [See study]

De Stefano TM. 1954. The fluoridation research studies and the general practitioner. Bulletin of Hudson County Dental Society. February.

DeVeber GA, et al. 1970. Changing patterns of renal osteodystrophy with chronic hemodialysis. Transactions of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 16: 479-486.

de Vos G, et al. 2004. Effects of fluoride and mercury on human cytokine response in vitro. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113(Suppl 1): S66.

Dhillon AS, Tarbutton GL, Levin JL, Plotkin GM, Lowry LK, Nalbone JT, Shepherd S. 2008. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson’s disease in East Texas. J Agromedicine. 13(1):37-48. [ Abstract ]

Dhuna AK, Gu XF, Pascual-Leone A, Lee M. 1992. Skeletal fluorosis. An unusual cause of progressive radiculomyelopathy. Spine 17(7):842-4. July.

Disanayake JK, et al. 1994. Skeletal fluorosis with neurological complications. Ceylon Med J. 39(1):48-50. March. [ Abstract ]

Diesendorf M. 1986. The mystery of declining tooth decay. Nature. 322: 125-129. http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/diesendorf.html

Diesendorf M, Colquhoun J, Spittle BJ, Everingham DN, Clutterbuck FW. 1997. New evidence on fluoridation. Aust N Z J Public Health 21(2):187-190. April. [ Abstract ]

Diesendorf M, Diesendorf A. 1997. Suppression by medical journals of a warning about overdosing formula-fed infants with fluoride. Account Res. 5(1-3):225-237.

Ding Y, et al. 2011. The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children’s intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 186(2-3):1942-46.

Ditkoff BA, Lo Gerfo P. 2000. The thyroid guide. Harper-Collins. New York.

Dolan T, Legette L, McNeal J, Malanoski AJ. 1978. Determination of fluoride in deboned meat. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 61(4):982-985. July. [ Abstract ]

Dönmez N, Çinar A. 2003. Effects of chronic fluorosis on electrocardiogram in sheep. Biol Trace Elem Res 92:115-21.

Dote T, et al. 2000. Toxicokinetics of intravenous fluoride in rats with renal damage caused by high-dose fluoride exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 73 Suppl:S90-2. June. [ Abstract ]

Douglas TE. 1957. Fluoride dentifrice and stomatitis. Northwest Medicine 56: 1037-1039. See study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/douglas-1957.html

Du L,Wan C, Cao X, Liu J. 2008. The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain. Fluoride 41(4):327-330. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/du-2008.pdf

Duell PB, Chesnut CH. 1991. Exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis by sodium fluoride treatment of osteoporosis. Archives of Internal Medicine 151(4):783-4. April. [ Abstract ]

Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Zhang W, Wilson ME, Miller LL, Katz BP, Warrick JM, Stookey GK. 1995. Effect of aging on animal response to chronic fluoride exposure. Journal of Dental Research 74(1):358-68. January. [ Abstract ]

Dunipace AJ, et al. 1996. Absence of detrimental effects of fluoride exposure in diabetic rats. Archives of Oral Biology 41(2): 191-203.

Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Wilson ME, Zhang W, Katz BP, Stookey GK. 1998. Chronic fluoride exposure does not cause detrimental, extraskeletal effects in nutritionally deficient rats. Journal of Nutrition 128(8):1392-400. August. [ Abstract ]

Dure-Smith BA, Kraenzlin ME, Farley SM, Libanati CR, Schulz EE, Baylink DJ. 1991. Fluoride therapy for osteoporosis: a review of dose response, duration of treatment, and skeletal sites of action. Calcified Tissue International 49 Suppl: S64-S67. [ Abstract ]

Dvorakova-Hortová K, Sandera M, Jursova M, Vasinova J, Peknicova J. 2008. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation. Animal Reproductive Science 108(1-2):157-70. October. [ Abstract ]


Easley M. 1999. Community fluoridation in America: the unprincipled opposition. Unpublished. See article at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/easley-1999.opposition.pdf

Eckerlin RH, Maylin GA, Krook L, Carmichael DT. 1988. Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoride on reproduction in silver foxes. Cornell Veterinarian 78(4):385-91. October. [ Abstract ]

Edwards M, et al. 2005. An assessment of teenagers’ perceptions of dental fluorosis using digital stimulation and web-based testing. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 33:298-306.

