Fluoride Action Network

Private: FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

FAN Bibliography (V-Z)


Vallejos-Sanchez AA, et al. 2006. Cross-Sectional analysis of dental caries in children with mixed dentition. ADEA/AADR/CADR Conference, Orlando Florida, March 8-11, 2006. Online at: http://iadr.confex.com/iadr/2006Orld/techprogram/abstract_73452.htm

van der Voet GB, Schijns O, de Wolff FA. 1999. Fluoride enhances the effect of aluminium chloride on interconnections between aggregates of hippocampal neurons. Arch Physiol Biochem. 107(1):15-21. February. [ Abstract ]

Van Linthoudt D, Ott H. 1987. Supraacetabular and femoral head stress fracture during fluoride treatment. Gerontology 33(5):302-306. [ Abstract ]

Vandana KL, George P, Cobb CM. 2007. Periodontal changes in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Fluoride 40(2)128–133. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/vandana-2007a.pdf

Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR Jr, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Zoeller RT, Myers JP. 2012. Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Lowdose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocrine Reviews, 33(3):378-455. http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/vandenberg-2012.pdf

VanOrdstrand HS, DeNardi JM, Carmody MG. 1945. Beryllium poisoning. Journal of the American Medical Association 129: 1084-1090.

van Palenstein Helderman WH, et al. 1993. Impact of dental fluorosis on the perception of well-being in an endemic fluorosis area. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 21:243-44.

van Rensburg SWJ, de Vos WH. 1966. The influence of excess fluorine intake in the drinking water on reproductive efficiency in bovines. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 33: 185-194. [ Summary ]

Van Winkle S, Levy SM, Kiritsy MC, Heilman JR, Wefel JS, Marshall T. 1995. Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula. Pediatr Dent. 17(4):305-10. Jul-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Varadacharyulu NC, Rao PR. 1997. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in fluoride-treated rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35(8):906-8.

Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. 1998. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Research. 784(-2):284-298. February 16. See extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm and Abstract and C&EN brief review of study

Vasant RA, et al. 2010. Therapeutic benefits of glibenclamide in fluoride intoxicated diabetic rats. Fluoride 43(2): 141-9.

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AVRL. 2012. Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations. Environ Health Prev Med. DOI 10.1007/s12199-012-0277-7

Vashishth D, et al. 2000. Decline in osteocyte lacunar density in human cortical bone is associated with accumulation of microcracks with age. Bone 26:375-80.

Vehkalahti M, Rytomaa I, Helminen S. 1991. Decline in dental caries and public oral health care of adolescents. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 49(6):323-8. December. [ Abstract ]

Velazquez-Guadarrama N, Madrigal-Bujaidar E, Molina D, Chamorro G. 2005. Genotoxic evaluation of sodium fluoride and sodium perborate in mouse bone marrow cells. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74(3):566-72. March.

Verma RJ, Sherlin DM. (2001). Vitamin C ameliorates fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in pregnant rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 20(12):619-23.

Vieira AP, Hancock R, Dumitriu M, Limeback H, Grynpas MD. 2006. Fluoride’s effect on human dentin ultrasound velocity (elastic modulus) and tubule size. European Journal of Oral Science 114(1):83-8. February [ Abstract ]

Vieira A, Hancock R, Dumitriu M, Schwartz M, Limeback H, Grynpas M. 2005. How does fluoride affect dentin microhardness and mineralization? Journal of Dental Research 84:951-7. October. [ Abstract ]

Vieira AP, Hanocock R, Eggertsson H, Everett ET, Grynpas MD. 2005. Tooth quality in dental fluorosis – genetic and environmental factors. Calcified Tissue International 76(1):17-25. January. [ Abstract ]

Vigorita VJ, Suda MK. 1983. The microscopic morphology of fluoride-induced bone. Clin Orthop. (177);274-82. Jul-Aug. [ Abstract ]

Viragh E, Viragh H, Laczka J, Coldea V. 2006. Health effects of occupational exposure to fluorine and its compounds in a small-scale enterprise. Industrial Health 44(1):64-8. January. [ Abstract ]

Virtanen JI, Bloigu RS, Larmas MA. 1994. Timing of eruption of permanent teeth: standard Finnish patient documents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 22(5 Pt 1):286-8. [ Abstract ]

Vischer TL, et al. 1970. Industrial fluorosis. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 96-105.

