Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (S-U)


Sahdey S, Bano R, Lall SB. 1996. Effects of sodium fluoride on testicular enzymes in the sexually mature Swiss albino mice. Indian Journal of Environment and Toxicology 6:1-4.

Sales-Peres SH, Bastos JR. 2002. [An epidemiological profile of dental caries in 12-year-old children residing in cities with and without fluoridated water supply in the central western area of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil]. Cadernos de Saude Publica 18(5):1281-8. Sept-Oct. [ Abstract ]

Sandberg D, Zichner L. 1985. A case of bone fluorosis of undetermined origin. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 104:191-95.

Sandhu R, Lal H, Kundu ZS, Kharb S. 2009. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print] [ Abstract ]

Sang ZC, et al. 2010. [X-ray analysis on 114 patients with moderate endemic skeletal fluorosis by treatment of Guo’s Chinese herbal]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 23(5):379-82.

Sapov K, et al. 1999. A laboratory assessment of enamel hypoplasia of teeth with varying severities of dental fluorosis. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 26(8):672-7. August. [ Abstract ]

(Sarkar) S Maiti R, Ghosh D. 2006. Management of fluoride induced testicular disorders by calcium and vitamin-E co-administration in the albino rat. Reprod Toxicol. 22(4):606-12. November. [ Abstract ]

(Sarkar) S, Maiti R, Ghosh D. 2006. Fluoride-induced immunotoxicity in adult male albino rat: a correlative approach to oxidative stress. J Immunotoxicol. Jul 1;3(2):49-55.

Sarri E, Claro E. 1998. Fluoride-induced depletion of polyphosphoinositides in rat brain cortical slices: a rationale for the inhibitory effects on phospholipase C. Int J Dev Neurosci 17(4):357-67. [ Abstract ]

Satoh R, Kishino K, Morshed SR, Takayama F, Otsuki S, Suzuki F, Hashimoto K, Kikuchi H, Nishikawa H, Yasui T, Sakagami H. 2005. Changes in fluoride sensitivity during in vitro senescence of normal human oral cells. Anticancer Res. 25(3B):2085-90. May-June. [ Abstract ]

Sauerbrunn BJ, et al. 1965. Chronic fluoride intoxication with fluorotic radiculomyelopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine 63: 1074-1078.

Saunders MA. 1975. Fluoride toothpastes: A cause of acne-like eruptions. Letter. Archives of Dermatology 111: 793.
See also: Epstein E. 1976. Letter: Fluoride toothpastes as a cause of acne-like eruptions. Arch Dermatol. 112(7):1033-4. July.

Saunders MA. 1976. Fluoride toothpaste as a cause of acne-like eruptions. (Letter.) Archives of Dermatology 112: 1033-1034. See letter at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/saunders-1975.html

Savas S, Cetin M, Akdogan M, Heybeli N. 2001. Endemic fluorosis in Turkish patients: relationship with knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatol Inl. 21(1):30-5. September. [ Abstract ]

Saville PD. 1967. Water Fluoridation: effect on bone fragility and skeletal calcium content in the rat. Journal of Nutrition. 91(3):353-357. March.

Saxena S, et al. 2012. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 3(2):144-49.

Schepers GWH. 1964. Biological action of beryllium: reaction of the monkey to inhaled aerosols. Industrial Medicine and Surgery 33: 1-16.

Schettler T, et al. 2000. “Known and suspected developmental neurotoxicants.” In Harms Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development. Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility: Cambridge, MA. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/brain/psr.html

Schiffl H. 2008. Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 23(1):411. January. [ Abstract ]

Schlegel HH. 1974. Industrial skeletal fluoroses: preliminary report on 61 cases from aluminum smeleter. Sozial und Praventivmed. 19:269-74. (Abstracted in: Fluoride 1975; 8:177)

Schlesinger ER, Overton DE, Chase HC, Cantwell KT. 1956. Newburgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study XIII. Pediatric findings after ten years. Journal of the American Dental Association. 52(3):296-306. March.

