Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (G-I)


Gabler WL, Leong PA. 1979. Fluoride inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Dental Research 58(9):1933-9. September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/gabler-1779.pdf

Galletti P, Joyet G. 1958. Effect of fluorine on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. 18(10):1102-1110. October. Full study at http://www.slweb.org/galletti.html

Ganter G, et al. 1997. Contact dermatitis and stomatitis due to amine fluoride. Contact Dermatitis 37:248.

Garcia-Montalvo EA, et al. 2009. Fluoride exposure impairs glucose tolerance via decreased insulin expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology 263: 75-83.

Gao Q, Liu Y-J, Guan Z-Z. 2008. Oxidative stress might be a mechanism connected with the decreased alpha 7 nicotinic receptor influenced by high-concentration of fluoride in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 22(4):837-43. June. [ Abstract ]
NOTE: Corrigendum at — “In the above article, the concentrations of fluoride should have been given as mM, instead of lM.”

Gao Y, et al. 2009. [Effects of learning and memory of fluoride and the antagonism of selenium in rat.] [Study in Chinese] Studies of Trace Elements and Health 26(2).

Gas’kov AIu, Savchenkov MF, Iushkov NN. 2005. [The specific features of the development of iodine deficiencies in children living under environmental pollution with fluorine compounds] [Article in Russian]. Gig Sanit. Nov-Dec;(6):53-5. English Translation available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/gaskov-2005.english.trans.pdf

Ge XJ, et al. 2006. Investigation of osteoarthritis in middle-aged and old people living in drinking water type fluoride area in Gaomi City. Preventive Medicine Tribune. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YXWX200601026.htm

Ge Y, Ning H, Wang S, Wang J. 2005. DNA damage in thyroid gland cells of rats exposed to long-term intake of high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 38: 318-323. Available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/ge-2005b.pdf

Ge Y, et al. 2005. Comet assay of DNA damage in brain cells of adult rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 38:209-214. Available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/ge-2005.pdf

Ge Y, Ning H, Feng C, Wang H, Yan X, Wang S, Wang J. 2006. Apoptosis in brain cells of offspring rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 39(3)173-178. July-September. Available online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/ge-2006.pdf

Ge Y, et al. 2011. Proteomic analysis of brain proteins of rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Arch. Toxicol. 85:27-33.

Gedalia I, Frumkin A, Zuckerman H. 1964. Effects of estrogen on bone composition in rats at low and high fluoride intake. Endocrinology 75:201-205. August.

Gelberg KH. 1994. Case-control study of osteosarcoma. Doctoral Thesis, Yale University.

Gelberg KH, Fitzgerald EF, Hwang S, Dubrow R. 1995. Fluoride exposure and childhood osteosarcoma: a case-control study. Am J Pub Health 85(12):1678-1683. December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/gelberg-1995.pdf

Gelberg KH, Fitzgerald EF, Hwang S, Dubrow R. 1997. Growth and development and other risk factors for osteosarcoma in children and young adults. International Journal of Epidemiology 26:272-8.

Gelman I. 1936. Poisoning by vapors of beryllium oxyfluoride. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 18: 371-379.

Gencer B, et al. 2012. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the risk of heart failure events: An individual participant data analysis from six prospective cohorts. Circulation 2012 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Gerdes RA, Smith JD, Applegate HG. 1971. The effects of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride upon Drosophila Melanogaster. Atmospheric Environ. 5(3):113-122. March. [ Abstract ]

Gerdes RA. 1971. The influence of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride on the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals and sterility in Drosophila Melanogaster. Fluoride 4(1): 25-29.

Gerster JC, Charhon SA, Jaeger P, Boivin G, Briancon D, Rostan A, Baud CA, Meunier PJ. 1983. Bilateral fractures of femoral neck in patients with moderate renal failure receiving fluoride for spinal osteoporosis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 287(6394):723-5. September 10. [ Abstract ]

Gerth U.  2005. Nothing to smile about. Fosters Daily Democrat (Connecticut). May 22.  Available at http://www2.www.fluoridealert.org/Alert/United-States/New-Hampshire/Nothing-to-smile-about – Note: Concord, NH, has been fluoridated since 1978.

