Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (J-L)


Jachimczak D, Skotarczak B. 1978. The effect of fluorine and lead ions on the chromosomes of human leucocytes in vitro. Genetica Polonica 19: 353-7.

Jackson D, Weidman SM. 1958. Fluorine in human bone related to age and the water supply of different regions. Journal of Pathological Bacteriology 76: 451-459.

Jackson R, et al. 1994. The effect of fluoride therapy on blood chemistry parameters in osteoporotic females. Bone Mineral 27(1):13-23.

Jackson RD, et al. 1997. Lack of effect of long-term fluoride ingestion on blood chemistry and frequency of sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 29:265-71.

Jackson RD, Brizendine EJ, Kelly SA, Hinesley R, Stookey GK, Dunipace AJ. 2002. The fluoride content of foods and beverages from negligibly and optimally fluoridated communities. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 30(5):382-91. October. [ Abstract ]

Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA. 1990. Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years and olders. J Am Med Assoc. 264(4):500-2. July.

Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Cooper C, Lockwood SA. 1992. The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older; a national ecologic study.” Annals of Epidemiology. 2(5):617-626. September. [ Abstract ]

Jacobsen SJ, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd. 1993. Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota. American Journal of Public Health. 83(5):743-745. May. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/jacobsen-1993.pdf

Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Dartigues JF. 1995. Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly. (Letter). JAMA 273(10):775-776. March 8.

Jacqmin-Gadda H, Fourrier A, Commenges D, Dartigues JF. 1998. Risk factors for fractures in the elderly. Epidemiology 9(4):417-423. July. (An elaboration of the 1995 study referred to in the JAMA letter). [ Abstract ]

Jagiello G, Lin JS. 1974. Sodium fluoride as potential mutagen in mammalian eggs. Arch Environ Hlth. 29(4):230-5. October.

Jain SK, Susheela AK. 1987. Effect of sodium fluoride on antibody formation in rabbits. Environmental Research 44(1):117-125. October. [ Abstract ]

Janiszewska G, Lachowicz L, Wojtkowiak R. 1984. Effect of certain agents on subcellular cAMP level in different areas of rat brain. Acta Physiol Pol 35(3):199-206. May-June. [ Abstract ]

Jeon SB, Jin F, Kim JI, Kim SH, Suk K, Chae SC, Jun JE, Park WH, Kim IK. 2006. A role for Rho kinase in vascular contraction evoked by sodium fluoride. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 343(1):27-33. April 28. [ Abstract ]

Ji F, et al. 2004. Study on the cardiovascular damage of skeletal fluorosis patients. Chin J Ctrl Endem Dis 19(6):321-3 (Abstract).

Jia L, Zhang Z, Zhai L, Zhang Y, Sun G. 2008. DNA damage induced by fluoride in rat kidney cells. Fluoride 41(4):297-300. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/jia-2008.pdf

Jiang CX, Fan QT, Cheng XM, Cui LX. 2005. [Relationship between spermatogenic cell apoptosis and serum estradiol level in rats exposed to fluoride] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34(1):32-4. January. [ Abstract ]

Jiang Q, et al. 2005. Effect of fluoride on expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in germ cells of rats’ testes. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200505017.htm

Jiang Y, Zhao J, Van Audekercke R, Dequeker J, Geusens P. 1996. Effects of low-dose long-term sodium fluoride preventive treatment on rat bone mass and biomechanical properties. Calcif Tissue Int. 58(1):30-9. January. [ Abstract ]

Jiang Q, Song XK, Cui QH, Chen LJ. 2007. [Effect of fluoride on expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in germ cells of rats’ testes] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 25(2):96-9. February. [ Abstract ]

Jin XQ, Xu H, Shi HY, Zhang JM, Zhang HQ. 2007. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress of osteoblasts and protective effects of baicalein against fluoride toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res. 116(1):81-90. April. [ Abstract ]

Johnson LC. 1965. Histogenesis and mechanisms in the development of osteofluorosis. In: H.C.Hodge and F.A.Smith, eds : Fluorine Chemistry, Vol. 4. New York, N.Y., Academic press (1965) 424-441.

Johnson SA, DeBiase C. 2003. Concentration levels of fluoride in bottled drinking water. Journal of Dental Hygiene 77(3):161-167. [ Abstract ]

Johnson WJ, Taves DR. 1974. Exposure to excessive fluoride during hemodialysis. Kidney International 5(6):451-454. June.