Schmidt CW, Würgatsch P, Auermann E. 1985. [Massive skeletal fluorosis in compromised kidney function] [Article in German]. Z Urol Nephrol. 78(3):173-6. March. [ Abstract ]

Schnitzler CM, Solomon L. 1986. Histomorphometric analysis of a calcaneal stress fracture: a possible complication of fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Bone 7: 193-8.

Schnitzler CM, Wing JR, Gear KA, Robson HJ. 1990. Bone fragility of the peripheral skeleton during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Clin Orthop (261):268-75. December. [ Abstract ]

Schnitzler CM, Solomon L. 1985. Trabecular stress fractures during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Skeletal Radiol. 14(4):276-9. [ Abstract ]

Scholle R. 1984. Editorial: Preserving the perfect tooth. Journal of the American Dental Association. 108:448.

Schuld A. 1999. Fluoride-iodine antagonism: some history. Parents for Fluoride Poisoned Children. Available at http://poisonfluoride.com/pfpc/html/thyroid_history.html

Scott D, Roberts SA. 1987. Extrapolation from in vitro tests to human risk: experience with sodium fluoride clastogenicity. Mutation Research 189(1):47-58. September. [ Abstract ]

Seholle RH. 1984. Preserving the perfect tooth (editorial). Journal of the American Dental Association 108: 448.

Semennikova TK, et al. (1992). [The clinical characteristics of the early stages of occupational fluorosis under the combined and joint action of production factors]. [Article in Russian]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. (3):6-8.

Seow WK, Thomsett MJ. 1994. Dental fluorosis as a complication of hereditary diabetes insipidus: studies of six affected patients. Pediatr Dent. 16(2):128-32.

Seppä L, Karkkainen S, Hausen H. 2000. Caries trends 1992-98 in two low-fluoride Finnish towns formerly with and without fluoride. Caries Res. 34(6):462-8. Nov-Dec. [ Abstract ]

Seppa L. Karkkainen S, Hausen H. 2002. Caries occurrence in a fluoridated and a nonfluoridated town in Finland: a retrospective study using longitudinal data from public dental records. Caries Research 36(5):308-314. September-October. [ Abstract ]

Seraj B, et al. (2012). Effect of high water fluoride concentration on the intellectual development of children in Makoo/Iran. Journal of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 9(3): 221-29. http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/seraj-2012.pdf

Seraj B, et al. 2006. [Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence]. Journal of Dental Medicine 19(2):80-86. Translation into English by lead author at http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/seraj-2006.pdf

Shah SD, Chinoy NJ. 2004. Adverse effects of fluoride and/or arsenic on the cerebral hemisphere of mice and recovery by some antidotes. Fluoride 37(3):162-171. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shah-2004.pdf

Shahed AR, et al. 1986. Effect of F on rat serum insulin levels in vivo. Journal of Dental Research 65:756.

Shan KR, Qi XL, Long YG, Wang YN, Nordberg A, Guan ZZ. 2004. Decreased nicotinic receptors in PC12 cells and rat brains influenced by fluoride toxicity—a mechanism relating to a damage at the level in post-transcription of the receptor genes. Toxicology 200(2-3):169–177. August 5. [ Abstract ]

Shanthakumari D, Srinivasalu S, Subramanian S. 2004. Effect of fluoride intoxication on lipidperoxidation and antioxidant status in experimental rats. Toxicology 20(2-3):219-28. November 15. [ Abstract ]

Shanthakumari D, Srinivasalu S, Subramanian S. 2006. Antioxidant defense systems in red blood cell lysates of men with dental fluorosis living in Tamil Nadu, India. Fluoride 39(3)231–239. July-September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/shanthakumari-2006.pdf

Shanthakumari D, Srinivasalu S, Subramanian S. 2007. Effect of fluoride intoxication on the levels of intestinal antioxidants studied in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 29(2):93-9. March. [ Abstract ]

Shao Q, Wang Y, Guan Z. 2000. [Influence of free radical inducer on the level of oxidative stress in brain of rats with fluorosis] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34(6):330-2. November. [ Abstract ]

Shao Q, et al. 2003. Study of cognitive function impairment caused by chronic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 22(4):336-38.