Gessner BD, Beller M, Middaugh JP, Whitford GM. 1994. Acute fluoride poisoning from a public water system. New England Journal of Medicine 330(2):95-9. January 13. [ Abstract ]

Gheorghe KR, et al. 2009. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase in rheumatoid arthritis synovium and effects of intraarticular glucocorticoids. Arthritis Research & Therapy 11(3):R83.

Ghosh D, Das Sarkar S, Maiti R, Jana D, Das UB. 2002. Testicular toxicity in sodium fluoride treated rats: association with oxidative stress. Reproductive Toxicolology 16(4):385. Jul-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Giavaresi G, Fini M, Gnudi S, Mongiorgi R, Ripamonti C, Zati A, Giardino R. 1999. The mechanical properties of fluoride-treated bone in the ovariectomized rat. Calcif Tissue Int. 65(3):237-41. September. [ Abstract ]

Gibbs GW, Horowitz I. 1979. Lung cancer mortality in aluminum reduction plant workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21(5): 347-353.

Gibson S. 1992. Effects of fluoride on immune system function. Complementary Medical Research 6: 111-113. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/gibson-1992.pdf

Gilbaugh JH, Thompson GJ. 1966. Fluoride osteosclerosis simulating carcinoma of the prostate with widespread bony metastasis: a case report. Journal of Urology 96(6):944-946. December.

Gilbert SG. 2007. Scientific consensus statement on environmental agents associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Developed by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment’s Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative (LDDI Consensus Statement). November 7. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/gilbert-2007.pdf

Gileva EA, et al. 1975. The mutagenic activity of inorganic fluorine compounds. Fluoride 8(1):47-50. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/gileva-1975.pdf

Glass RL.  1981.  Secular changes in caries prevalence in two Massachusetts towns.  Caries Res. 15(5):445-450. [ Abstract ]

Glass RL. 1982.  The first international conference of the declining prevalence of dental caries. J  Dent Res 61:1301–1383.

Gleason MN, et al. 1969. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 3rd Ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Ghosh D, Das Sarkar S, Maiti R, Jana D, Das UB. 2002. Testicular toxicity in sodium fluoride treated rats: association with oxidative stress. Reprod Toxicol. 16(4):385-90. July-August. [ Abstract ]

Glock GE, et al. 1941. The retention and elimination of fluoride in bones. Biochemical Journal 35: 1235-1239.

Goh EH, Neff AW. 2003. Effects of fluoride on Xenopus embryo development. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41(11):1501-8. November. [ Abstract ]

Gold L. 1990. Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Thursday, April 26, 1990. p. 71.

Goldemberg L. 1930. Compt Rend Soc Biol (Paris) 104:1031.

Goldemberg L. 1926. [Action physiologique des fluorures] Compt Rend Soc Physiol (Paris). 95:1169.

Goldman D. 2001. Tacrolimus ointment for the treatment of steroid-induced rosacea: a preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 44(6):995-8. June. [ Abstract ]

Goldman SM, et al. 1971. Radiculomyelopathy in a southwestern indian due to skeletal fluorosis. Arizona Medicine 28: 675-677.

Goolsby SL, et al. 2006. Consumption of calcium among African American adolescent girls. Ethnicity & Disease 16(2):476-82.

Gordon SL, Corbin SB. 1992. Summary of workshop on drinking water fluoride influence on hip fracture on bone health. (National Institutes of Health, 10 April, 1991). Osteoporosis International 2:109-17.

Gottlieb LS, Trey C. 1974. The effects of fluorinated anesthetics on the liver and kidneys. Ann. Rev. Med. 25:411-429. See excerpts at http://www.slweb.org/methoxyflurane.html

Gotzfried F. 2006. Legal aspects of fluoride in salt, particularly within the EU. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 116:371-75.

Gotzsche A. 1975. The fluoride question: panacea or poison? New York: Stein and Day Publishers.