Johnson W, et al. 1979. Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients. In: E Johansen, DR Taves, TO Olsen, Eds. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. AAAS Selected Symposium. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 275-293. See excerpt at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/bone/fluorosis/mayo-clinic.html

Jolly SS. 1968. An epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of endemic, dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab. Fluoride 1(2):65-75. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/jolly-1968.pdf

Jolly SS. 1970. Hydric fluorosis in Punjab. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 106-121.

Jolly SS, et al. 1971. Human intoxication in Punjab. Fluoride. 4(2):64-79. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/jolly-1971.pdf

Jolly SS, Sharma OP, Garg G, Sharma R. 1980. Kidney changes and kidney stones in endemic fluorosis. Fluoride. 13(1):10-16. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/jolly-1980.pdf

Jones CA, Callaham MF, Huberman E. 1988. Sodium fluoride promotes morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. Carcinogenesis 9(12):2279-84. December. [ Abstract ]

Jones RL, et al. 2009. Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004.  Pediatrics 123(3):e376-85.

Jooste PL, Weight MJ, Kriek JA, Louw AJ. 1999. Endemic goitre in the absence of iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 53(1):8-12. January. [ Abstract ]

Joseph S, Gadhia PK. 2000. Sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome aberrations in residents of fluoride endemic regions of South Gujarat. Fluoride 33:154-158. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/Joseph-2000.pdf

Jowsey J, et al. 1968. Some results of the effect of fluoride on bone tissue in osteoporosis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 28:869-874.

Jowsey J, Johnson WJ, Taves DR, Kelly PJ. 1972. Effects of dialysate calcium and fluoride on bone disease during regular hemodialysis. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 79(2):204-214. February.

Jowsey J, et al. 1972. Effect of combined therapy with sodium fluoride, vitamin D and calcium in osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 53: 43-49.

Juncos LI, Donadio JV. 1972. Renal failure and fluorosis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 222(7):783-5.  November.


Kakei M, Sakae T, Yoshikawa M, Tamura N. 2007. Effect of fluoride ions on apatite crystal formation in rat hard tissues. Ann Anat. 189(2):175-81. [ Abstract ]

Kalia LV, et al. 2010. Thoracic myelopathy from coincident fluorosis and epidural lipomatosis. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 37:276-78.

Kallestal C, Wang NJ, Petersen PE, Arnadottir IB. 1999. Caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 27(2):144-51. April. [ Abstract ]

Kalsbeek H, Verrips GH. 1990. Dental caries prevalence and the use of fluorides in different European countries. Journal of Dental Research 69(Spec Iss): 728-32; discussion 820-3. February. [ Abstract ]

Kaltreider NL, Elder MJ, Cralley LV, Colwell MO. 1972. Health survey of aluminum workers with special reference to fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 14(7):531-541. July.

Kalyanalakshmi P, Vijayabhaskar M, Naidua MD. 2007. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status of adult males with skeletal fluorosis in Andhra Pradesh, India, Fluoride 40(1)42–45. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/kalyanalakshmi-2007.pdf

Kanbak M, Karagoz AH, Erdem N, Oc B, Saricaoglu F, Ertas N, Berkkan A, Abbasoglu O, Aypar U. 2007. Renal safety and extrahepatic defluorination of sevoflurane in hepatic transplantations. Transplant Proc. 39(5):1544-8. June. [ Abstract ]

Kant V, et al. 2010. Alterations in electrocardiographic parameters after subacute exposure of fluoride and ameliorative action of aluminum sulphate in goats. Biol Trace Elem Res 134:188-94.

Kanwar KC, Vig PS, Kalla NR. 1983. In vitro inhibition of testosterone synthesis in the presence of fluoride ions. IRCS Medical Science 11: 813-814.

Kapila AK, et al. 1983. Measurement of spinal canal body ratio in fluorotic spine. Fluoride 16(1):11-19. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kapila-1983.pdf

Kapoor V, et al. 1993. Effect of dietary fluorine on histopathological changes in calves. Fluoride 26(2):105-110. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kapoor-1993.pdf

Karademir S, et al. 2011. Effects of fluorosis on QT dispersion, heart rate variability and echocardiographic parameters in children. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 11:150-5.