Sharifian A, Momeni VR, Shahriaran S, Aminiana O. 2008. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in aluminum potroom workers exposed to fluoride emissions. Fluoride 41(4):314-316. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/sharifian-2008.pdf

Sharma JD, et al. 2008. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity in rats through vitamins (C, D) and calcium. Toxicology International 15:111-6. Available from: http://www.toxicologyinternational.com/text.asp?2008/15/2/111/63167

Sharma JD, et al. 2009. Gastric discomforts from fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride 42:286–291.

Sharma S, et al. 2004. Adherence to the food guide pyramid recommendations among African Americans and Latinos: results from the Multiethnic Cohort. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(12):1873-7.

Sharma R, Tsuchiya M, Bartlett JD. 2008. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibits protein synthesis and secretion. Environ Health Perspect. 116(9):1142-6. September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/sharma-2008.pdf

Sharma YD. 1982. Effect of sodium fluoride on collage cross-link precursors. Toxicology Letters 10:97-100.

Sharma YD. 1982. Variations in the metabolism and maturation of collagen after fluoride ingestion. Biochimica et Biophysica  Acta 715:137-41.

Shashi A. 1990. Histopathological changes in rabbit testes during experimental fluorosis. Folia Morphol (Praha) 38(1):63-5. [ Abstract ]

Shashi A. 1990. Histopathological changes in rabbit ovary during experimental fluorosis. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 33(2):113-7. April. [ Abstract ]

Shashi A. 1992. Studies on alterations in brain lipid metabolism following experimental fluorosis. Fluoride 25(2):77-84. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shashi-1992.pdf

Shashi A, et al. 1994. Effect of long-term administration of fluoride on levels of protein, free amino acids and RNA in rabbit brain. Fluoride 27(3):155-159. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shashi-1994.pdf

Shashi A, Thapar SP. 2001. Histopathology of myocardial damage in experimental fluorosis in rabbits. Fluoride 34(1):43-50.

Shashi A, Singh JP, Thapar SP. 2002. Toxic effects of fluoride on rabbit kidney. Fluoride 35(1):38-50. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shashi-2002.pdf

Shashi A. 2003. Histopathological investigation of fluoride-induced neurotoxicity in rabbits. Fluoride 36(2):95-105. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shashi-2003.pdf

Shashi A, Kumar M, Bhardwaj M. 2008. Incidence of skeletal deformities in endemic fluorosis. Trop Doct. 38(4):231-3. October. [ Abstract note authors names are abbreviated ]

Shea JJ, et al. 1967. Allergy to fluoride. Annals of Allergy. 25:388-91. See study at http://www.slweb.org/allergy.html

Shellis RP, Duckworth RM. 1994. Studies on the cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride. Int dent J. 44(3 Suppl 1):263-73. June. [ Abstract ]

Shen X, et al. 2004. [Effect of iodine and selenium on learning memory impairment induced by fluorosis and blood biochemical criterion of rats.] [Study in Chinese] Occupation & Health 20(1):6-8.

Shen X, Zhang Z, Xu X. 2004. [Influence of combined iodine and fluoride on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 33(2):158-61. March. [ Abstract ]

Sheth FJ, Multani AS, Chinoy NJ. 1994. Sister chromatid exchanges: A study in fluorotic individuals of North Gujurat. Fluoride 27(4):215-219. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/sheth-1994.pdf

Shi Y, et al. 2005. Effects of brick tea infusion on bone, kidneys and liver morphology before and after defluoridation with serpentine. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 24: 28-30.

Shiboski CH, Gansky SA, Ramos-Gomez F, Ngo L, Isman R, Pollick HF. 2003. The association of early childhood caries and race/ethnicity among California preschool children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 63(1):38-46. Winter. [ Abstract ]
Erratum in:
* J Public Health Dent. 2003 Fall;63(4):264.

