Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (P-R)


Pagliari AV, Moimaz SAS, Saliba O, Delbem ACB, Sassaki KT. 2006. Analysis of fluoride concentration in mother’s milk substitutes. Braz Oral Res 20(3):269-74. [ Abstract ]

Pandit CG, et al. 1940. Endemic fluorosis in South India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 28: 533-558.

Pang D, Phillips CL, Bawden JW. 1992. Fluoride intake from beverage consumption in a sample of North Carolina children. Journal of Dental Research 71(7):1382-1388. July. [ Abstract ]

Pak CY. 1989. Fluoride and osteoporosis. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 191(3):278-86. July.

Pak CY, Sakhaee K, Adams-Huet B, Piziak V, Peterson RD, Poindexter JR. 1995. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with slow-release sodium fluoride. Final report of a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 15;123(6):401-8. September. [ Abstract ]

Parkins FM, et al. 1974. Relationships of human plasma fluoride and bone fluoride to age. Calcif Tiss Res. 16(4):335-338. [ Abstract ]

Partanen S. 2002. Inhibition of human renal acid phosphatases by nephrotoxic micromolar concentrations of fluoride. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 54(3):231-7. [ Abstract ]

Patel S, Chan JK, Hosking DJ. 1996. Fluoride pharmacokinetics and changes in lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density. Bone. 19(6):651-5. December. [ Abstract ]

Pati PC, Bhunya SP. 1987. Genotoxic effect of an environmental pollutant, sodium fluoride, in mammalian in vivo test system. Caryologia 40:79-87.

Pattee OH, et al. 1988. Effects of dietary fluoride on reproduction in Eastern Screech-Owls. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 17: 213-218.

Paul V, et al. 1998. Effects of sodium fluoride on locomotor behavior and a few biochemical parameters in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 6: 187–191.

Peach MJ. 1975. Anions: Phosphate, iode, fluoride, and other ions. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds): The Pharmacological Basic of Therapeutics. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, pp 804-805.

Pehrsson P et al. 2005. The fluoride content of brewed and microwave brewed black teas . United States Department of Agriculture. [Note: document not dated.] Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/pehrsson-2005.pdf

Pendrys DG, Katz RV, Morse DE. 1994. Risk factors for enamel fluorosis in a fluoridated population. Am J Epidemiol. 140(5):461-71. September 1. [ Abstract ]

Pendrys DG, Katz RV. 1998. Risk factors for enamel fluorosis in optimally fluoridated children born after the US manufacturers’ decision to reduce the fluoride concentration of infant formula. Am J Epidemiol. 148(10): 967-74. November. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/pendrys-1998.pdf

Pendrys DG. 2000. Risk of enamel fluorosis in nonfluoridated and optimally fluoridated populations: considerations for the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc. 131(6):746-55. June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/pendrys-2000.pdf

Penman AD, Brackin BT, Embrey R. 1997. Outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning caused by a fluoride overfeed, Mississippi, 1993. Public Health Reports 112(5):403-9. Sep-Oct. [ Abstract ]

Pereira M, et al. 2011. Memory impairment induced by sodium fluoride is associated with changes in brain monoamine levels. Neurotox Res. 19(1):55-62.

Pesticide News 68 (UK) (2005). Sulfuryl fluoride kills bystander. Page 23. June. Available online http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Issue/pn68/pn68p23b.htm

Petersen LR, Denis D, Brown D, Hadler JL, Helgerson SD. 1988. Community health effects of a municipal water supply hyperfluoridation accident. American Journal of Public Health 78(6):711-3. June. [ Abstract ]

Petersen PE. 1992. Effectiveness of oral health care–some Danish experiences. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 88(1-2):13-2. [ Abstract ]

Petersson GH, Bratthall D. 1996. The caries decline: a review of reviews. Eur J Oral Sci. 104(4(Pt 2)):436-43. August. [ Abstract ]

Petrone P, et al. 2011. Enduring Fluoride Health Hazard for the Vesuvius Area Population: The Case of AD 79 Herculaneum. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21085.