Vishnevskii VL, El Nichnykh LN. 1969. (A toxicological and morphological characterization of the action of different concentrations of inhaled hydrogen fluoride on the body.). Tr Tsentr Nauchno-Issled Proektn-Konstr In. 2: 143-147.

Vogt R, Witherell L, LaRue D, Klaucke DN. 1982. Acute fluoride poisoning associated with an on-site fluoridator in a Vermont elementary school. American Journal of Public Health 72(10):1168-1171. October. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/vogt-1982.pdf

Von Burg MM, Sanders BJ, Weddell JA. 1995. Baby bottle tooth decay: a concern for all mothers. Pediatric Nursing. 21(6):515-519, quiz 520-1. Nov-Dec. [ Abstract ]

von der Fehr FR. 1994. Caries prevalence in the Nordic countries. International Dentistry Journal 44(4 Suppl 1):371-8. August. [ Abstract ]

Voroshilin SI, et al. 1973. Cytogenetic effect of inorganic fluorine compounds on human and animal cells in vivo and in vitro. Genetika 9: 115-120.

Voroshilin SI, et al. 1975. Mutagenic effect of hydrogen fluoride on animals. Tsitol Genet. 9: 42-44.


Waddington RJ, Moseley R, Smith AJ, Sloan AJ, Embery G. 2004. Fluoride-induced changes to proteoglycan structure synthesised within the dentine–pulp complex in vitro. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1689(2):142-51. June 28. [ Abstract ]

Waldbott GL. 1956. Incipient fluorine intoxication from drinking water. Acta Med Scand 156:157-168. [ Summary ]

Waldbott GL. 1958. Allergic reactions from fluorides. International Archives of Allergy 12(6):347-355.

Waldbott GL. 1959. Urticaria due to fluoride. Acta Allergologica 13:456-468.

Waldbott GL. 1965. A Battle with Titans. Carlton Press, NY.

Waldbott GL. 1966. Fluoride and calcium levels in the aorta. Specialia 15:835-6.

Waldbott GL. 1968. Hydrofluorosis in the U.S.A. Fluoride 1(2):94-102. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/waldbott-1968.pdf

Waldbott GL. 1974. The pre-skeletal phase of chronic fluorine intoxication. Fluoride 7(3):118-122. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/waldbott-1974.pdf

Waldbott GL, Burgstahler AW, McKinney HL, Ochsner A.. 1978. Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma. Coronado Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

Waldbott GL, Lee JR. 1978. Toxicity from repeated low-grade exposure to hydrogen fluoride – Case report. Clinical Toxicology 13: 391-402.

Waldbott GW. 1979. Another fluoride fatality: a physician’s dilemma. Fluoride 12(2):55-57. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/waldbott-1979.pdf

Waidyasekera PG, Nikaido T, Weerasinghe DD, Wettasinghe KA, Tagami J. 2007. Caries susceptibility of human fluorosed enamel and dentine. J Dent. 35(4):343-9. April. [ Abstract ]

Wallace PE. 2006a. Motion of Objectors for stay of final rules establishing tolerances for residues of sulfuryl fluoride and fluoride anion. Before the Environmental Protection Agency. In Re Final Rules on Sulfuryl Fluoride Pesticide Residue Tolerances. Docket Nos. OPP-2005-0174; OPP-2003-0373. June. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wallace.2006a.pdf

Wallace PE. 2006b. Objector’s consolidated objections to final rules establishing tolerances for residues of sulfuryl fluoride and fluoride anion. Before the Environmental Protection Agency. In Re Final Rules on Sulfuryl Fluoride Pesticide Residue Tolerances. November. Full report at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wallace-2006b.pdf

Walland A. 1977. Further evidence for the involvement of cAMP in central blood pressure regulation. Arch Pharmacol 296:177-81.

Wallin JD, Kaplan RA. 1977. Effect of sodium fluoride on concentrating and diluting ability in the rat. American Journal of Physiology 232(4):F335-40. April. [ Abstract ]

Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. 1991. Fluoride ion effect on interfacial bonding and mechanical properties of bone. Journal of Biomechanics 24: 237.

Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. 1993. The role of ions and mineral-organic interfacial bonding on the compressive properties of cortical bone. Bio-medical Materials and Engineering 3(2):75-8. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Walsh WR, et al. 1994. The effect of in vitro fluoride ion treatment on the ultrasonic properties of cortical bone. Ann Biomed Eng. 22(4):404-15.

