Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (M-O)


Ma Y, et al. 2012. Inflammatory responses induced by fluoride and arsenic at toxic concentration in rabbit aorta. Arch Toxicol 86:849-56.

Maas RP, Patch SC, Christian AM, Coplan MJ. 2007. Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts. Neurotoxicology 28(5):1023-31.

Mabelya L. et al. 1994. Comparison of two indices of dental fluorosis in low, moderate, and high fluorosis Tanzanian populations. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 22:415-20.

Macek M, Matte T, Sinks T, Malvitz D. 2003. Water fluoridation and blood lead levels in US children. J Public Health Dent 63(Suppl 1):S36.

Macek M, Matte TD, Sinks T, Malvitz DM. 2006. Blood lead concentrations in children and method of water fluoridation in the United States, 1988-1994. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(1):130-134. Full study at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2005/8319/8319.html

Madans J, Kleinman JC, Cornoni-Huntley J. 1983. The relationship between hip fracture and water fluoridation: an analysis of national data. Am J Pub Health 73(3):296-298. March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/madans-1983.pdf

Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Mathers JC, Steen IN, Hindmarch PN, Moynihan PJ. 2005. Bioavailability of fluoride in drinking water: a human experimental study. J Dent Res 84(11)989-993. [ Abstract ]

Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Hindmarch PN, Hatts J, Moynihan PJ. 2007. Fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 6- to 7-year-old children living in optimally, sub-optimally and non-fluoridated areas. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35: 479–488. [ Abstract ]

Mahoney MC, Nasca PC, Burnett WS, Melius JM. 1991. Bone cancer rates in New York State: time trends and fluoridated drinking water. Am J Pub Health 81:475-479. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mahoney-1991.pdf

Mainwaring PJ, Naylor NM. 1981.  The secular changes in caries experience in 11- to 12-year-old children over one decade.  J. Dent. Res. 60, 1140.

Makhni SS, et al. 1977. Long-term effects of fluoride administration: an experimental study. Fluoride 10:82-86.

Malinowska E, Inkielewicz I, Czarnowski W, Szefera P. 2008. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:1055–1061. [ Abstract ]

Maloo JC, Radhakrishnan K, Thacker AK, Mousa ME. 1990. Fluorotic radiculomyelopathy in a Libyan male. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 92(1):63-65. [ Abstract ]

Mancuso N, Gallo BJ, Kupperschmidt J, Murray AJ, Strauss HS. 1997. Natick fluoridation study committee report. September 27. Full report at http://www.fluoridation.com/natick.htm

Mandinic Z, Marijana Curcic M, Antonijevic B, Lekic CP, Carevic M. 2009. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:1080–1084. [ Abstract ]

Manji F, Kapila S. 1986. Fluorides and fluorosis in Kenya. Part III: Fluorides, fluorosis and dental caries. Odonto-stomatologie tropicale 9(3):135-9.September.

Mann J, Tibi M, Sgan-Cohen HD. 1987. Fluorosis and caries prevalence in a community drinking above-optimal fluoridated water. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 15(5):293-5. October. [ Abstract ]

Mann J, Mahmoud W, Ernest M, Sgan-Cohen H, Shoshan N, Gedalia I. 1990. Fluorosis and dental caries in 6-8-year-old children in a 5 ppm fluoride area. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 18(2):77-9. April. [ Abstract ]

Manocha SL, Warner H, Olkowski ZL. 1975. Cytochemical response of kidney, liver and nervous system to fluoride ions in drinking water. Histochem. J. 7(4):343-355. July [ Abstract ]

Mansfield P. 1999. The distribution of urinary fluoride concentration in the UK. Fluoride 32(1):27-32. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mansfield-1999.pdf

Marcus W. 1995. Radio Interview with Dr. Gary Null. March 10. http://www.fluoridealert.org/ifin-19.htm

Marcus W. 1990. Memorandum from Dr. William Marcus, to Alan B. Hais, Acting Director Criteria & Standards Division ODW, US EPA. May 1, 1990. Memorandum at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/ntp/marcus-memo.html

Margolis HC, Moreno EC. 1990. Physicochemical perspectives on the cariostatic mechanisms of systemic and topical fluorides. J Dent Res. 69 Spec No:606-13; discussion 634-6. February. [ Abstract ]

Marie PJ, Hott M. 1988. Short-term effects of fluoride and strontium on bone formation and resorption in the mouse. Metabolism 35: 547-551.