Pettifor JM, et al. 1989. Endemic skeletal fluorosis in children: hypocalcemia and the presence of renal resistance to parathyroid hormone. Bone Miner. 7(3):275-88.

Phipps KR, Burt BA. 1990. Water-borne fluoride and cortical bone mass: a comparison of two communities. Journal of Dental Research 69(6):1256-1260. June. [ Abstract ]

Phipps KR, et al. 1998. The association between water-borne fluoride and bone mineral density in older adults. Journal of Dental Research 77(9):1739-1748. September. [ Abstract ]

Phipps KR, Orwoll ES, Mason JD, Cauley JA. 2000. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women. British Medical Journal. 321(7265):860-4. October 7. Full study at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/860 and Response to the study from Paul Connett
Note: This study reported a decreased incidence of hip fracture in fluoridated areas. However, as with Feskanich (1998) and Karagas (1996), the study also found an association between fluoridation and other types of fracture – in this case, wrist fracture. “There was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of wrist fracture.”

Pindborg JJ. 1957. The effect of 0.05 per cent dietary sodium fluoride on the rat kidney. Acta Pharmacolgica et Toxicologica 13: 36-45.

Pinet A, Pinet F. 1968. Endemic fluorosis in the Sahara. Fluoride 1(2):86-93. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/pinet-1968.pdf

Pinkham JR, ed. 1999. Pediatric dentistry: infancy through adolescence. 3rd Edition. WB Saunders Co.

Pinto R, et al. 1998. NaF may disturb male fertility in rodents. Toxicology Letters 95(Suppl 1): 214.

Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G. 2007. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review. Clinical Oral Investigations 11(3):189-93.[ Abstract ]

Podder S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S, Ray MR, 2008a. Differential in vivo genotoxic effects of lower and higher concentrations of fluoride in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41(4):301-307. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/podder-2008a.pdf

Podder S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S. 2008b. In vivo suppression by fluoride of chromosome aberrations induced by mitomycin-C in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41(1)40–43. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/podder-2008b.pdf

Pontigo-Loyola AP, Medina-Solis CE, Borges-Yan SA, Patino-Marin N, Islas-Marquez A, Maupomreddye G. 2007. Prevalence and severity of dental caries in adolescents aged 12 and 15 living in communities with various fluoride concentrations. J Public Health Dent. 67(1):8-13. Winter. [ Abstract ]

Pontigo-Loyola A, et al. 2008. Dental fluorosis in 12- and 15-year-olds at high altitudes in above-optimal fluoridated communities in Mexico. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 68(3):163-66.

Polzik EV, et al. 1994. A method for estimating individual predisposition to occupational fluorosis. Fluoride 27(4):194-200. Full study

Posen GA, et al. 1971. Renal osteodystrophy in patients on long-term hemodialysis with fluoridated water. Fluoride 4(3):114-128. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/posen-1971.pdf

Posen GA, et al. 1972. Comparison of renal osteodystrophy in patients dialyzed with deionized and non-deionized water. Transactions of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 18: 405-411.

Poulson H, Ericcson Y. 1965. Chronic toxicity of dietary sodium monofluorophosphate in growing rats, with special reference to kidney changes. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica 65: 493-504.

Poureslami HR, et al. 2011. Intelligence quotient of 7 to 9 year-old children from an area with high fluoride in drinking water. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 3(4):61-64.

Prasad VS, Reddy DR. 1994. Posttraumatic pseudomenigocoele of cervical spine in a patient with skeletal fluorosis: Case report. Paraplegia 32(9):627-30. September. [ Abstract ]

Pribilla O. 1968. Four cases of acute silicofluoride intoxication: clinical and pathological findings. Fluoride 1:102-9.

Prival MJ. 1972. Fluorides and human health. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington D.C.

Prival M, Fisher F. 1974. Adding fluorides to the diet. Environment 16: 29-33.

Priya CA, et al. 1997. Toxicity of fluoride to diabetic rats. Fluoride 30(1): 43-50.