Eichler HG, Lenz K, Fuhrmann M, Hruby K. 1982. Accidental ingestion of NaF tablets by children–report of a poison control center and one case. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 20(7):334-8. July. [ Abstract ]

Eichmiller FC, Eidelman N, Carey CM. 2005. Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function. J Am Dent Assoc. 136(1):67-70; quiz 91. [ Abstract ]

Einarsdottir KG, Bratthall D. 1996. Restoring oral health: On the rise and fall of dental caries in Iceland. European Journal of Oral Science 104(4 ( Pt 2)):459-69. August. [ Abstract ]

Eisenbrandt DL, Nitschke KD. (1989). Inhalation toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride in rats and rabbits. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology 1989 Apr;12(3):540-57. [ Abstract ]

Ekambaram P, Paul V . 2001. Calcium preventing locomotor behavioral and dental toxicities of fluoride by decreasing serum fluoride level in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 9:141-146. [ Abstract ]

Ekanayake L, Van Der Hoek W. 2002. Dental caries and developmental defects of enamel in relation to fluoride levels in drinking water in an arid area of sri lanka. Caries Research 36(6):398-404. Nov-Dec. [ Abstract ]

Ekstrand J, Ehrnebo M. 1980. Absorption of fluoride from fluoride dentrifices. Caries Research 14(2):96-102.

Ekstrand J, Koch G, Lindgren LE, Petersson LG. 1981. Pharmacokinetics of fluoride gels in children and adults. Caries Research 15(3):213-20.

Ekstrand J, Hardell LI, Spak CJ. 1984. Fluoride balance studies on infants in a 1-ppm-water-fluoride area. Caries Research 18(1):87-92.

Ekstrand J. 1989. Fluoride intake in early infancy. Journal of Nutrition 119(Suppl 12):1856-60. December. [ Abstract ]

Ekstrand J, Fomon SJ, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE. 1994. Fluoride pharmacokinetics in infancy. Pediatric Research 35(2):157–163. February. [ Abstract ]

Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Fomon SJ. 1994. Absorption and retention of dietary and supplemental fluoride by infants. Advances in Dental Research 8(2):175-80. July. [ Abstract ]

Ekstrand J. 1996. Fluoride intake. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B, Eds. Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd Edition. Munksgaard, Denmark. Pages 40-52.

Elbetieha A, Darmani H, Al-Hiyasat AS. 2000. Fertility effects of sodium fluoride in male mice. Fluoride 33(3):128-134. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/elbetieha-2000.pdf

Ellenhorn MJ, Barceloux DG. 1988. Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Elsevier; New York. pp. 534.

Emsley J, et al. 1981. An unexpectedly strong hydrogen bond: ab initio calculations and spectroscopic studies of amide-fluoride systems. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 103: 24-28.

Environment Canada. 1993. Inorganic fluorides: Priority Substances List Assessment Report. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/HCanada-93.pdf

Environmental Working Group. 2005. Petition to National Toxicology Program nominating fluoride in tap water for inclusion in the Report on Carcinogens. June 6. Available at http://www.ewg.org/node/21001

Environmental Working Group. 2006. National Academy Calls for Lowering Fluoride Limits in Tap Water. March 22, 2006.

Environmental Working Group.  2009.  Research on PFOA and fluoride carcinogenicity supports their high priority review for Proposition 65 listing. Re: Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review.  May 5.  Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/ewg-may2009-1.pdf

Erauskin R. 1935. Dientes veteados. Rev. Odont. (Buenos Aires) 23:296-313.

Erciyas K, Sarikaya R. 2009. Genotoxic evaluation of sodium fluoride in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). Food & Chemical Toxicology 47(11):2860-2.

Erdal S, Buchanan SN. 2005. A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:111-7. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/erdal-2005.pdf

Erickson JD, Oakley GP Jr, Flynt JW Jr, Hay S. 1976. Water fluoridation and congenital malformations: no association. Journal of the American Dental Association 93(5):981-984. November [ Abstract ]

Essman EJ, Essman WB. 1979. Rat skin reaction to topical fluoride: metabolic and histological changes. Federation Proceedings 38: 1242.

Essman EJ, Essman WB, Valderrama E. 1981. Histaminergic mediation of the response of rat skin to topical fluorides. Archives of Dermatological Research 271: 325-40.