Marier JR. 1977. Some current aspects of environmental fluoride. Sci Total Environ. 8(3):253-65. November. [ Abstract ]

Marier J, Rose D. 1966. The fluoride content of some foods and beverages – a brief survey using a modified Zr-SPADNS method. J. Food. Sci. 31: 941-946. See http://www.slweb.org/f.content.foods.html

Marier JR, Rose D. 1971. Environmental fluoride. National Research Council of Canada, Publication No. 12,226, Ottawa. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/NRC-Fluoride.htm

Marier J, Rose D. 1977. Environmental Fluoride. National Research Council of Canada. Associate Committe on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality. NRCC No. 16081. http://www.fluoridealert.org/NRC-fluoride.htm

Marier JR, et al. 1963. Accumulation of skeletal fluoride and its implications. Archives of Environmental Health. 6:664-671. May.

Marshall TA, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Broffitt B, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Stumbo PJ. 2004. Associations between intakes of fluoride from beverages during infancy and dental fluorosis of primary teeth. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(2):108-16. April. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/marshall-2004.pdf

Marshman Z, et al. 2008. The impact of developmental defects of enamel on young people in the UK. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 37:45-57.

Marthaler TM. 1991. [School dentistry in Zurich Canton: changes as a result of caries reduction of 80 to 85 percent] [Article in German] Oralprophylaxe 13: 115-22.

Marthaler TM, O’Mullane DM, Vrbic V. 1996. The prevalence of dental caries in Europe 1990-1995. ORCA Saturday afternoon symposium 1995. Caries Research 30(4):237-55. [ Abstract ]

Martin B. 1991. Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate. SUNY Press, Albany NY. See excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/martin-1991.htm

Martinez-Mier EA, et al. 2003. Fluoride intake from foods, beverages and dentifrice by children in Mexico. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 31(3):221-30. June. [ Abstract ]

Martinez-Mier EA, et al. 2004. Development of a questionnaire to measure perceptions of, and concerns derived from, dental fluorosis. Community Dental Health 21(4):299-305. December. [ Abstract ]

Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. 2010. Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 70:234-40.

Martínez MA, Ballesteros S, Piga FJ, Sánchez de la Torre C, Cubero CA. 2007. The tissue distribution of fluoride in a fatal case of self-poisoning. J Anal Toxicol. 31(8):526-33. October. [ Abstract ]

Marx JJ, Burrell R. 1973. Delayed hypersensitivity to beryllium compounds. Journal of Immunology 111(2):590-598. August.

Mascarenhas AK. 2000. Risk factors for dental fluorosis: a review of the recent literature. Pediatr Dent. 22(4): 269-77. July-August. [ Abstract ]

Mascarenhas AK, Burt BA. 1998. Fluorosis risk from early exposure to fluoride toothpaste. Community Dent Oral Epidemio 26(4):241-8. August. [ Abstract ]

Massler M, Schour I. 1952. Relation of endemic dental fluorosis to malnutrition. JADA. 44(2):156-165. February. [ Excerpt ]

Masters RD. Coplan MJ, Hone BT, Dykes JE. 2000. Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology. 21(6):1091-1099. December. [ Abstract ]

Masters RD, Coplan M. 1999. Water treatment with silicofluorides and lead toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 56: 435-449.

Mathias RS, Amin U, Mathews CH, Denbesten P. 2000. Increased fluoride content in the femur growth plate and cortical bone of uremic rats. Pediatric Nephrology 14(10-11):935–939. September. [ Abstract ]

Matsui H, Morimoto M, Horimoto K, Nishimura Y. 2007. Some characteristics of fluoride-induced cell death in rat thymocytes: Cytotoxicity of sodium fluoride. Toxicology 21(6):1113-20. September. [ Abstract ]

Matsuo S, Kiyomiya K, Kurebe M. 1998. Mechanism of toxic action of fluoride in dental fluorosis: whether trimeric G proteins participate in the disturbance of intracellular transport of secretory ameloblast exposed to fluoride. Arch Toxicol. 72(12):798-806. December. [ Abstract ]

Matsuo S, Nakagawa H, Kiyomiya K, Kurebe M. 2000. Fluoride-induced ultrastructural changes in exocrine pancreas cells of rats: fluoride disrupts the export of zymogens from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Archives of Toxicology 73(12):611-7. February. [ Abstract ]

Maumené E. 1854. Experiencé pour déterminer l’action des fluores sur l’economie animale. Compt Rend Acad Sci (Paris) 39:538-539.