Prost A, et al. 1978. [Fluorine osteosis caused by a very long-term niflumic acid treatment in 2 cases of rheumatoid arthritis]. [Article in French]Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. 45(12):707-16.

Pushpalatha T, Srinivas M, Sreenivasula Reddy P. 2005. Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats. Biometals 18(3):207-12.  June. [ Abstract ]


Qu W, Zhong D, Wu P, Wang J, Han B.. 2008. Sodium fluoride modulates caprine osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 26(4):328-334. July. [ Abstract ]

Qin L, Huo S, Chen R, Chang Y, Zhao M. 2008. Using the raven’s standard progressive tatrices to determine the effects of the level of fluoride in drinking water on the intellectual ability of school-age children. Fluoride 41(2)115–119. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/qin.2008.pdf


Radusch DF. 1934. Variability of diagnosis of incidence of dental caries. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 28: 1959-1961, 1941.

Raloff J. 1984. Dental study upsets the accepted wisdom. Science News. 125(1): January 7.

Ramberg CF, Olsson SE. 1970. Fluoride effects on bone morphology and calcium kinetics. Fluoride 3(4):175-181. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/ramberg-1970.pdf

Ramesh N, et al. 2001. Low levels of p53 mutations in Indian patients with osteosarcoma and the correlation with fluoride levels in bone. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 20(3):237-43. [ Abstract ]

Ramseyer WF, et al. 1957. See McCay CM.

Rango T, et al. 2012. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Environment International 43:37-47.

Rao MV, Tiwari H. 2006. Amelioration by melatonin of chromosomal anomalies induced by arsenic and/or fluoride inhuman blood lymphocyte cultures. Fluoride 39(4)255–260. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/rao-2006.pdf

Rapaport I. 1957. Contribution a l’etude etiologique du mongolisme. Role des inhibiteurs enzymatiques. Encephale. 46: 468-481. Full study in French at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/rapaport-1957.pdf

Rapaport I. 1959. Nouvelles recherches sur le mongolisme. A propos du role pathogenique du fluor. Bull. Acad. Nat. Med. (Paris). 143: 367-370. English translation of full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/rapaport-1959.pdf

Rapaport I. 1960. Oligophrenie mongolienne et ectodermoses congenitales. Ann. Dermatol. Syphiligr. 87: 263-278.

Rapaport I. 1961. A propos du mongolisme infantile. Une deviation du metabolisme de tryptophane provoquee par le fluor chez la drosophile. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. (Paris). 145: 450-453.

Rapaport I. 1963. Oligophrenie mongolienne et caries dentaires. Rev. Stomatol. 64: 207-218. [See copy of paper]

Rayjalakashmi K, et al. 1986. Investigations on the Relevance of Defluoridated Water and Nutritional Supplements in Fluorosis Endemic Areas in Andhra Pradesh, India. Studies in Environmental Science 27:357-67.

Ream LJ. 1981. The effects of short-term fluoride ingestion on bone formation and resorption in the rat femur. Cell and Tissue Research 221(2):421-430. [ Abstract ]

Ream LJ, Principato R. 1981. Fluoride stimulation of the rat parathyroid gland: an ultrastructural study.162(3):233-41. November. [ Abstract ]

Ream LJ, et al. 1983. Fluoride ingestion during multiple pregnancies and lactations: microscopic observations on bone of the rat. Virchows Arch [Cell Pathol] 44: 35-44.

Ream LJ. 1983. Scanning electron microscopy of the rat femur after fluoride ingestion. Fluoride 16(3):169-174. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/ream-1983.pdf

Reddy DR, et al. 1993. Neuro-radiology of skeletal fluorosis. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 22(3 Suppl):493-500.