Wan G, et al. 2001. Determination and analysis on multimark of test of patients with endemic fluorosis. Chinese Jouranl of Endemiology 20(2):137-39.

Wan S, Zhang J, Wang J. 2006. Fluoride-induced changes in the expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor in testicular tissues of young male rats. Fluoride 39(2)121–125. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wan-2006.pdf

Wan SX, Zhang JH, Wang JD. 2006b. Effects of high fluoride on sperm quality and testicular histology in male rats. Fluoride 39(1)17–21. January-March. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wan-2006b.pdf

Wang AG, et al. 2004. Effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis in human embryo hepatocytes. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 17(2):217-22. June. [ Abstract ]

Wang G, Yang D, Jia, Wang H. 2008. A study of the IQ levels of four- to seven-year old children in high fluoride areas. Fluoride 41(4)340–343. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/wang-2008-1.pdf

Wang J, Ge Y, Ning H, Wang S. 2004. Effects of high fluoride and low iodine on biochemical indexes of the brain and learning-memory of offspring rats. Fluoride 37(4):201-208. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wang-2004b.pdf

Wang J, Ge Y, Ning H, Wang S. 2004. Effects of high fluoride and low iodine on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense of the brain in offspring rats. Fluoride 37(4):264-270. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wang-2004b.pdf

Wang SX, Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, Li J, Sang Z-P, Zhang X-D, Han L-L, Qiao X-Y, Wu Z-M, Wang Z-Q. 2007. Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children’s IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(4):643-7. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/wang-2007.pdf

Wang S, Zhang H, Fan W, Fang S, Kang P, Chen X, Yu M. 2008. The effects of endemic fluoride poisoning caused by coal burning on the physical development and intelligence of children. Fluoride 412(4)344-348. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/wang.s-2008-1.pdf

Wang W, et al. 2004. Ossification of the transverse atlantal ligament associated with fluorosis: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Spine 29(4):E75-8. February 15. [ Abstract ]

Wang Y, et al. 1983. A comparative study on systolic time interval of populations in mild and severe endemic fluorosis regions. Chin J Endem 7(1):60 (Abstract).

Wang Y, Guan Z, Xiao K. 1997. [Changes of coenzyme Q content in brain tissues of rats with fluorosis] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 31(6):330-3. November. [ Abstract ]

Wang Y, Yin Y, Gilula LA, Wilson AJ. 1994. Endemic fluorosis of the skeleton: radiographic features in 127 patients. Am J Roentgenol. 162(1):93-8. January. [ Abstract ]

Warady BA, et al. 1989. Plasma fluoride concentration in infants receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Journal of Pediatrics 115(3):436-9. September.

Warburg O, Christian W. Isolierung und Kristallisation des Gärungsferment Enolase. Biochem. Z. 1942;310:385-421.

Warnakulasuriya S, Harris C, Gelbier S, Keating J, Peters T. 2002. Fluoride content of alcoholic beverages. Clin Chim Acta 320(1-2):1-4. June. [ Abstract ]

Warren DP, Henson A, Chan JT. 1996. Comparison of fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and instant coffee. Fluoride 29(3):147-150. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/warren-1996.pdf

Warren JJ, Levy SL. 1999. Systemic fluoride: Sources, amounts, and effects of ingestion. Dental Clinics of North America 43(4):695-711. October. [ Abstract ]

Warren JJ, Levy SM. 2003. Current and future role of fluoride in nutrition. Dental Clinics of North America 47(2):225-43. April. [ Abstract ]

Warren JJ, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Kanellis MJ. 2006. Longitudinal study of non-cavitated carious lesion progression in the primary dentition. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 66(2):83-7. Spring. [ Abstract ]

Warren JJ, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Cavanaugh JE, Kanellis MJ, Weber-Gasparoni K. 2008. Considerations on optimal fluoride intake using dental fluorosis and dental caries outcomes – a longitudinal study. J Public Health Dent. Nov 21. [Epub ahead of print] [ Abstract ]

Waterhouse C, Taves D, Munzer A. 1980. Serum inorganic fluoride: changes related to previous fluoride intake, renal function and bone resorption. Clinical Science 58(2):145-52. February. [ Abstract ]

Watters JL, et al. 2007. Associations of antioxidant nutrients and oxidative DNA damage in healthy African-American and White adults. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 16(7):1428-36.

Webb-Peploe MM, Bradley WG. 1966. Endemic fluorosis with neurological complications in a Hampshire man. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 29:577-583.