Shilen J, Galloway AE, Mellor JF. 1944. Beryllium oxide from beryl – health hazards incident to extraction. Industrial Medicine 13: 464-469.

Shivaprakash PK, et al. 2011. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 29(2):117-20.

Shivarajashankara YM , et al. 2002. Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. Fluoride. 35(1):12-21. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shivarajashankara-2002.pdf

Shivarajashankara YM , et al. 2002. Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems of young rats in chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride 35(3):197-203. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shivarajashankara-2002b.pdf

Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara AR, Bhat PG, Rao SH. 2003. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in the blood of young rats subjected to chronic fluoride toxicity. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41(8):857-60. August. [ Abstract ]

Shivashankara YM, et al. 2001. Oxidative stress in children with endemic skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride 34(2):103-107. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shivarajashankara-2001b.pdf

Shivashankara YM, et al. 2001. Effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in rats. Fluoride 34(2):108-113. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/shivarajashankara-2001.pdf

Shivashankara AR, Shivarajashankara YM, Bhat PG, Rao SH. 2002. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in liver of rats in chronic fluoride toxicity. Bulletin of Environmetnal Contamination and Toxicology 68(4):612-6. April.

Shorter JP, et al. 2010. Comparison of two village primary schools in northern Tanzania affected by fluorosis. International Health 2:269-74.

Shortt HE, et al. 1937. Endemic fluorosis in the Madras presidency. Indian J Med Res. 25: 553-568.

Shufen J, et al. 1996. The change of thyroid functlon from children with fluoride aluminum combined toxicosis in Shuicheng area of Guizhou. Journal of Guiyang Medical College. Available online at http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GYYB602.008.htm

Shulman JD, Wells LM. 1997. Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57(3):150-8. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Shulman JD, et al. 2004. Perceptions of desirable tooth color among parents, dentists and children. Journal of the American Dental Association 135:595-604.

Shupe JL. 1970. Fluorine toxicosis and industry. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 31(3):240-247. Mar-Apr.

Shupe JL, Olson AE. 1971. Cinical aspects of fluorosis in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Association 158(2):167-174. January 15.

Sibbison JB. 1990. More on fluoride. The Lancet 336: 737.

Siddiqui AH. 1955. Fluorosis in Nalgonda district, Hyderabad-Deccan. British Medical Journal. 2(4953):1408-13. December 10.

Siddiqui AH. 1969. Incidence of simple goiter in areas of endemic fluorosis in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Fluoride 200-05.

Siddiqui AH. 1970. Neurological complications of skeletal fluorosis with special reference to lesions in the cervical region. Fluoride 3(2):91-96.

Sidora VD, Shliakhta AI, Iugov VK, Kas’ianenko AS, Piatenko VG. 1983. [Indices of the pituitary-thyroid system in residents of cities with various fluorine concentrations in drinking water] [Article in Russian]. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 29(4):32-5. July-August [ Abstract ]

Sierant ML, Bartlett JD. 2011. A Potential Mechanism for the Development of Dental Fluorosis. In: Interface Oral Health Science (K Sasaki, et al., eds).

Sigurjóns H, et al. 2004. Parental perception of fluorosis among 8-year-old children living in three communities in Iceland, Ireland and England. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 32(Suppl 1):34-8.

Silbergeld E. 1990. Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Thursday, April 26, 1990. p. 62-63.

Silva LL, et al. 1940. Fluorosis and tuberculosis. La Semana Medica 24: 1413-1434.

Silva MJ, Ulrich SR. 2000. In vitro sodium fluoride exposure decreases torsional and bending strength and increases ductility of mouse femora. Journal of Biomechics 33(2):231-4.

Silva de Castilho L, et al. 2009. Perceptions of adolescents and young people regarding endemic dental fluorosis in a rural area of Brazil: Psychosocial suffering. Health and Social Care in the Community Vol. 17, p. 557.

Singer L, Ophaug RH. 1979. Concentrations of ionic, total, and bound fluoride in plasma. Clinical Chemistry 25(4):523-5. April. [ Abstract ]

Singh A, et al. 1961. Skeletal fluorosis and its neurological complications. Lancet 1: 197-200.