Reddy GB, Khandare AL, Reddy PY, Rao GS, Balakrishna N, Srivalli I. 2003. Antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in patients with skeletal fluorosis and in fluoride-intoxicated rabbits. Toxicological Sciences 72(2):363-8. Aoril. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/reddy-2003.pdf

Reddy PS, Pushpalatha T, Reddy PS. 2007. Suppression of male reproduction in rats after exposure to sodium fluoride during early stages of development. Naturwissenschaften 94(7):607-11. July. [ Abstract ]

Refsnes M, Skuland T, Schwarze PE, Øvrevik J, Låg M. 2008. Fluoride-induced IL-8 release in human epithelial lung cells: relationship to EGF-receptor-, SRC- and MAP-kinase activation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 227(1):56-67. Feb 15. [ Abstract ]

Reggabi M, et al. 1984. Renal function in residents of an endemic fluorosis area in southern Algeria. Fluoride 17(1):35-41. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/reggabi-1984.pdf

Reich E. 2001. Trends in caries and periodontal health epidemiology in Europe. Int Dent J. 51(6 Suppl 1):392-8. [ Abstract ]

Ren D. 1989. A study of the intellectual ability of 8-14 year-old children in high fluoride, low iodine areas. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 4:251. [See study]

Ren D, Li K, Liu D. 2008. A study of the intellectual ability of 8-14 year-old children in high fluoride, low iodine areas. Fluoride 41(4):319-320. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/ren-2008.pdf

Retief DH, Bradley EL, Barbakow FH, Friedman M, van der Merwe EH, Bischoff JI. 1979. Relationships among fluoride concentration in enamel, degree of fluorosis and caries incidence in a community residing in a high fluoride area. Journal of Oral Pathology 8(4):224-36. August. [ Abstract ]

Reutter FW, et al. 1970. Fluoride in osteoporosis: clinical and quantitative histological studies on bone structure and bone remodelling. Fluoride 3(4):209. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/reutter-1970.pdf

Rich C. 1966. Osteoporosis and fluoride therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association 196: 149.

Rich C, Feist E. 1970. The action of fluoride on bone. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 70-87.

Richards A, Mosekilde L, Søgaard CH. 1994. Normal age-related changes in fluoride content of vertebral trabecular bone – Relation to bone quality. Bone. 15(1):21-26. Jan-Feb. [ Abstract ]

Ridley W, Matsuoka M. 2009. Fluoride-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E(2) production in A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells. Toxicol Lett. April 17. [Epub ahead of print] [ Abstract ]

Rigalli A, et al. 1990. Inhibitory effect of fluoride on the secretion of insulin. Calcif Tissue Int 46:333-8.

Rigalli A, et al. 1992. Bone mass increase and glucose tolerance in rats chronically treated with sodium fluoride. Bone & Mineral 16:101-08.

Rigalli A, et al. 1995. Comparative study of the effect of sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate on glucose homeostasis in the rat. Drug Res 45(3):289-92.

Riordan PJ. 1993. Perceptions of dental fluorosis. J Dent Res.72(9):1268-74. September. [ Abstract ]

Riordan PJ. 1996. The place of fluoride supplements in caries prevention today. Australian Dental Journal 41: 335-42.

Riggins RS, et al. 1974. The effects of sodium fluoride on bone breaking strength. Calc Tiss Res. 14(4):283-289. May.

Riggins RS, Rucker RC, Chan MM, Zeman F, Beljan JR. 1976. The effect of fluoride supplementation on the strength of osteopenic bone. Clin Orthop. (114):352-7. Jan-Feb. [ Abstract ]

Riggs BL, et al. 1982. Effect of the fluoride/calcium regimen on vertebral fracture occurrence in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Comparison with conventional therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 306:446-50.

Riggs BL. 1983. Treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride: An appraisal. Bone and Mineral Research. 2: 366-393.

Riggs BL. 1984. Treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride: An appraisal. Bone and Mineral Research. 2: 366-393.

Riggs BL, et al. 1980. Treatment of primary osteoporosis with fluoride and calcium: Clinical tolerance and fracture occurrence. Journal of the American Medical Association 243: 446-44.

Riggs BL, et al. 1990. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Eng J Med. 322(12):802-809. March 22. [ Abstract ]

Riordan PJ. 1999. Fluoride supplements for young children: an analysis of the literature focusing on benefits and risks. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 27: 72-83.