Grandjean P, Juel K, Jensen OM. 1985. Mortality and cancer morbidity after occupational fluoride exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology 121(1):57-64. January. [ Abstract ]

Grandjean P, Olsen JH, Jensen OM, Juel K. 1992. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride. J Natl Cancer Inst. 84(24):1903-9. December 16. [ Abstract ]

Grandjean P, Olsen J. 2004. Extended follow-up of cancer incidence in fluoride-exposed workers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96(10):802-803. May 19. For a review of this study see http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/connett.m-2004.pdf

Gray AS. 1987. Fluoridation: time for a new base line? Journal of the Canadian Dental Association. 53(10):763-5. October. [ Abstract ]

Green K. 2005. Fault is disputed in death, gassing. Woman was inside a tented building. The San Diego Union-Tribune (California). March 10. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/vkane.march.10.san.diego.html

Greenberg LW, et al. 1974. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with fluorosis. Pediatrics. 54(3):320-2.

Greenberg SR. 1982. Leukocyte response in young mice chronically exposed to fluoride. Fluoride 15(3):119-123. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/greenberg-1982.pdf

Greenberg SR. 1986. Response of the renal supporting tissues to chronic fluoride exposure as revealed by a special technique. Urologia Internationalis 41(2):91-4. [ Abstract ]

Griffin SO, Beltran ED, Lockwood SA, Barker LK. 2002. Esthetically objectionable fluorosis attributable to water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 30(3):199-209. June. [ Abstract ]

Griffith-Jones W. 1977. Fluorosis in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record 100(5):84-89. January 29. [ Abstract ]

Grimbergen GW . 1974. A double blind test for determination of intolerance to fluoridated water (Preliminary Report). Fluoride 7(3):146-152. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/grimbergen-1974.pdf

Gritsan, NP. 1993. Cytogenetic effects of gaseous fluorides on grain crops. Fluoride. 26(1): 23-32. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/gritsan-1993.pdf

Grobler SR, van Wyk CW, Kotze D. 1986. Relationship between enamel fluoride levels, degree of fluorosis and caries experience in communities with a nearly optimal and a high fluoride level in the drinking water. Caries Research 20(3):284-8.

Grobleri SR, Louw AJ, van Kotze TJ. 2001. Dental fluorosis and caries experience in relation to three different drinking water fluoride levels in South Africa. Int J Paediatr Dent. 11(5):372-9. September. [ Abstract ]

Groth, E. 1973. Two Issues of science and public policy: air pollution control in the San Francisco Bay area, and fluoridation of community water supplies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, May 1973.

Grucka-Mamczar E, et al. 2004. [Activities of some enzymes and concentration of ammonia in serum of rats with fluoridehyperglycemia]. [Article in Polish]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 50 Suppl 1:36-41.

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Machoy Z. 2005. Disturbances of kidney function in rats with fluoride-induced hyperglycemia after acute poisoning by sodium fluoride. Fluoride 38(1):48–51. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/grucka-mamczar-2005.pdf

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Machoy Z, Kasperczyk S, Blaszcyk I. 2007. Influence of exgtended exposure to sodium fluoride and caffeine on the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in rat blood serum and liver. Fluoride 40(1)62–66. January-March. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/grucka-mamczar-2007.pdf

Gruebbel AO. 1952. Summarization of the subject. Journal of the American Dental Association 44: 151-155.

Grynpas MD, et al. 1994. Bone mineralization and histomorphometry in biopsies of osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Cells and Materials 4: 287-297.

Guan ZZ, et al. 1988. Synergistic action of iodine-deficiency and fluorine-intoxication on rat thyroid. Chinese Medical Journal 101(9):679-84. [See study]

Guan Z, Wang Y, Xiao K. 1997. [Influence of experimental fluorosis on phospholipid content and fatty acid composition in rat brain]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 77: 592-6. [ Abstract ]

Guan ZZ, et al. 1998. Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 20(5):537-542. Sep-Oct. [ Abstract ]

Guan ZZ, et al. 2000. Changed cellular membrane lipid composition and lipid peroxidation of kidney in rats with chronic fluorosis. Arch Toxicol. 74(10):602-8. December. [ Abstract ]

Guggenheim K, Simkin A, Wolinsky I. 1976. The effect of fluoride on bone of rats fed diets deficient in calcium or phosphorus. Calcified Tissue Research 22(1):9-17. November. [ Abstract ]

Gui CZ, et al. 2010. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 32(5):536-41.