Wefel JS. 1990. Effects of fluoride on caries development and progression using intra-oral models. Journal of Dental Research 69 Spec No:626-33; discussion 634-6. February. [ Abstract ]

Wei SY, Hatab FN. 1987. Fluoride content of dried seafoods (abstract). Journal of Dental Research 66: 957.

Weinstein P, Domoto P, Wohlers K, Koday M.  1992.  Mexican-America parents with children at risk for baby bottle tooth decay.  Pilot study at migrant farmworkers clinic. ASDC J Dent Chil 59:376-383.

Welbury RR, Shaw L. 1990. A simple technique for removal of mottling, opacities and pigmentation from enamel. Dental Update 17(4):161-3. May. [ Abstract ]

Welsch M, Bloch JG, Stephan D, Bloch R, Imbs JL. 1990. [Iatrogenic fluorosis. 2 cases] [Article in French]. Therapie. 45(5):419-22. Sep-Oct. [ Abstract ]

Weng C, Smith DB, Huntley GM. 2000. Treatment chemicals contribute to arsenic levels. Opflow (publication of the American Water Works Association). October. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/weng-2000.pdf

Westendorf J. 1975. The kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the influence of fluoride and fluoride complexes on the permeability of erythrocyte membranes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1975. Available on-line at http://www.fluorideaction.org/westendorf.pdf (January 3, 2005).

White B. 1993. Toward improving the oral health of Americans: an overview of oral health status, resources and care delivery . Public Health Reports. Journal of the U.S. Public Health Service. 108(6); 657-672.

Whitford GM, Taves DR. 1971. Fluoride-induced diuresis: plasma concentrations in the rat. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 137:458-460.
[ See also: Angmar-Mansson B, Whitford GM. 1982. Plasma fluoride levels and enamel fluorosis in the rat. Caries Research 16: 334-9. ]

Whitford GM. 1987. Fluoride in dental products: safety considerations. Journal of Dental Research 66(5):1056-60. May. [ Abstract ]

Whitford GM, et al. 1987. Topical fluorides: effects on physiologic and biochemical processes. J Dent Res. 66(5):1072-8.

Whitford GM. 1990. The physiological and toxicological characteristics of fluoride. Journal of Dental Research 69 Spec No:539-49; discussion 556-7. February. [ Abstract ]

Whitford G. 1996. The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride. 2nd Revised Edition. Karger: Basel.

Whitford G. 1996. Fluoride toxicology and health effects. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B, Eds. Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd Edition. Munksgaard, Denmark. p. 167-184.

Whiting P. 2001. Association of Down’s syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence. BMC Public Health.1:6.

Whyte MP, Totty WG, Lim VT, Whitford GM. 2008. Skeletal fluorosis from instant tea. J Bone Miner Res. 23(5):759-69 May. [ Abstract ]

Whyte MP, Essmyer K, Gannon FH, Reinus WR. 2005. Skeletal fluorosis and instant tea. American Journal of Medicine 118:78-82. Press release
Comment in: Am J Med. 2006 Feb;119(2):189-90.

Whyte MP. 2006. Fluoride levels in bottled teas. Letter to Editor. American Journal of Medicine, 119(2):189-190. February.
Comment on: Am J Med. 2005 Jan;118(1):78-82.

Wilkinson PC. 1983. Effects of fluoride on locomotion of human blood leucocytes in vitro. Archives of Oral Biology 28: 415-8.

Williams DM, et al. 2006. Characteristics attributed to individuals with dental fluorosis. Community Dental Health 23:209-16.

Williams JE, Zwemer JD. 1990. Community water fluoride levels, preschool dietary patterns, and the occurrence of fluoride enamel opacities. J of Pub Health Dent. 50(4):276-81. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Wilson D. 1941. Fluorine in the aetiology of endemic goitre. The Lancet 15: 212-213. February. See study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/thyroid/lancet-1941.html

Wilson RH, DeEds F. 1940. The synergistic action of thyroid on fluoride toxicity. Endocrinology 26:851.

Wittinghofer A. 1997. Signaling mechanistics: aluminum fluoride for molecule of the year. Current Biology 7(11):R682-5. November 1. [ Abstract ]

Wix P, Mohamedally SM. 1980. The significance of age-dependent fluoride accumulation in bone in relation to daily intake of fluoride. Fluoride 13(3):100-104. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/wix-198[1].pdf

Wolinsky I, Simkin A, Guggenheim K. 1972. Effects of fluoride on metabolism and mechanical properties of rat bone. American Journal of Physiology. 223(1):46-50. July.