Karagas MR, Baron JA, Barrett JA, Jacobsen SJ. 1996. Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: geographic and fluoride effects. Ann. Epidemiol. 6(3):209-216. May. [ Abstract ]

Karaoz E, et al. 2004. Effect of chronic fluorosis on lipid peroxidation and histology of kidney tissues in first- and second-generation rats. Biological Trace Element Research 102(1):199-208. [ Abstract ]

Karstad L. 1967. Fluorosis in deer (Odoceileus virginianus). Bulletin of the Wildlife Disease Association 3:42-46.

Kassabi M, Braun JP, Burgat-Sacaze V, Benard P, Rico AG. 1981. Comparison of sodium and stannous fluoride nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 7(6):463-7. March. [ Abstract ]

Katzmarzyk PT, Staiano AE. 2012. New race and ethnicity standards: elucidating health disparities in diabetes. BMC Medicine 10(1):42.

Kaufmann KR, Schreiber JS, Stasack J. 2006. Comments in support of motion for stay of effectiveness of tolerances for sulfuryl fluoride and fluoride [EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0174 and EPA-HQ-OPP-2003-0373]. Submission to US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs from New State Attorney General’s Office. Federal Register docket number EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0174-0085.1. August 4. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/kaufmann-2006.pdf

Kaur T, et al. 2009. Effect of concurrent chronic exposure of fluoride and aluminum on rat brain. Drug & Chem. Toxicol. 32(3): 215-21.

Kawahara H. 1956. Experimental studies on the changes of the kidney due to fluorosis. Part III. Morphological studies on the changes of the kidney of rabbits and growing albino rats due to sodium fluoride. Shikoku Acta Medica 8:283-28. (Abstracted in: Fluoride 1972; 5:50-53.)

Kawahara H. 1956. Experimental studies on the changes of the kidney due to fluorosis. Part II. Influence of sodium fluoride on renal clearance in rabbits. Shikoku Acta Medica 8:273-282. (Abstracted in: Fluoride 1972; 5(1):48-50.)

Kay AR, Miles R, Wong RK. 1986. Intracellular fluoride alters the kinetic properties of calcium currents facilitating the investigation of synaptic events in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 6(10):2915-20. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kay-1986.pdf

Kaye M, et al. 1960. Bone disease in chronic renal failure with particular reference to osteosclerosis. Medicine 39: 157-190.

Keller C. 1991. Fluorides in drinking water. Unpublished results. Discussed in Gordon, S.L. and Corbin, S.B,(1992) Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Influence on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis Int. 2(3):109-117.

Kelly JV. 2000. Letter to Senator Robert Smith, Chairman of Environment and Public Works Committee, U.S. Senate. August 14. Letter at http://www.fluoridealert.org/fda.htm

Kelly M, Bruerd B. 1987. The prevalence of baby bottle tooth decay among two native American populations. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 47:94-97.

Keqin S, et al. 1990. Ultrastructural observations of testes and prostrate gland in rat with chronic fluorosis. Journal of China Medical University. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGYK199005005.htm

Kessabi M, Hamliri A, Braun JP, Rico AG. 1985. Experimental acute sodium fluoride poisoning in sheep: renal, hepatic, and metabolic effects. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology 5(6 Pt 1):1025-33. December. [ Abstract ]

Kemp FH, et al. 1942. Spondylosis deformans in relation to fluorine and general nutrition. The Lancet 93-97.

Khalil AM. 1995. Chromosome aberrations in cultured rat bone marrow cells treated with inorganic fluorides. Mutation Research 343(1):67-74. May. [ Abstract ]

Khamees MF, et al. 1995. An uncommon presentation of fluorosis. Electroncephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 97: S229.

Khandare L, Harikumar R, Sivakumar B. 2005. Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India. Calcif Tissue Int 76:412–418. June. [ Abstract ]

Kilborn LG, et al. 1950. Fluorosis with report of an advanced case. Canadian Medical Association Journal 62:135-141. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kilborn-1950.pdf

Kierdorf U, Richards A, Sedlacek F, Kierdorf H. 1997. Fluoride content and mineralization of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32(2):222-227. February. [ Abstract ]

Kilicalp D, et al. 2004. Effects of chronic fluorosis on electrocardiogram in dogs. Fluoride 37(2):96-101.

Kim FM, et al. 2011. An assessment of bone fluoride and osteosarcoma. Journal of Dental Research 90:1171-76.