Gulzow HJ. 1990. [Preventive dentistry in the Federal Republic of Germany] [Article in German] Oralprophylaxe 12: 53-60.

Guna Sherlin DM, Verma RJ. 2001. Vitamin D ameliorates fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in pregnant rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 23(2):197-201. Mar-Apr. [ Abstract ]

Guney M, Oral B, Take G, Giray SG, Mungan T. 2007. Effect of fluoride intoxication on endometrial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in rats: role of vitamins E and C. Toxicology. 231(2-3):215-23. March 7. [ Abstract ]

Gupta AK, et al. 2008. Quadriparesis–A rare presentation of skeletal fluorosis. J. Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine 9:201-04.

Gutowska I, et al. 2012. Fluoride in low concentration modifies expression and activity of 15 lipoxygenase in human PBMC differentiated monocyte/macrophage. Toxicology 295:23-30.

Guo X, Sun Y, Sun G. 2005. [Effect of fluoride on activities of enzyme and ultrastructure in primary cultured rat hepatocytes] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(1):35-7. January. [ Abstract ]

Guo X, Wang R, Cheng C, Wei W, Tang L, Wang Q, Tang D, Liu G, He G, Li S. 2008. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. Fluoride 41(2)125–128. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/guo.2008.pdf

Guo Z, He Y, Zhu Q. 2008. Research on the neurobehavioral function of workers occupationally exposed to fluoride. Fluoride 41(2)152-155. April-June 2008. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/guo.2008.pdf

Gupta IP, Das TK, Susheela AK, Dasarathy S, Tandon RK. 1992. Fluoride as a possible aetiological factor in non-ulcer dyspepsia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7(4):355-9. Jul-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Gupta R, Kumar AN, Bandhu S, Gupta S. 2007. Skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 36(2):154-5. March-April.

Gupta RK, Agarwal P, Kumar S, Surana PK, Lal JH, Misra UK. 1996. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis. Neuroradiology 38(4):338-342. May. [ Abstract ]

Gupta RS, Khan TI, Agrawal D, Kachhawa JB. 2007. The toxic effects of sodium fluoride on the reproductive system of male rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 23(9):507-13. October. [ Abstract ]

Gupta SK, et al. (2012). Changes in serum seromucoid following compensatory hyperparathyroidism: A sequel to chronic fluoride ingestion. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 23(2):176-180.

Gutowska I, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Rybicka M, Wioletta Dudzinska W, Marchlewicz M, Nocen I, Slawinski G, Wiszniewska B, Chlubek D. 2009. Changes in the concentration of fluoride and biogenic elements in the serum and bones of female rats with stretozotocin-induced diabetes. Fluoride 42(1):9-16. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/gutowska-2009.pdf

Gutteridge DH, Price RI, Kent GN, Prince RL, Michell PA. 1990. Spontaneous hip fractures in fluoride-treated patients: potential causative factors. J Bone Miner Res. 5 Suppl 1:S205-15. March. [ Abstract ]

Gutteridge DH, et al. 2002. A randomized trial of sodium fluoride (60 mg) +/- estrogen in postmenopausal osteoporotic vertebral fractures: increased vertebral fractures and peripheral bone loss with sodium fluoride; concurrent estrogen prevents peripheral loss, but not vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International. 13(2):158-70. Abstract ]


Haddow JE, et al. 1999. Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. New England Journal of Medicine 341(8):549-55.

Haesungcharern A, Chulavatnatol M. 1978. Inhibitors of adenylate cyclase from ejaculated human spermatozoa. J Reprod Fertil. 53(1):59-61.