Maupomé G, Gullion CM, Peters D, Little SJ. 2007. A comparison of dental treatment utilization and costs by HMO members living in fluoridated and nonfluoridated areas. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 67(4):224-33. [ Abstract ]

Maupomé G, Clark DC, Levy SM, Berkowitz J. 2001. Patterns of dental caries following the cessation of water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 29(1):37-47. February. [ Abstract ]

Maurer JK, Cheng MC, Boysen BG, Anderson RL. 1990. Two-year carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82(13):1118-26. July 4. [ Abstract ]

Maurer JK, et al. 1993. Confounded carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in CD-1 mice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 18(2):154-68. October. [ Abstract ]

May DS, Wilson MG. 1992. Hip fractures in relation to water fluoridation: an ecologic analysis. Unpublished data, discussed in Gordon SL, and Corbin SB. (1992). Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Inflruenbce on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis Int. 2:109-117. [ Excerpt ]

May W. 1937. [Behandlung the hyperthyreosen einschliesslich des schweren genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor] Klin Wochenschr. 16:562-564.

May W. 1935. [Antagonismus zwischen Jod und Fluor im Organismus] Klin Wochenschr 14:790-792. Mazze RI. 1976. Methoxyflurane nephropathy. Environmental Health Perspectives 15:111-9. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mazze-1976.pdf

Mazze RI. 1984. Fluorinated anesthetic nephrotoxicity: An Update. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 31:S16-S22. McCaffery K. 2003. Fluoride and dermatitis. Journal of the American Dental Association 134(9):1166.

McDonagh M, Whiting PF, Wilson PM, Sutton AJ, Chestnutt I, Cooper J, Misso K, Bradley M, Treasure E, Kleijnen J. 2000. A systematic review of public water fluoridation. NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination,. University of York, September 2000. Available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855 – see also http://www.fluoridealert.org/york.htm

McEniery TM,  Davies GN. 1979.  Brisbane dental survey, 1977.  A comparative study of caries experience of children in Brisbane, Australia over a 20-year period. Commun. Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 7(1):42-50. February. [ Abstract ]

McGrady MG, et al. 2012. Adolescents’ perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation. BMC Oral Health 12:4.

McGuire SM, Douglass CW, Joshi A, Hunter D, DaSilva J. 1995. Fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. [Abstract] Journal of Dental Research 74:98.

McGuire SM, Vanable ED, McGuire MH, Buckwalter JA, Douglass CW. 1991. Is there a link between fluoridated water and osteosarcoma?J Am Dent Assoc 122:39-45.

McKay FS, Black GV. 1916. An Investigation of mottled teeth. Dent. Cosmos, 58, 477-484 (May); 627-644 (June); 781-792 (July) and 894-904 (August).

McKay FS. 1929. The establishment of definite relationship between enamel that is defective in its structure, as mottled enamel, and the liability to decay. Dent. Cosmos 71:741-755.

McCay CM, Ramseyer WF, Smith CA. 1957. Effect of sodium fluoride administration on body changes in old rats. J Gerontol. 12(1):14-19. January.

McKnight CB, Levy SM, Cooper SE, Jakobsen JR. 1998. A pilot study of esthetic perceptions of dental fluorosis vs. selected other dental conditions. ASDC J Dent Child. 65(4):233-8, 229. July-August. [ Abstract ]

Medvedeva VN. 1992. [The diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthrosis deformans in subjects in contact with fluorine compounds]. [Article in Russian]. Lik Sprava. (8):76-8.

Mellette JR, et al. 1976. Fluoride tooth paste: A cause of perioral dermatitis. (Letter.) Archives of Dermatology 112(5):730-731. May. See letter at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/mellette-1976.html

Mellette JR, et al. 1983. Perioral dermatitis. Journal of the Association of Military Dermatologists 9: 3-8. Full full text at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/mellette-1983.html

Meng Z, Meng H, Cao X. 1995. Sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of workers at a phosphate fertilizer factory.Mutat Res 334(2):243-246. April. [ Abstract ]

Mendrala AL, Markham DA, Eisenbrandt DL. 2005. Rapid uptake, metabolism, and elimination of inhaled sulfuryl fluoride fumigant by rats. Toxicological Sciences 86(2):239-247. August. [ Abstract ]

Meng Z, Zhang B. 1997. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in lymphocytes of workers at a phosphate fertilizer factory. Mutation Research. 393: 283-288. http://www.fluoridealert.org/chromosome-aberrations.F.htm

Menoyo I, Rigalli A, Puche RC. 2005. Effect of fluoride on the secretion of insulin in the rat. Arzneimittelforschung 55(8):455-60.