Singh A, et al. 1963. Endemic fluorosis. Epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of chronic fluoride intoxication in Punjab. Medicine. 42: 229-246.

Singh A, Jolly SS. 1970. Chronic toxic effects on the skeletal system. In: Fluorides and Human Health. World Health Organization. pp. 238-249.

Singh M, Kanwar KS. 1981. Effect of fluoride on tissue enzyme activities in rat: Biochemical and histochemical studies. Fluoride 14: 132-141.

Singh PP, Barjatiya MK, Dhing S, Bhatnagar R, Kothari S, Dhar V. 2001. Evidence suggesting that high intake of fluoride provokes nephrolithiasis in tribal populations. Urological Research. 29(4):238-44. [ Abstract ]

Sinha M, Manna P, Sil PC. 2008. Terminalia arjuna protects mouse hearts against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress. J Med Food. 11(4):733-40. Decembe. [ Abstract ]

Singla VP, et al. 1976. The kidneys. Fluoride 9: 33-35.

Sjögren B. 2004. Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 10(3):310-2. Jul-Sep. [ Abstract ]

Slate R.  2005.  State must fund plan to provide oral health care for the poor.  New Haven Register (Connecticut). May 5.  Available at http://www2.www.fluoridealert.org/Alert/United-States/Connecticut/Fluoridated-Connecticut-experiencing-Oral-Health-Crisis

Smith GE. 1985. Repetitive strain injury, or incipient skeletal fluorosis? (Letter.) New Zealand Medical Journal 98:328.

Smith MO, Lantz E M, Smith H V. 1931. The cause of mottled enamel, a defect of human teeth. Univ. Arizona Techn. Bull. 32, 253-282.

Smith MC, Smith HV. 1940. Observations on the durability of mottled teeth. American Journal of Public Health 30(9):1050-1052. September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/smith-1940.pdf

Snow GR, Anderson C. 1986. Short-term chronic fluoride administration and trabecular bone remodeling in beagles: a pilot study. Calcified Tissue International 38(4):217-221. April. [ Abstract ]

Sogaard CH, Mosekilde L, Richards A, Mosekilde L. 1994. Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy–assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients.Bone. 15(4):393-99. [ Abstract ]

Sogaard CH, Mosekilde L, Schwartz W, Leidig G, Minne HW, Ziegler R. 1995. Effects of fluoride on rat vertebral body biomechanical competence and bone mass. Bone. 16(1):163-9. January. [ Abstract ]

Sohn W, et al. 2001. Fluid consumption related to climate among children in the United States. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 61(2):99-106.

Solvig E.  2002. Special Report: Cincinnati’s dental crisis, Cincinnati Enquirer (Ohio).  October 6. Available at http://www.fluoridealert.org/media/2002d.html

Song AH, et al. 1990. Observations on fluorotic aortosclerosis by two-dimensional echocardiography. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 5(1): 91-94.

Song K et al. 1991. Ultrastructural observations of testes and prostate gland in rat with chronic fluorosis. J CHINA MED UNIV 19(5): 339-342.

Song S, et al. 1991. Experimental study on the role of aluminum in the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Journal of Guiyang Medical College. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GYYB199103009.htm

Soriano M. 1968. Periostitis deformans due to wine fluorosis. Fluoride 1: 56-64.

Soto-Rojas AE, et al. 2002. Impact of dental fluorosis on well-being in Mexico City children. Fluorides and Fluorosis, IADR/AADR/CADR 80th General Session (March 6-9, 2002), San Diego.

Sowers MR, et al. 1986. The relationship of bone mass and fracture history to fluoride and calcium intake: a study of three communities. Am J Clin Nutr. 44(6):889-98.