Haguenauer D, Welch V, Shea B, Tugwell P, Adachi JD, Wells G. 2000. Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International. 11(9):727-38. [ Abstract ]

Haimanot RT. 1990. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, with special emphasis on radiculo-myelopathy. Paraplegia 28(4):244-51. May. [ Abstract ]

Hall LL, Smith FA, De Lopez OH, Gardner DE. 1972. Direct potentiometric determination of total ionic fluoride in biological fluids. Clinical Chemistry 18(12):1455-8. December.

Hallanger Johnson JE, et al. 2007. Fluoride-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82(6):719-24. [ Abstract ]
•• Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Aug;82(8):1017. dosage error in text.

Hamilton BF. 1989. Carcinogenesis bioassay of sodium fluoride with dosed water in B6C3F1 mice: Quality Assessment Narrative. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. p. 26-27.

Hamuro Y. 1972. Relationship between prevention of renal calcification by fluoride and fluoride-induced diuresis and reduction of urinary phosphorus excretion in magnesium-deficient KK mice. Journal of Nutrition 102(7):893-900. July.

Hanhijarvi H. 1975. Inorganic plasma fluoride concentrations and its renal excretion in certain physiological and pathological conditions in man. Fluoride 8(4):198-207. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/hanhijarvi-1975.pdf

Hanhijärvi H, et al. 1981. Ionic plasma fluoride concentrations related to some diseases in patients from a fluoridated community. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 77(6):324-9.

Hanmer R. 1983. Letter to Leslie A. Russell, D.M.D, from Rebecca Hanmer, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Water, US EPA. Mar 30, 1983. Copy of original letter at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/hanmer1983.pdf

Hao P, et al. 2010. [Effect of fluoride on human hypothalamus-hypophysis-testis axis hormones]. [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 39(1):53-5.

Harding MA, Whelton H, O’Mullane DM, Cronin M. 2003. Dental erosion in 5-year-old Irish school children and associated factors: a pilot study. Community Dental Health 20(3):165-70. September. [ Abstract ]

Harinarayan CV, Kochupillai N, Madhu SV, Gupta N, Meunier PJ. 2006. Fluorotoxic metabolic bone disease: an osteo-renal syndrome caused by excess fluoride ingestion in the tropics. Bone 39(4):907-14. October. [ Abstract ]

Hart R, Feelemyer J, Gray C, Lodise T, Patel N, Wymer S, McNutt LA. 2009. Relationship between municipal water fluoridation and preterm birth in Upstate New York. Abstract. American Pubic Health Association, Conference, November 7-11, 2009, Philadelphia, PA.

Harter S. 2000. Is self-esteem only skin deep? The inextricable link between physical appearance and self-esteem. Reclaiming Children and Youth 9(3):133-38.

Haugejorden O. 1996. Using the DMF gender difference to assess the “major” role of fluoride toothpastes in the caries decline in industrialized countries: a meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 24(6):369-75. December. [ Abstract ]

Hattori Y, et al. 2000. Predominant contribution of the G protein-mediated mechanism to NaF-induced vascular contractions in diabetic rats: association with an increased level of G(qalpha) expression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 292(2):761-8.

Hawley GM, et al. 1996. Dental caries, fluorosis and the cosmetic implications of different TF scores in 14-year-old adolescents. Community Dental Health 13:189-92.

Hayashi N, Tsutsui T. 1993. Cell cycle dependence of cytotoxicity and clastogenicity induced by treatment of synchronized human diploid fibroblasts with sodium fluoride. Mutation Research 290(2):293-302. December. [ Abstract ]

Hayem G, Ballard M, Palazzo E, Somogyi N, Roux F, Meyer O. 2004. Insufficiency bone fractures due to fluorosis in heavy tea drinkers. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 63(Suppl 1): 488.

Hazan S. 2000. Letter to Florida Department of Health from Stan Hazan, General Manager, Drinking Water Additives Certification Program, National Sanitation Foundation International. 24 April 2000. http://www.fluoridealert.org/NSF-Letter.pdf

He H, Cheng Z, Liu W. 2008. The effects of fluorine on human fetus. Fluoride 41(4):321-328. October-December. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/he-2008.pdf

He LF, Chen JG. 2006. DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. World J Gastroenterol. 12(7):1144-8. February 21. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/he-2006.pdf

He Y, et al. 2008. Effects of protein versus calcium supplementation on bone metabolism and development in fluoride-exposed offspring rats fed protein- and calcium-deficient diets. Fluoride 41:192-98.