Menoyo I, Puche R, Rigalli A. 2008. Fluoride-induced resistance to insulin in the rat. Fluoride 41(4)260–269. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/menoyo-2008.pdf

Meunier PJ, et al. 1980. Niflumic acid-induced skeletal fluorosis: iatrogenic disease or therapeutic perspective for osteoporosis? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 148:304-9.

Meyer-Lueckel H, et al. 2006. Caries and fluorosis in 6- and 9-year-old children residing in three communities in Iran. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 34(1):63-70. February. [ Abstract ]

Michael M, Barot V, Chinoy NJ. 1996. Investigations of soft tissue functions in fluorotic individuals of North Gujarat. Fluoride 29(2):63-71. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/michael-1996.pdf

Mihashi M, Tsutsui,T. 1996. Clastogenic activity of sodium fluoride to rat vertebral body-derived cells in culture. Mutat Res, 368(1):7-13. May. [ Abstract ]

Mikhailova NN, Anokhina AS, Ulanova EV, Fomenko DV, Kizichenko NV. 2006. [Experimental studies of pathogenesis of chronic fluoride intoxication] [Article in Russian]. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 3):19-21. July-Sept. [ Abstract ]

Milan AM, Waddington RJ, Embery G. 1999. Altered phosphorylation of rat dentine phosphoproteins by fluoride in vivo. Calcified Tissue International 64(3):234-8. March. [ Abstract ]

Milan AM, Waddington RJ, Embery G. 2001. Fluoride alters casein kinase II and alkaline phosphatase activity in vitro with potential implications for dentine mineralization. Archives of Oral Biology 46(4):343-51. April. [ Abstract ]

Milham S. 1979. Mortality in aluminum reduction plant workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21(7): 475-480.

Milsom KM, Tickle M, Jenner A, Peers A. 2000. A comparison of normative and subjective assessment of the child prevalence of developmental defects of enamel amongst 12-year-olds living in the North West Region, UK. Public Health. 114(5):340-4. September. [ Abstract ]

Misra UK, Nag D, Husain M, Newton G, Ray PK. 1988. Endemic fluorosis presenting as cervical cord compression. Archives of Environmental Health 43(1):18-21. Jan-Feb. [ Abstract ]

Mithal A, Trivedi N, Gupta SK, Kumar S, Gupta RK. 1993. Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake. Skeletal Radiology 22(4):257-61. [ Abstract ]

Mitropoulos CM, Worthington HV.  1981. Statistical aspects of caries prevalence data over a 12-year period in English school children.  J Dent Res. 60, 1154.  Sp. Iss. B.

Mohamed AH. 1969. Cytogenetic effects of hydrogen fluoride on plants. Fluoride 2:76-84. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mohamed-1969.pdf

Mohamed AH. 1970. Chromosomal changes in maize induced by hydrogen fluoride gas. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 12(3):614-620. September. Mohamed AH. 1977. Cytogenetic effects of hydrogen fluoride gas on maize. Fluoride 10(4):157-164. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mohamed-1977.pdf

Mohamed A, Chandler ME. 1982. Cytological effects of sodium fluoride on mice. Fluoride. 15(3):110-18. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/mohamed-1982.pdf

Moller P, Gudjonsson SV. 1932. Massive fluorosis of bones and ligaments. Acta Radiologica 12: 269-294. Moolenburgh H. 2008. Fluoride and serum cholinesterase. Letter. Fluoride 41(3): 227. July-September. At http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/moolenburgh-2008.pdf

Morabito N, et al. 2003. Three-year effectiveness of intravenous pamidronate versus pamidronate plus slow-release sodium fluoride for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 14(6):500-6. July. [ Abstract ]

Morgan L, Allred E, Tavares M, Bellinger D, Needleman H. 1998. Investigation of the possible associations between fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and childhood behavior problems. Pediatric Dentistry. 20(4):244-252. Jul-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Morris JW. 1965. Skeletal fluorosis among indians of the American Southwest. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine 94:608-615. July. Morse S.  2002.  Dentists push for fluoride in bottled water. Washington Post (DC). March 5. Available at http://www2.www.fluoridealert.org/Alert/United-States/National/Dentists-Push-for-Fluoride-in-Bottled-Water