Sowers M, Clark MK, Jannausch ML, Wallace RB. 1991. A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology. 133(7):649-660. April 1. [ Abstract ]

Soyseth V, Kongerud J. 1992. Prevalence of respiratory disorders among aluminum potroom workers in relation to exposure to fluoride. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 49(2):125-130. February. [ Abstract ]

Soyseth V, Kongerud J, Ekstrand J, Boe J. 1994. Relation between exposure to fluoride and bronchial responsiveness in aluminum potroom workers with work-related asthma-like symptoms. Thorax 49(10):984-989. October. [ Abstract ]

Spak CJ, Sjostedt S, Eleborg L, Veress B, Perbeck L, Ekstrand J. 1989. Tissue response of gastric mucosa after ingestion of fluoride. British Medical Journal 298(6689):1686-7.June 24. [ Abstract ]

Spak CJ, Sjostedt S, Eleborg L, Veress B, Perbeck L, Ekstrand J. 1990. Studies of human gastric mucosa after application of 0.42% fluoride gel. Journal of Dental Research 69(2):426-9. February. [ Abstract ]

Spencer H, Kramer L, Gatza C, Norris C, Wiatrowski E, Gandhi VC. 1980. Fluoride metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med. 140(10):1331-1335. October. [ Abstract ]

Spencer AJ, Slade GD, Davies M. 1996. Water fluoridation in Australia.  Community Dent Health. 13 Suppl 2:27-37. September. [ Abstract ]

Spencer AJ. 2006. The use of fluorides in Australia: guidelines. Aust Dent J 51(2):195-199. June.

Spinelli JJ, et al. 1991. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum reduction plant workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 33: 1150-1155.

Spittle B. 1993. Allergy and hypersensitivity to fluoride. Fluoride 26(4):267-73. -see http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/spittle-1993.html

Spittle B. 1994. Psychopharmacology of fluoride: a review. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 9(2):79-82. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Spittle B. 2000. Fluoride and intelligence (Editorial). Fluoride. 33(2):49-52. http://www.fluoride-journal.com/00-33-2/332-49.pdf

Spittle B. 2008. Dyspepsia associated with fluoridated water. Fluoride 41(1):89-92. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/spittle-2008.pdf

Sprando RL, et al. 1996. Effect of intratesticular injection of sodium fluoride on spermatogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol. 34(4):377-84.

Sprando RL, et al. 1997. Testing the potential of sodium fluoride to affect spermatogenesis in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 35(9):881-90.

Sprando RL, et al. 1998. Testing the potential of sodium fluoride to affect spermatogenesis: a morphometric study. Food Chem Toxicol. 36(12):1117-24.

Srikanth R, Chandra TR, Kumarb BR. 2008. Endemic fluorosis in five villages of the Palamau district, Jharkhnd, India. Fluoride 41(3):206-211. July-September. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/srikanth-2008.pdf

Stannard JG, Shim YS, Kritsineli M, Labropoulou P, Tsamtsouris A. 1991. Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination of fruit juices. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 16(1):38-40. Fall. [ Abstract ]

Stecher P, et al. 1960. The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs. Merck & Co., Inc, Rathway NJ.

Stecksen-Blicks C, Holm AK. 1995. Dental caries, tooth trauma, malocclusion, fluoride usage, toothbrushing and dietary habits in 4-year-old Swedish children: changes between 1967 and 1992. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 5(3):143-8. [ Abstract ]

Steelink C. 1992. Fluoridation controversy. Chemical & Engineering News. (Letter). July 27: 2-3.

Stein ID, Granik G. 1980. Human vertebral bone: relation of strength, porosity, and mineralization to fluoride content. Calcified Tissue International 32(3):189-194. [ Abstract ]

Steinberg CL, Gardner DE, Smith FA, Hodge HC. 1955. Comparison of rheumatoid (ankylosing) spondylitis and crippling fluorosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 14(4):378-384. December.

Steiner M, Menghini G, Curilovic Z, Marthaler T. 1994. [The caries occurrence in schoolchildren of the city of Zurich in 1970-1993. A view of prevention in new immigrants] [Article in German]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 104: 1210-8.

Stevens JA, Corso PS, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. 2006. The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Injury Prevention 12:290–295. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/stevens-2006.pdf

Stevenson CA, Watson R. 1957. Fluoride osteosclerosis. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 78(1):13-18. July.