Hebei Province Baoding Antiepidemic Station. 1985. Relationships between osteofluorosis and osteopenia. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB198503012.htm

Hedlund LR, Gallagher JC. 1989. Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone Miner Res. 4(2):223-5. April. [ Abstract ]

Hefti A, Marthaler TM. 1981. Bone fluoride concentrations after 16 years of drinking water fluoridation. Caries Research 15(1):85-9.

Hegmann KT, et al. 2000. The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease (DJD) and hip fractures. Abstract #71, of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society For Epidemiological research, June 15-17, 2000. Published in a Supplement of Am. J. Epid. P. S18. [ Abstract ]

Heifetz SB, Driscoll WS, Horowitz HS, Kingman A. 1988. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with optimal and above-optimal water-fluoride concentrations: a 5-year follow-up survey. Journal of the American Dental Association 116(4):490-5. April. [ Abstract ]

Heifetz SB, Proskin HM. 1995. Serendipitous results of a pilot study: precaution indicated. J Clin Dent. 6(1):117-9. [ Abstract ]

Heikens A, Sumarti S, van Bergen M, Widianarko B, Fokkert L, van Leeuwen K, Seinen W. 2005. The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: risks of excess fluoride to human health. Sci Total Environ. 346(1-3):56-69. June 15. [ Abstract ]

Heilman JR, Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Wefel JS. 1997. Fluoride concentrations of infant foods. Journal of the American Dental Association 128(7):857-863. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/heilman-1997.pdf

Heilman JR, Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Wefel JS. 1999. Assessing fluoride levels of carbonated soft drinks. J Am Dent Assoc. 130(11):1593-9. November. [ Abstract ]

Helal M, El Dakdoky M. 2006. Fetotoxicity of fluoride in rats alleviated by some antioxidants. Fluoride 39(3):202–210. July-September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/helal-2006.pdf

Heller KE, Eklund SA, Burt BA. 1997. Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations. J Pub Health Dent. 57(3):136-143. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Hellwig E, Lennon AM. 2004. Systemic versus topical fluoride. Caries Research 38(3):258-62. May-June. [ Abstract ]

Hendryx M, et al. 2011. Water fluoridation and dental health indicators in rural and urban areas of the United States. West Virginia Rural Health Research Center. Available at: http://wvrhrc.hsc.wvu.edu/docs/2011_fluoridation_final_report.pdf

Henrikson PA, et al. 1970. Fluoride and nutritional osteoporosis. Fluoride 3(4):204-207. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/henrikson-1970.pdf

Herai M, Yaegaki K, Murata T, Sato T, Imai T, Tanaka T, Itai K. 2009. Induction of apoptosis in human gingival epithelial cells by sodium fluoride. Fluoride 42(1):3-8. January –March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/herai-2009.pdf

Heyroth F. 1952. Hearings Before the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Foods and Cosmetics, House of Representatives, 82nd Congress, Part 3, Washington D.C., Government Printing Office, p. 28.

Hildebolt CF, et al. 1989. Caries prevalences among geochemical regions of Missouri. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 78(1):79-92. January. [ Abstract ]

Hileman B. 1988. Fluoridation of water: questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical and Engineering News. August 1: 26-42. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/hileman.htm

Hileman B. 1989. New studies cast doubt on fluoridation benefits. Chemical and Engineering News. May 8. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/NIDR.htmHileman B. 1990. Fluoride bioassay study under scrutiny. Chemical & Engineering News September 17.