Eswar P, et al. 2011. Intelligent quotients of 12-14 year old school children in a high and low fluoride village in India. Fluoride 44:168-72.

European Commission. 2005. The Safety of Fluorine Compounds in Oral Hygiene Products for Children Under the Age of 6 Years. European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General, Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, September 20.

Evans FG, Wood JL. 1976. Mechanical properties and density of bone in a case of severe endemic fluorosis. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 47(5):489-495. October. [ Abstract ]

Everett ET, et al. 2002. Dental fluorosis: variability among different inbred mouse strains. Journal of Dental Research 81(11):794-8. November. [ Abstract ] and Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/everett-2002.pdf

Everett ET. 2011. Fluoride’s Effects on the Formation of Teeth and Bones, and the Influence of Genetics. Journal of Dental Research 90:552-60.

Exner FB. 1957. Fallacies of the fluoridation thesis. In: J Rorty, ed. (1957). The American Fluoridation Experiment. Delvin-Adair Co, New York. pp. 29-153.

Expert Group of the Ministry of Health for Epidemiological Survey of Fluorosis of Tea Drinking Type. 2000. Relations between state of skeletal fluorosis of brick-tea type and?brick tea intake. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200004012.htm

Expert Group of the Ministry of Health for the Study of Tea-Induced Fluoride Poisoning. 2000. The dose-response relationship of tea-induced osteofluorosis and brick tea fluoride intake. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 19(4):266-8. Available at: http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/expertsgroup-2000.pdf


Faccini JM. 1969. Fluoride and bone. Calcified Tissue Research 3:1-16.

Faccini JM, Teotia SPS. 1974. Histopathological assessment of endemic skeletal fluorosis. Calcified Tissue Research 16(1):45-57.

Fan J, et al. 1994. The Relationship between Nutritional Factors and Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis. Tianjing Medical Journal. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-TJYZ199412003.htm

Fan ZX, Dai HX, Bai AM et al. 2007. Effect of high fluoride exposure on children intelligence. [Article in Chinese]. Huan Jing Yu Jian Kang Za Zhi 24(10):802–803. [IQ STUDY: Only in Chinese, not yet translated into English]

Farkas CS. 1975. Total fluoride intake and fluoride content of common foods: a review. Fluoride 8(2):98-105. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/farkas-1975.pdf

Featherstone JDB. 1987. The mechanism of dental decay. Nutrition Today. May/June 10.

Featherstone JDB. 1999. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 27(1):31-40. February. [ Abstract ]

Featherstone JDB. 2000. The science and practice of caries prevention. Journal of the American Dental Association. 131(7):887-899. July. [ Abstract ]

Febres C, Echeverri EA, Keene HJ. 1997. Parental awareness, habits, and social factors and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay. Pediatric Dentistry 19(1):22-27.  February. [ Abstract ]
Of 100 children in this study, 19 had BBTD on at least two maxillary incisors: Hispanic 13, Black 3, White 1. (Note: Houston was fluoridated in 1982.)

Fein NJ, Cerklewski FL. 2001. Fluoride content of foods made with mechanically separated chicken. J Agric Food Chem. 49(9):4284-6. September. [ Abstract ]

Felsenfeld AJ, Roberts MA. 1991. A report of fluorosis in the United States secondary to drinking well water. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:486-8. [ Abstract ]

Fejerskov O, Thylstrup A, Larsen MJ. 1981. Rational use of fluorides in caries prevention. Acta Odontol Scand. 39(4):241-249. [ Abstract ]

Fejerskov O, Manji F, Baelum V. 1990. The nature and mechanisms of dental fluorosis in man. Journal of Dental Research 69(Spec Iss): 692-700. February. [ Abstract ]

Fejerskov O, Richards A, DenBesten P. 1996. The effect of fluoride on tooth mineralization. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B, Eds. Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd Edition. Munksgaard, Copenhagen. pp. 112-152.

Fejerskov O. 2004. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Research 38: 182-91. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/fejerskov2004.pdf

Feltman R. 1956. Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluoride salts: a progress report. Dent Dig 62:353-357.

Feltman R, Kosel G. 1961. Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluorides – fourteen years of investigation – Final report. J Dent Med 16:190-99.