Rivedal E, Mikalsen SO, Sanner T. 2000. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity. Toxicology In Vitro 14(2):185-92. April. [ Abstract ]

Robin JC, Schepart B, Calkins H, LoSasso G, Thomas CC Jr, Ambrus JL. 1980. Studies on osteoporosis III. Effect of estrogens and fluoride. J Med.11(1):1-14. [ Abstract ]

Robinson C, Kirkham J. 1990. The effect of fluoride on the developing mineralized tissues. Journal of Dental Research 69 Spec No:685-91; discussion 721. February. [ Abstract ]

Robinson K, VandeVusse L. 2009. Exploration of African-American women’s infant feeding choices. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association 20(2):32-7.

Rocha-Amador D, et al. 2007. Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water. Cadernos de Saude Publica 23 Suppl 4:S579-87. [ Abstract ]

Rockert H, Sunzel H. 1960. Skeletal lesions following ingestion of fluoridated water. Experientia 15:155-156. April 15.

Rodd HD, Davidson LE. 1997. The aesthetic management of severe dental fluorosis in the young patient. Dent Update. 24(10):408-11. December. [ Abstract ]

Rodondi N, et al. 2010. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. JAMA 304(12):1365-74.

Roholm K. 1937. Fluoride intoxication: a clinical-hygienic study with a review of the literature and some experimental investigations. London: H.K. Lewis Ltd. Full text of book at http://www.scribd.com/doc/11757791/Fluorine-Intoxication-Kaj-Roholm-1937-Copenhagen

Rolla G, Ekstrand J. 1996. Fluoride in oral fluids and dental plaque. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B, Eds. Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd Edition. Munksgaard, Denmark. p 215-229.

Roman RJ, Carter JR, North WC, Kauker ML. 1977. Renal tubular site of action of fluoride in Fischer-344 rats. Anesthesiology. 46(4):260-264. April. [ Abstract ]

Romundstad P, et al. 2000. Cancer incidence among workers in six Norwegian aluminum plants. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 26: 461-469.

Romundstad P, Andersen A, Haldorsen T. 2000. Nonmalignant mortality among workers in six Norwegian aluminum plants. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 26(6): 470-475. December. [ Abstract ]

Ronneberg A, Andersen A. 1995. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers from an aluminum smelter with prebaked carbon anodes – part II: cancer morbity. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 52: 250-254.

Roos J, Dumolard A, Bourget S, Grange L, Rousseau A, 2005. [Osteofluorosis caused by excess use of toothpaste.] [Article in French]. Presse Med. 34(20 Pt 1):1518-20. November 19. [ Abstract ]

Roschger P, et al. 1995. Bone mineral structure after six years fluoride treatment investigated by backscattered electron imaging (BSEI) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS): a case report. Bone 16:407.

Rotton J, et al. 1983. Behavioral Effects of Chemicals in Drinking Water. Journal of Applied Psychology 67:230-38.

Rozier RG. 1999. The prevalence and severity of enamel fluorosis in North American children. J Public Health Dent. 59(4):239-46. Fall. [ Abstract ]

Rubenstein LK, Avent MA. 1987. Frequency of undesirable side-effects following professionally applied topical fluoride. Journal of Dentistry for Children 54(4):245-247. July-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Ruiz-Payan A, Duarte-Gardea M, Ortiz M, Hurtado R. 2005. Chronic effects of fluoride on growth, blood chemistry, and thyroid hormones in adolescents residing in northern Mexico. Abstract 37. Paper presented at the XXVIth Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research. September 26-29. Fluoride 38: 46. Abstract at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/ruiz-payan-2005.abstract37.pdf

Runge H, Franke J. 1989. Radiological modifications of the skeletal system among aluminum smelter workers: A 15 year retrospective study. Fluoride 22(4):157-164. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/DISH.htm

Russell A. 1962. Dental fluorosis in Grand Rapids during the seventeenth year of fluoridation. Journal of the American Dental Association 65:608-12.

Rzeuski R, Chlubek D, Machoy Z. 1998. Interactions between fluoride and biological free radical reactions. Fluoride 31(1):43-45. Full study at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-1/31143-45.htm

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