Hillier S, Cooper C, Kellingray S, Russell G, Hughes H, Coggon D. 2000. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case control study. The Lancet 335(9200): 265-9. January 22. [ Abstract ]

Hillman D, Bolenbaugh DL, Convey EM. 1979. Hypothyroidism and anemia related to fluoride in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 62(3):416-23. March. [ Abstract ]

Hirzy JW. 1999. Why the EPA’s headquarters union of scientists opposes fluoridation. Press release from National Treasury Employees Union. May 1. Online at http://www.fluoridealert.org/hp-epa.htm

Hirzy JW. 2006. Letter to US EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson from The National Treasury Employees Union, Washington DC. July 25. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/hirzy-2006.pdf

Hiyasat AS – See Al-Hiyasat AS

Hodge HC. 1956. Fluoride metabolism: its significance in water fluoridation. Journal of the American Dental Association 52:307-314.

Hodge HC. 1960. Notes on the effects of fluoride deposition on body tissues. Archives of Industrial Health 21:350-352.

Hodge HC. 1963. Safety factors in water fluoridation based on the toxicology of fluorides. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22:111-117.

Hodge HC. 1979. The safety of fluoride tablets or drops. In: Johansen E, Taves DR, Olsen TO, Eds. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. AAAS Selected Symposium. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 253-274.

Hodge HC, Smith FA. 1965. Fluorine Chemistry Vol. IV. Academic Press, New York.

Hodge HC, Smith FA. 1970. Air quality criteria for the effects of fluorides on man. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 20:226-232.

Hodge HC, Smith FA. 1977. Occupational fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 19: 12-39.

Hodsman AB, Drost DJ. 1989. The response of vertebral bone mineral density during the treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 69:932-8.

Hoffman DJ, Pattee OH, Wiemeyer SN. 1985. Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicology Letters 26(1):19-24. July. [ Abstract ]

Hoffman R, Mann J, Calderone J, Trumbull J, Burkhart M. 1980. Acute fluoride poisoning in a New Mexico elementary school. Pediatrics 65(5):897-900. May. [ Abstract ]

Hong F, et al. 2001. Research on the effects of fluoride on child intellectual development under different environmental conditions. Chinese Primary Health Care 15: 56-57. [See study]

Hong F, Cao Y, Yang D, Wang H. 2008. Research on the effects of fluoride on child intellectual development under different environmental conditions. Fluoride 41(2)156-160. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/hong-2008.pdf

Hong L, Levy S, Warren J, Broffit B. 2006. Dental caries and fluorosis in relation to water fluoride levels. ADEA/AADR/CADR Conference, Orlando Florida, March 8-11, 2006.

Hong L, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Warren JJ, Kanellis MJ, Wefel JS, Dawson DV. 2006. Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 34(4):299-309. [ Abstract ]

Hongslo CF, Hongslo JK, Holland RI. 1980. Fluoride sensitivity of cells from different organs. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 46(1):73-77. January. [ Abstract ]

Hoover RN, et al. 1991. Time trends for bone and joint cancers and osteosarcomas in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. National Cancer Institute In: Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs US Public Health Service. Appendix E & F.

Horowitz HS, Heifetz SB, Law FE. 1972. Effect of school water fluoridation on dental caries: final results in Elk Lake, Pa, after 12 years. J Am Dent Assoc 84:832-838.

Horowitz HS, et al. 1984. A new method for assessing the prevalence of dental fluorosis–the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. Journal of the American Dental Association 109(1):37-41.

Hosur MB, et al. 2012. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis. European Journal of Dentistry 6:184-90.

Howard V. 2009. Commentary on the Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food concerning sodium monofluorophosphate as a source of fluoride added for nutritional purposes to food supplements (Question No EFSA-Q-2006-277, EFSA-Q-2006-295). Adopted on 27th November 2008. January 21. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/howard.mfp.jan.2009.html

Hrudey SE, Soskolne CJ, Berkel J, Fincham S. 1990. Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma. Can J Pub Health 81(6):415-416.  November-December.

Hu YS, Yu XZ, Ding RQ. 1989. Investigation of students’ intelligence quotient aged 6-14 years old in the endemic fluorosis area. Collection of papers and abstracts of 4th China Fluoride Research Association. Quiyang, China, 6:73.