Kimm VJ. 1984. The adverse health effects of fluorosis. Letter from Victor J. Kimm, Director, US EPA Office of Drinking Water, to William D. Ruckelshaus, EPA Administrator. July 26. Copy of original letter at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kimm072684.pdf

Kindt JH, et al. 2007. In situ observation of fluoride-ion induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology 18:135102.

Kindt JH, et al. 2009. In situ obersvation of fluoride-ion induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology 18:135102.

Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Guha-Chowdhury N, Heilman JR, Marshall T. 1996. Assessing fluoride concentrations of juices and juice-flavored drinks. J Am Dent Assoc. 127(7):895-902. July. [ Abstract ]

Kishi K, Tonomura A. 1984. Cytogenetic effects of sodium fluoride. Mutation Research. 301(3):183-8. March. [ Abstract ]

Kishi K, Ishida T. 1993. Clastogenic activity of sodium fluoride in great ape cells. Mutation Research 301(3):183-8. [ Abstract ]

Kitchin PC, Robinson HBG, Permar D, Imhoff AH.  1951.  Observations on salivary lactobacillus counts for a period before and after topical applications of two per cent sodium fluoride.  Journal of Dental Research 30 ; 251-259. Ful report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kitchin-1951.orphanage.pdf

Kleerekoper M. 1983. Surgeon General’s Ad Hoc Committee on ‘Non-Dental Health Effects of Fluoride.” Transcript of Proceedings, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, April 19.

Kleerekoper M, et al. 1991. A randomized trial of sodium fluoride as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 1(3):155-61. June. [ Abstract ]

Klein H. 1975. Dental fluorosis associated with hereditary diabetes insipidus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 40(6):736-41.

Klein RZ, et al. 2010. Relation of severity of maternal hypothyroidism to cognitive development of offspring. Journal of Medical Screening 8(1):18-20.

Kleinsasser NH, et al. 2001. [Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fluorides in human mucosa and lymphocytes]. [Article in German]. Laryngorhinootologie 80(4):187-90. [ Abstract ]

Kobayashi CAN, Leite AL, Silva TL, Santos LD, Nogueira FCS, Oliveira RC, Palma MS, Domont GB, Buzalaf MAR. 2009. Proteomic analysis of kidney in rats chronically exposed to fluoride. Chemico-Biological Interactions 180(2):305-11. July 15. [ Abstract ]

Komárek A, Lesaffre E, Härkänen T, Declerck D, Virtanen JI. 2005. A Bayesian analysis of multivariate doubly-interval-censored dental data. Biostatistics 6(1):45-55. January. [ Abstract ]

Kong D.  1999. City to launch battle against dental ‘crisis’.  Boston Globe (Massachusetts).  November 27.  Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/f-boston.htm

Kongerud J, Samuelsen SO. 1991. A longitudinal study of respiratory symptoms in aluminum potroom workers. American Review of Respiratory Disease 144(1):10-16. July. [ Abstract ]

Kongerud J. 1992. Respiratory disorders in aluminum potroom workers. Med Lav 83(5):414-417. Sep-Oct. [ Abstract ]

Kongerud J, Boe J, Søyseth V, Naalsund A, Magnus P. 1994. Aluminum potroom asthma: the Norwegian experience. European Respiratory Journal 7(1):165-172. January. [ Abstract ]

Korns RF. 1969. Relationship of water fluoridation to bone density in two N.Y. towns. Pub Health Rep 84(9):815-825. September.

Koroglu BK, et al. (2011). Serum parathyroid hormone levels in chronic endemic fluorosis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 143(1):79-86.

Kotha SP, et al. 1998. Varying the mechanical properties of bone tissue by changing the amount of its structurally effective bone mineral content. Biomed Mater Eng. 8(5-6):321-34.

Kour K, Singh J. 1980. Histological findings in kidneys of mice following sodium fluoride administration. Fluoride 13(4):163-167. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kour-1980.pdf

Kozol J.  1991.  Savage Inequalities.  Children in America’s Schools. Crown Publishers, Inc. (New York).  Harper Perennial / Harper Collins (New York).  Available to buy at https://www.amazon.com/

Kragstrup J, et al. 1984. Experimental osteo-fluorosis in the domestic pig: a histomorphometric study of vertebral trabecular bone. Journal of Dental Research 63(6):885-889. June. [ Abstract ]