Feskanich D, et al. 1998. Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology. 9(4):412-6. July. [ Abstract ]
While this study didn’t find an association between water fluoride and hip fracture, it did find an association – albeit non-significant 1.6 (0.8-3.1) – between fluoride exposure and elevated rates of forearm fracture.

Field RA, et al. 1976. Characteristics of mechanically deboned meat, hand separated meat and bone residue from bones destined for rendering. Journal of Animal Science 43: 755-762.

Fisher JR, et al. 1981. Skeletal fluorosis from eating soil. Arizona Medicine 38: 833-5.

Fisher RL, Medcalf TW, Henderson MC. 1989. Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression. A case report and review. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 697-700. [ Abstract ]

Fluoride Action Network. 2005. Estimated minimum lethal dose of fluoride. Fluoride Health Effects Database. Online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/accidents/lethal.html

Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 2005. Fluoride pesticide residue food tolerances approved by US EPA as of July 15.
Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/fluoride.tols.july.2005.html

Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE. 2000. Fluoride intake and prevalence of dental fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants. J Public Health Dent. 60(3):131-9. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J. 1999. Fluoride intake by infants. J Public Health Dent. 59(4):229-34. Fall. [ Abstract ]

Food & Drug Administration. 1991. Dose determination and carcinogenicity studies of sodium fluoride in Crl:CD-1 Mice and Crl:CD (Sprague Dawley)BR Rats. In: Department of Health & Human Services. (U.S. DHHS) (1991). Review of fluoride: benefits and risks. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride, Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. Department of Health and Human Services, USA. pp. D1-D7.

Food & Drug Administration. 2000. Letter from Melinda K. Plaisier, Associate Commissioner for Legislation, FDA, to Congressman Ken Calvert. Dec 21, 2000. (See pdf file of letter at http://www.citizens.org/Food_Water_Safety/Fluoridation/Materials/fda_response.pdf

Food & Nutrition Board. 1953. The problem of providing optimum fluoride intake for prevention of dental caries. National Academy of Sciences. Publication #294.

Fordyce FM, Vrana K, Zhovinsky E, Povoroznuk V, Toth G, Hope BC, Iljinsky U, Baker J. 2007. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environ Geochem Health. 29(2):83-102. April. [ Abstract ]

Foulkes RG. 2007. The Precautionary Principle and “evidence-based dentistry.” Fluoride 40(1):4-6. January-March. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/foulkes-2007.pdf

Franke J, Rath F, Runge H, Fengler F, Auermann E, Saale GDR. 1975. Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 8: 61-83. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/franke-1975.pdf

Franzman MR, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Broffitt B. 2006. Fluoride dentifrice ingestion and fluorosis of the permanent incisors. J Am Dent Assoc. 137(5):645-52. May. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/franzman-2006.pdf

Fratzl P, et al. 1994. Abnormal bone mineralization after fluoride treatment in osteoporosis: a small-angle x-ray-scattering study. J Bone Miner Res 9(10):1541-9. October. [ Abstract ]

Fratzl P, et al. 1996. Effects of sodium fluoride and alendronate on the bone mineral in minipigs: a small-angle x-ray scattering and backscattered electron imaging study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11: 248-253. February. [ Abstract ]

Freitag V, et al. 1970. Fluoride content and microradiograph findings in skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride 3(4):167-174. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/freitag-1970.pdf

Freni SC, Gaylor DW. 1992. International trends in the incidence of bone cancer are not related to drinking water fluoridation. Cancer 70(3):611-618. August 1. [ Abstract ]

Freni SC. 1994. Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. J Toxicology and Environmental Health. 42(1):109-121. May. [ Abstract ]

Fritschi L, Sim MR, Forbes A, Abramson MJ, Benke G, Musk AW, de Klerk NH. 2003. Respiratory symptoms and lung-function changes with exposure to five substances in aluminium smelters. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 76(2):103-10. March. [ Abstract ]

Fuchs SS. 2003. Fluoride and dermatitis. Journal of the American Dental Association 134:1167.

Fulgoni V, et al. 2007. Dairy consumption and related nutrient intake in African-American adults and children in the United States: continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(2):256-64.

Full CA, Parkins FM. 1975. Effect of cooking vessel composition on fluoride. Journal of Dental Research 54(1):192. 

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