Huang C, Niu R, Wang J. 2007. Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in male mice. Fluoride 40(3):162-168. July-September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/huang-2007.pdf

Huang C, Yang H, Niu R, Sun Z, Wang J. 2008. Effects of sodium fluoride on androgen receptor expression in male mice. Fluoride 41(1):10-17. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/huang-2008.pdf

Huang C, Chen Z, Tang R, Liu B. 2009. Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis: clinical examination versus x-rays. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 28(2):194-6. 

Huang S, et al. 1984. Evaluation of the diagnosis classification and differentiation of fluorosis on bony peripheral tissue change and athralgias. Ningxia Medical Journal. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-NXYX198403000.htm

Huffman WT. 1949. Effects on livestock of air contamination caused by fluoride fumes. In: Air Pollution. Proceedings of the United States Technical Conference on Air Pollution. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York. pp. 59-63.

Hunter PB.  1979.  The prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old New Zealand children.  New Zealand Dental Journal 75(341):154-7.

Huo D. 1984. Further observations on radiological changes of endemic foodborne skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride 17(1) 9-14. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/huo-1984.pdf – NOTE: Also referenced as Daijei H. 1984.

Hussain J, Hussain I, Sharma KC. 2009. Fluoride and health hazards: community perception in a fluorotic area of central Rajasthan (India): an arid environment. Environ Monit Assess. Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print] [ Abstract ]


Ibarra-Santana C, et al. 2007. Enamel hypoplasia in children with renal disease in a fluoridated area. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 31(4):274-8.

Ibrahim YE, Bjorvatn K, Birkeland JM. 1997. Caries and dental fluorosis in a 0.25 and a 2.5 ppm fluoride area in the Sudan. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 7(3):161-6. September. [ Abstract ]

Inkielewicz I, Krechniak J. 2004. Fluoride effects on glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation in rats. Fluoride 37(1):7-12.

Inkielewicz I, Czarnowskia W. 2008. Oxidative stress parameters in rats exposed to fluoride and aspirin. Fluoride 41(1):76–82. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/inkielewicz2008.pdf

Inkovaara JA. 1991. Is fluoride treatment justified today? Calcif Tissue Int. 49 Suppl:S68-9. [ Abstract ]

Inkielewicz-Stepniak I, Knap N. (2012). Effect of exposure to fluoride and acetaminophen on oxidative/nitrosative status of liver and kidney in male and female rats.  Pharmacol Reports 64(4):902-11.

Inkovaara J, Heikinheimo R, Jarvinen K, Kasurinen U, Hanhijarvi H, Iisalo E. 1975. Prophylactic fluoride treatment and aged bones. Br Med J. 3(5975):73-4. July 12, [ Abstract ]

Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press. Available to read and search at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309063507

Isbel TS, Villareal-Armamento R. (2010). What Is Your Guess? A Case of Thick but Brittle Bones and Instant Tea. Clinical Chemistry 56(6):1041-42.

Issacson RL, Varner, Jensen K. 1997. Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia. Ann NY Acad Sci 825:152-166. October 15.

Ito M, Nakagawa H, Okada T, Miyazaki S, Matsuo S. 2009. ER-stress caused by accumulated intracistanal granules activates autophagy through a different signal pathway from unfolded protein response in exocrine pancreas cells of rats exposed to fluoride. Arch Toxicol. 83(2):151-9. February. [ Abstract ]

Ittel TH, Gruber E, Heinrichs A, Handt S, Hofstädter F, Sieberth HG. 1992. Effect of fluoride on aluminum-induced bone disease in rats with renal failure. Kidney International 41(5): 1340-1348. May. [ Abstract ]

Izquierdo-Vega JA, Sánchez-Gutiérrez M, Del Razo LM. 2008. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 230(3):352-7. Aug 1. [ Abstract ]

Izquierdo-Vega JA, et al. 2010. NADPH oxidase participates in the oxidative damage caused by fluoride in rat spermatozoa. Protective role of a-tocopherol. J Appl Toxicol. 2010 Nov 19. doi: 10.1002/jat.1600. [Epub ahead of print]

Izuora K, et al. 2011. Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96(8):2318-24.

For Authors Last Name beginning with

A-C | D-F | G-I | J-L | M-O | P-R | S-U | V-Z

back to top