Kragstrup J, Shijie Z, Mosekilde L, Melsen F. 1989a. Effects of sodium fluoride, vitamin D, and calcium on cortical bone remodeling in osteoporotic patients. Calcif Tissue Int. 45(6):337-41. December. [ Abstract ]

Kragstrup J, Richards A, Fejerskov O. 1989b. Effects of fluoride on cortical bone remodeling in the growing domestic pig. Bone. 10(6):421-424. [ Abstract ]

Krasowska A, Wiostowski T. 1992. The effect of high fluoride intake on tissue trace elements and histology of testicular tubules in the rat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part C 103(1):31-4. [ Abstract ]

Krasowska A, Wiostowski T, Bonda E. 2004. Zinc protection from fluoride-induced testicular injury in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Toxicology Letters 147(3):229-235. [ Abstract ]

Krechniak J, Inkielewicz I. 2005. Correlations between fluoride concentrations and free radical parameters in soft tissues of rats. Fluoride 38(4)293–296. November. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/krechniak2005.pdf

Krishnamachari KA. 1986. Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 10(3-4):279-314. [ Abstract ]

Krishnamachari KA, Krishnaswamy K. 1973. Genu valgum and osteoporosis in an area of endemic fluorosis. The Lancet. October 20; 2(7834):877-879.

Kroger H, Alhava E, Honkanen R, Tuppurainen M, Saarikoski S. 1994. The effect of fluoridated drinking water on axial bone mineral density—a population-based study. Bone Mineral 27(1):33-41. October. [ Abstract ]

Krook L, Maylin GA. 1979. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle. Cornell Veterinarian 69 Suppl 8:suppl 1-70. April. [ Abstract ]

Krook L, Maylin GA, Lillie JH, Wallace RS. 1983. Dental fluorosis in cattle. Cornell Vet. 73(4):340-62. October. [ Abstract ]

Krook L, Minor RR. 1998. Fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. Fluoride. 31(4):177-82. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/krook-1998.pdf

Krook LP, Justus C. 2006. Fluoride poisoning of horses from artifically fluoridated drinking water. Fluoride 39(1)3-10. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/krook-2006.pdf

Krupanidhi S, Cherry KN. 2005. Teratogenicity due to fluoride. FASEB J 2005 19(4):A58. March.

Kuhlencordt F, et al. 1970. The histological evaluation of bone in fluoride treated osteoorosis. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 169-174.

Kumar SP, Harper RA. 1963. Fluorosis in Aden. British Journal of Radiology. 36: 497-502. [ Abstract ]

Kumar A, Susheela AK. 1994. Ultrastructural studies of spermiogenesis in rabbit exposed to chronic fluoride toxicity. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 39(3):164-71. May-Jun. [ Abstract ]

Kumar A, Susheela AK. 1995. Effects of chronic fluoride toxicity on the morphology of ductus epididymis and the maturation of spermatozoa of rabbit. Int J Exp Pathol. 76(1): 1-11. February.

Kumar H, et al. 2009. Skeletal fluorosis causing high cervical myelopathy.J Clin Neurosci. 16(6):828-30.

Kumar JV, Swango PA. 2000. Low birth weight and dental fluorosis: is there an association? J Public Health Dent. 60(3):167-71. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Kumar JV, Swango PA. 1999. Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 27(3):171-80. [ Abstract ]

Kumar JV, Green EL. 1998. Recommendations for fluoride use in children. NY State Dental Journal. 64(2):40-7. February. [ Abstract ]

Kim FM, et al. 2011. An assessment of bone fluoride and osteosarcoma. Journal of Dental Research 90:1171-76.

Kumar N, et al. 2010. Effects of sodium fluoride on the electrocardiogram of male rabbits. Fluoride 43(2):124-7.

Kumar N, et al. 2012. To Study the Effect of Vitamin D and E on Sodium-Fluoride-induced Toxicity in Reproductive Functions of Male Rabbits. Toxicology International 19(2):182-87.

Kumar S, et al. 2011. Skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative spondyloarthropathy: a deceptive presentation. Tropical Doctor 41:247-48.

Kumar T, Takalkar A. 2010. Study of the effects of drinking water naturally contaminated with  fluorides on the health of children. Biomedical Research 21:423-27.