Wondwossen F, Astrøm AN, Bjorvatn K, Bardsen A. 2004. The relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with moderate- and high-fluoride drinking water in Ethiopia. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 32(5):337-44. [ Abstract ]
Comment in:
* J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2005 Sep;5(3):170-1.

Wong HM, McGrath C, Lo ECM, King NM. 2006. Association between developmental defects of enamel and different concentrations of fluoride in the public water supply. Caries Res 40(6):481–486. [ Abstract ]

Woodward GL, et al. 1996. Clinical determinants of a parent’s satisfaction with the appearance of a child’s teeth. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 24:416-18.

World Health Organization (Online). WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme. Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Surveillance/Oral Health. WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmö University, Sweden. http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html

World Health Organization. 2002. Environmental Health Criteria 227: Fluorides. World Health Organization, Geneva. Full report at http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm

World Health Organization. 1970. Fluorides and Human Health. WHO Chron. 24(6):271-80. June.

Wu C, Gu X, Ge Y, Zhang J, Wang J. 2006. Effects of high fluoride and arsenic on brain biochemical indexes and learning-memory in rats. Fluoride 39(4):274–279. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wu-2006.pdf

Wu DQ, Wu Y. 1995. Micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange frequency in endemic fluorosis. Fluoride. 28(3):125-127. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/wu.1995.pdf

Wu N, et al. 1995. Research on the abnormal behavior of rats exposed to fluoride. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 14(5):271.

Wu N, Zhao Z, Gao W, LiX. 2008. Behavioral teratology in rats exposed to fluoride. Fluoride 41(2):129-133. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/wu.2008.pdf

Wu PF, et al. 2010. Morphologic observation of mouse testicular tissue lesions induced by fluorine. Animal Husbandry and Feed Science. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-NMXK201004011.htm

Wurtz T, Houari S, Mauro N, MacDougall M, Peters P, Berdal A. 2008. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro. Toxicology 249:26–34. [ Abstract ]


Xiang Q, et al. 2003a. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 36(2):84-94. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/xiang-2003a.pdf

Xiang Q, et al. 2003b. Blood lead of children in Wamiao-Xinhuai intelligence study. Fluoride 36(3):198-199. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/xiang-2003b.pdf

Xiang Q, et al. 2005. Serum fluoride and skeletal fluorosis in two villages in Jiangsu Province, China. Fluoride 38(3):178–184. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/uploads/xiang-2005.pdf

Xiaoli L, et al. 1999. The detection of children’s T3, T4 and TSH contents in endemic fluorosis areas. Endemic Disease Bulletin 14(1):16-17.

Xie YP, et al. 2000. Clinical study of the effect of high fluoride on the function of the pancreatic islet b-cells. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 19(2): 84-6. [See copy of study]

Xiong X, et al. 2007. Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children. Environmental Research 103(1):112-6. January. [ Abstract ]

Xu JC, et al. 1987. X-ray findings and pathological basis of bone fluorosis. Chinese Medical Journal 100(1):8-16. January.

Xu H, Hu L, Chang M, Jing L, Zhang X., Li GS. 2005. Proteomic analysis of kidney in fluoride-treated rat. Toxicol Lett. 160(1):69-75. December 30. [ Abstract ]

Xu H, Jin XQ, Jing L, Li GS. 2006. Effect of sodium fluoride on the expression of bcl-2 family and osteopontin in rat renal tubular cells. Biological Trace Element Research 109:55-60. January. [ Abstract ]

Xu H, Wang CH, Zhao ZT, Zhang WB, Li GS. 2008. Role of oxidative stress in osteoblasts exposed to sodium fluoride. Biol Trace Elem Res. 123(1-3):109-15. Summer.

Xu RQ, et al. 1997. Relations between environment and endemic fluorosis in Hohot region, Inner Mongolia. Fluoride 30(1): 26-28. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/xu-1997.pdf

Xu YL, Lu CS, Zhang XN. 1994. [Effect of fluoride on children’s intelligence] [Article in Chinese]. Di Fang Bing Tong Bao 9:83–84.

Xue C, et al. 2000. [Study on antagonistic effects of selenium and zinc on the renal impairments induced by fluoride in rats] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 29(1):21-3. January. [ Abstract ]


Yamamoto S, Katagiri K, Ando M, Chen XQ. 2001. Suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses mechanisms and lung damage in mice exposed to fluoride aerosol. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 23;62(6):485-94. March. [ Abstract ].