Mosekilde L, Kragstrup J, Richards A. 1987. Compressive strength, ash weight, and volume of vertebral trabecular bone in experimental fluorosis in pigs. Calcif Tissue Int. 40(6):318-22. June. [ Abstract ]

Moseley R, Waddington RJ, Sloan AJ, Smith AJ, Hall RC, Embery G. 2003. The influence of fluoride exposure on dentin mineralization using an in vitro organ culture model. Calcified Tissue International 73(5):470-5. November. [ Abstract ]

Moss ME, Kanarek MS, Anderson HA, Hanrahan LP, Remington PL. 1995. Osteosarcoma, seasonality, and environmental factors in Wisconsin, 1979-1989. Arch Environ Health 50(3):235-241. May-Jun. [ Abstract ]

Mou S, et al. 2006. Effect of fluorine, selenium and cadmium?on lipid peroxide and microelements in rat’s testicle. Chinese Journal of Public Health. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGGW200603045.htm

Moulin JJ, et al. 2000. A mortality study among potroom workers in a French aluminum reduction plant. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 73: 323-330.

Mousny M, et al. 2006. The genetic influence on bone susceptibility to fluoride. Bone 39(6):1283-9. December. [ Abstract ]

Mrabet A, Fredj M, Ben Ammou S, Tounsi H, Haddad A. 1995. [Spinal cord compression in bone fluorosis. Apropos of 4 cases] [Article in French]. Rev Med Interne.16(7):533-5. [ Abstract ]

Muglia MA, Marotti G. 1996. Osteocyte and microfracture location in human lamellar bone. Bone 19: 155S.

Mukerjee RN, Sobels FH. 1968. The effect of sodium fluoride and idoacetamide on mutation induction by X-irradiation in mature spermatozoa of drosophila. Mutation Research 6: 217- 25.

Mullenix P, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ. 1995. Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 17(2):169-177. Mar-Apr. [ Abstract ] [ See editorial in Fluoride ]

Mullenix PJ. 2005. Fluoride poisoning: a puzzle with hidden pieces. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 11(4):404-14.

Muller P, Schmid K, Warnecke G, Setnikar I, Simon B. 1992. Sodium fluoride-induced gastric mucosal lesions: comparison with sodium monofluorophosphate. Z Gastroenterol. 30(4):252-4. April. [ Abstract ]

Muntner P, et al. 2012. Racial differences in the incidence of chronic kidney disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 7(1):101-7.

Murray MM, Wilson DC. 1948. Fluorosis and nutrition in Morocco. Brit Dent J. 84(5):97-100. March 5.

Muthukumar N. 2005. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as a result of fluorosis causing myelopathy: report of two cases. Neurosurgery. 56(3):E622.

Mwaniki DL, et al. 1994. Endemic fluorosis: an analysis of needs and possibilities based on case studies in Kenya. Social Science and Medicine 39: 807-13.


Naidu MRC, et al. 1988. Intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical spine associated with skeletal fluorosis. Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery 90:257-60.

Nanayakkara D, et al. 1999. Dental fluorosis and caries incidence in rural children residing in a high fluoride area in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 42:13-17.

Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ. 1994. Effect of fluoride on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Fluoride 27: 7-12.

Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ. 1994. Reversible effects of sodium fluoride ingestion on spermatozoa of the rat. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 39(6):337-46. Nov-Dec. [ Abstract ]

National Academy of Sciences. 1977. Drinking Water and Health. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. pp. 388-389. National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press. See report at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309046335&page=235#pagetop

National Cancer Institute. 1989. Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1987. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. Publication No.90-2789.

National Health and Medical Research Council. 1991. The effectiveness of water fluoridation. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR). 1981. The prevalence of dental caries in United States children, 1979-80: National Dental Caries Prevalence Survey. Bethesda, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1981; NIH publication no. 82-2245.

National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection. 1989. Integrated criteria document fluorides. Report No 758474010. The Netherlands.

National Research Council. 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. Report available to read and search at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11571

National Research Council. 1993. Health effects of ingested fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington DC. Report available to read and search at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904975X

National Research Council. 1971. Effects of fluoride on human health: nervous system. In: Fluorides. Committee on Biological Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.

National Toxicology Program (NTP). 1990. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of sodium fluoride in F344/N rats and B6C3f1 mice. Technical report Series No. 393. NIH Publ. No 91-2848.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/sodium.f.ntp.long.1990.pdf – [ Executive Summary ] – [ News articles ]

Neelam, K, et al. 1987. Incidence of prevalence of infertility among married male members of endemic fluorosis district of Andhra Pradesh. In: Abstract Proc Conf Int Soc for Fluoride Res. Nyon, Switzerland.