Künzel W, Fischer T, Lorenz R, Brühmann S. 2000. Decline in caries prevalence after the cessation of water fluoridation in former East Germany. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 28(5):382-389. October. [ Abstract ]

Künzel W, Fischer T. 2000. Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba. Caries Res 34(1):20-5. [ Abstract ]

Künzel W, Fischer T. 1997. Rise and fall of caries prevalence in German towns with different F concentrations in drinking water. Caries Res 31(3):166-73. [ Abstract ]

Kunzel VW. 1976. [Cross-sectional comparison of the median eruption time for permanent teeth in children from fluoride poor and optimally fluoridated areas] [Article in German]. Stomatol DDR. 5:310-21. May. [ Abstract ]

Niu R, et al. 2009. Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 28(2):254-8.

Kuo HC, Stamm JW. 1974. Fluoride levels in human rib bone: a preliminary study. Canadian Journal of Public Health 65(5):359-61.

Kurttio PN, Gustavsson N, Vartiainen T, Pekkanen J. 1999. Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology. 150(8):817-824. October 15. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kurttio-1995.pdf


Lafage MH, et al. 1995. Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs. A one-year study. J Clin Invest. 95(5):2127-33. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/lafage-1995.pdf

Lakshmi Vani M, Pratap Reddy K. 2000. Effects of fluoride accumulation on some enzymes of brain and gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Fluoride 33(1):17-26. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/lakshmi-2000.pdf

Lalumandier JA, Rozier RG. 1995. The prevalence and risk factors of fluorosis among patients in a pediatric dental practice. Pediatric Dentistry. 17(1):19-25. Jan-Feb. [ Abstract ]

Lalumandier JA, Rozier RG. 1998. Parents’ satisfaction with children’s tooth color: fluorosis as a contributing factor. Journal of the American Dental Association 129(7):1000-6. July. [Abstract]

Lamberg M, et al. (1997). Symptoms experienced during periods of actual and supposed water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 25(4):291-5.

Lanphear BP, et al. 1996. Racial differences in Urban children’s environmental exposures to lead. American Journal of Public Health 86(10):1460-3.

Lantz O, Jouvin MH, De Vernejoul MC, Druet P. 1987. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 10(2):136-9. August. [ Abstract ]

Largent EJ, Machle W, Ferneau IF. 1943. Fluoride ingestion and bone changes in experimental animals. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 25: 396-408.

Lasne C, Lu YP, Chouroulinkov I. 1988. Transforming activities of sodium fluoride in cultured Syrian hamster embryo and BALB/3T3 cells. Cell Biol Toxicol 4(3):311-24. September. [ Abstract ]

Latham MC, Grech P. 1967. The effects of excessive fluoride intake. American Journal of Public Health 57(4):651-660. April. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/latham-1967.pdf

Lau KH, Farley JR, Freeman TK, Baylink DJ. 1989. A proposed mechanism of the mitogenic action of fluoride on bone cells: inhibition of the activity of an osteoblastic acid phosphatase. Metabolism 38(9):858-68. September. [ Abstract ]

Lau KH, Goodwin C, Arias M, Mohan S, Baylink DJ. 2002. Bone cell mitogenic action of fluoroaluminate and aluminum fluoride but not that of sodium fluoride involves upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor system. Bone 30(5):705–711. May. [ Abstract ]

Lavryashina MB, et al. 2003. A study of the genetic basis of susceptibility to occupational fluorosis in aluminum industry workers of Siberia. Russian Journal of Genetics 39(7):823-827. July. [ Abstract ]

Law V.  2005.  Sink your teeth into health care.  Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Pennsylvania). February 13.  Available at http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_303168.html

Lazutka JR, et al. 1999. Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Lithuanian populations: effects of occupational and environmental exposures. Mutation Research 445: 225-229.

Lee JH, Jung JY, Jeong YJ, Park JH, Yang KH, Choi NK, Kim SH, Kim WJ. 2008. Involvement of both mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways regulated by Bcl-2 family in sodium fluoride-induced apoptosis of the human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicology. 243(3):340-7. January 20. [ Abstract ]

Lear J. 1969. New facts on fluoridation. Saturday Review March 1, 51-56.

Lee JR. 1993. Fluoridation & hip fracture. Fluoride. 26(4):274-277. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/lee-1993b.pdf

Lee JR. 1993. Fluoridation and bone cancer. Fluoride. 26(2):79-82. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/lee-1993.pdf

Lehmann R, Wapniarz M, Hofmann B, Pieper B, Haubitz I, Allolio B. 1998. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Bone. 22(3):273-278. March. [ Abstract ]

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