Yan Q, Zhang Y, Li W, Denbesten PK. 2007. Micromolar fluoride alters ameloblast lineage cells in vitro. J Dent Res. 86(4):336-40. April. [ Abstract ]

Yan X, Feng C, Chen Q, Li W, Wang H, Lv L, Smith GW, Wang J. 2009. Effects of sodium fluoride treatment in vitro on cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression by neonatal rat osteoblasts. Arch Toxicol. 83(5):451-8. May. [ Abstract ]

Yang CY, Cheng MF, Tsai SS, Hung CF. 2000. Fluoride in drinking water and cancer mortality in Taiwan. Environmental Research 82(3):189-93. March. [ Abstract ]

Yang K, et al. 1996. Study on effects of selenium on lipid peroxidation and trace elements changes induced by fluorine and selenium in tissue of rat testis. Online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZWSX605.008.htm

Yang KD, et al. 2002. [Study on antagonistic effects of selenite on fluoride-induced impairments of testis and epididymis in rats]. Chung-Kuo Kung Kung Wei Sheng 18: 427-9.

Yang Y, et al. 1994. The effects of high levels of fluoride and iodine on intellectual ability and the metabolism of fluoride and iodine. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 15(4):296-98 (republished in Fluoride 2008; 41:336-339). [See study]

Yang Y, Wang X, Guo X, Hu P. 2008. The effects of high levels of fluoride and iodine on child intelliectual ability and the metabolism of fluoride and iodine. Fluoirde 41(4):336-339. October-December. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/yang-2008.pdf

Yang Z, et al. 1987. Industrial fluoride pollution in the metallurgical industry in China. Fluoride 20(3):118-125. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/yang-1987.pdf – NOTE: see Zhiliang Y, et al. 1987.

Yao LM, Deng Y, Yang SY et al. 1997. [Comparison of children’s health and intelligence between the fluorosis area with altering water source and those without altering water source] [Article in Chinese]. Yu Fang Yi Xue Wen Xian Xin Xi 3(1):42–43.

Yao Y, et al. 1996. Analysis on TSH and intelligence level of children with dental Fluorosis in a high fluoride area. Literature and Information on Preventive Medicine 2(1):26-27.

Yao Y, et al. 1997. Comparative assessment of the physical and mental development of children in endemic fluorosis area with water improvement and without water improvement. Literature and Information on Preventive Medicine 3(1):42-43.

Yi J, Cao J. 2008. Tea and fluorosis. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 129:76-81.

Yiamouyiannis J. 1990. Testimony before Board of Scientific Counselors, National Toxicology Program; Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Thursday, April 26, 1990.

Yiamouyiannis JA. 1990. Water fluoridation and tooth decay: results from the 1986-87 National Survey of U.S. Schoolchildren. Fluoride. 23(2):55-67. See study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/nidr-dmft.html

Yiamouyiannis JA. 1993. Fluoridation and cancer: the biology and epidemiology of bone and oral cancer related to fluoridation. Fluoride. 26(2):83-96. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/yiamouyiannis-1993.pdf

Yoder KM, Maupome G, Ofner S, Swigonski NL. 2007. Knowledge and use of fluoride among Indiana dental professionals. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 67(3):140-7. Summer. [ Abstract ]

Yu RA, Xia T, Wang AG, Chen XM. 2006. Effects of selenium and zinc on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rats. Biomed Environ Sci. 19(6):439-44. December.

Yu Y. 1985. Study on serum T4, T3, and TSH levels in patients with chronic skeletal fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 4(3):242-43.

Yu Y, Yang W, Dong Z, Wan C, Zhang J, Liu J, Xiao K, Huang Y, Lu B. 2008. Neurotransmitter and receptor changes in the brains of fetuses from areas of endemic fluorosis. Fluoride 41(2)134–138. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/yu-2008.pdf

Yu Y, Yang W, Dong Z, Wan C, Zhang J, Liu J, Xiao K, Huang Y, Lu B. 2008. Neurotransmitter and receptor changes in the brains of fetuses from areas of endemic fluorosis. Fluoride 41(2)134–138. April-June. Full study at http://www.fluoridealert.org/scher/yu-2008.pdf

Yuan S. 1989. The influence of fluorosis on the function of pituitary-gonadal axis in rat. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB198902002.htm


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