Nesin BC. 1956. A water supply perspective of the fluoridation discussion. J Maine Water Utilities Association. Neurath C. 2005. Tooth decay trends for 12 year olds in nonfluoridated and fluoridated countries. Fluoride 38(4):324-325. November. See full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/neurath-2005.pdf

Neurath C, Connett P. 2008. Current epidemiological research on a link between fluoride and osteosarcoma. Abstract from the XXVIIIth Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research (August, Toronto, Canada). Fluoride 41(3)241-242. Abstract at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/neurath-2008.pdf

Neurath C, Connett P. 2009. Evidence supporting prioritizing fluoride for carcinogenicity hazard identification. Submitted to the California OEHHA and Carcinogenicity Identification Committee. May 5. At http://www.fluoridealert.org/neurath-2009.may5.pdf and slideshow

New York State Department of Health. 2006. The impact of oral disease in New York State. December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/NYS-2006.pdf

Ng AHM, Hercz G, Kandel R, Grynpas MD. 2004. Association between fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and bone quality in renal osteodystrophy. Bone 34(1):216-224. January. [ Abstract ]

Nielson E, et al. 1973. Fluoride metabolism in uremia. Transactions of the American Society of Artifical Internal Organs 19:450-455.

Niu R, Sun Z, Wang J, Cheng Z, Wang J. 2008. Effects of fluoride and lead on locomotor behavior and expression of Nissl body in brain of adult rats. Fluoride 41(4):276-282. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/niu-2008.pdf

Niu R, et al. 2009. Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 28(2):254-8.

Noble BS, et al. 1997. Identification of apoptotic changes in osteocytes in normal and pathological human bone. Bone 20:273-82.

Noel C, et al. 1985. [Risk of bone disease as a result of fluoride intake in chronic renal insufficiency] [Article in French]. Nephrologie. 6(4):181-5.  [ Abstract ]

Nuscheler M, et al. 1996. [Fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity: fact or fiction?]. Anaesthesist 45 Suppl 1:S32-40.

Nyman JS, Reyes M, Wang X . 2005. Effect of ultrastructural changes on the toughness of bone . Micron 36(7-8):566-82. [ Abstract ]


Obel AO. 1982. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 59:363-365. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/obel-1982.pdf

O’Donnell TV. 1995. Asthma and respiratory problems–a review. The Science of the Total Environment 163(1-3):137-45. February 24. [ Abstract ]

O’Duffy JD, et al. 1986. Mechanism of acute lower extremity pain syndrome in fluoride-treated osteoporotic patients. Am J Med. 80(4):561-6. April. [ Abstract ]

Okushi I. 1954a. Changes in the heart muscle due to chronic fluorosis. Part I: Electrocardiogram and cardiac x-rays in inhabitants of a high fluoride zone. (Abstracted from) Shikoku Acta Medica 5:159-165.

Okushi I. 1954b. Changes in the heart muscle due to chronic fluorosis. Part II: Experimental studies on the effects of sodium fluoride upon the heart muscle of rabbits. (Abstracted from) Shikoku Acta Medica 5:238-45.

Olsson B. 1979. Dental findings in high-fluoride areas in Ethiopia. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 7(1):51-6. February. [ Abstract ]

Oncu M, Gulle K, Karaoz E, GultekinF, Karaoz S, Karakoyun I, Mumcu E. 2006. Effect of chronic fluorosis on lipid peroxidation and histology of lung tissues in first and second genertion rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 22(9):375-80. October. [ Abstract ]

Oncu M, Kocak A, Karaoz E, Darici H, Savik E, Gultekin F. 2007. Effect of long-term fluoride exposure on lipid peroxidation and histology of testes in first- and second-generation rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 118(3):260-8. September. [ Abstract ]

Operskalski EA, Preston-Martin S, Henderson BE, Visscher BR. 1987. A case-control study of osteosarcoma in young persons. American Journal of Epidemiology 126(1):118-26. July. [ Abstract ]

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Otsuki S, Morshed SR, Chowdhury SA, Takayama F, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Sugiyama K, Amano O, Yasui T, Yokote Y, Akahane K, Sakagami H. 2005. Possible link between glycolysis and apoptosis induced by sodium fluoride. J Dent Res. 84(10):919-923. October. [ Abstract ]

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