Steyn DG, et al. 1955. Endemic goitre in the Union of South Africa and some neighbouring territories. Union of South Africa. Department of Nutrition. [ Excerpts ]

Stokinger HE, et al. 1950. Acute inhalation toxicity of beryllium. II. The enhancing effect of the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride vapor on beryllium sulfate poisoning in animals. Archives of industrial hygiene and occupational medicine 1:398-410.

Stokinger HE, et al. 1953. Acute inhalation toxicity of beryllium. IV. Beryllium fluoride at exposure concentrations of one and ten milligrams per cubic meter. AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 8(6): 493-506.

Stolc V, Podoba J. 1960. Effect of fluoride on the biogenesis of thyroid hormones. Nature. 188:855-856.

Stone OJ, Willis CJ. 1967. Enhancement of inflammation by fluorides. Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine 25(4):601-6. Winter.

Stone OJ, Willis CJ. 1968. The effect of stannous fluoride and stannous chloride on inflammation. Toxicology of Applied Pharmacology 13(3):332-8. November.

Stookey GK, Muhler JC. 1963. Relationship between fluoride deposition and metastatic calcification in soft tissues of rat and guinea pig. Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med 113:720-5.

Strunecka A, Patocka J. 1999. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of aluminofluoride complexes. Fluoride. 32(4):230-242. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/strunecka-1999.pdf

Strunecka A, Strunecky O, Patocka J. 2002. Fluoride plus aluminum: useful tools in laboratory investigations, but messengers of false information. Physiological Research 51(6):557-64. [ Abstract ]

Strunecka A. 2008. Chronic psychiatric symptoms after acute dermal hydrofluoric acid exposure. Fluoride 41(4)317–318. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/strunecka-2008.pdf

Su WM, et al. 2012. Total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis due to fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research 16(9):1543-1546.  [See study]

Suarez-Almazor MG, Flowerdew G, Saunders LD, Soskolne CL, Russell AS. 1993. The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities. Am J Public Health. 83(5):689-693. May. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/suarez-almazor-1993.pdf
Note: The authors of this study conclude there is no association between fluoridation and hip fracture. However, their own data reveals a significant increase in hip fracture for men living in the fluoridated area. According to the study, “although a statistically significant increase in the risk of hip fracture was observed among Edmonton men, this increase was relatively small (RR=1.12).”

Suketa Y, Mikami E. 1977. Changes in urinary ion excretion and related renal enzyme activities in fluoride-treated rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 40(3):551-9. June.

Suketa Y, Asao Y, Kanamoto Y, et al. 1985. Changes in adrenal function as a possible mechanism for elevation of serum glucose by a single large dose of fluoride. Tox Appl Pharm 80: 199-205.

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Sutton P. 1960 Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials. Melbourne University Press. Second Edition.

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Teotia M, Teotia SPS. 1973. Further observations on endemic fluoride-induced osteopathies in children. Fluoride 6: 143-151.

Teotia SPS, et al. 1976. The joints. Symposium on the non-skeletal phase of chronic fluorosis. Fluoride 9(1): 19-24. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/teotia-1976.pdf

Teotia SPS, et al. 1984. Environmental fluoride and metabolic bone disease: an epidemiological study (fluoride and nutrition interactions). Fluoride. 17(1):14-22. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/teotia-1984.pdf

Teotia SPS, Teotia M. 1994. Dental caries: a disorder of high fluoride and low dietary calcium interactions (30 years of personal research). Fluoride. 27(2):59-66. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/teotia-1994.pdf

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Thiessen KM.  2009.  Re:  Comments on the Public Health Assessment for K-25 and S-50 uranium fluoride releases, Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE), Roane County, Tennessee (December 23, 208).  Submission to:  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.  February 20. Full submission at http://www.fluoridealert.org/uf6.thiessen.atsdr.pdf – Also see background

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Thylstrup A, Fejerskov O. 1978. As Reproduced in “Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride” National Academy of Sciences, 1993. pp. 171.

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