Fluoride Action Network

Government Reports & FAN Submissions

FAN's compilation of government and other reports from the US, EU, WHO, UN, Australia, Canada, Ireland, NZ, and the UK. The majority of FAN's submissions to various government agencies over the years are also included.


Note: for the many news articles on fluoride and fluorosis in India click here. For health studies, click here

Good overview:
2016 – Fluorosis, by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, National Health, India.

2022 – High levels of fluoride in groundwater from Northern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains reveals detrimental fluorosis health risks. By Nizam S, Virk HS, Sen IS. Environmental Advances, February 25.


2022 – Distribution, prevalence and health risk assessment of fluoride and arsenic in groundwater from lower Gangetic plain in West Bengal, India, by De A, Mridha D, Joardar M, Das A, Chowdhury NR, Roychowdhury T. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, January 14th, 2022


2021 – Groundwater fluoride across the Punjab plains of Pakistan and India: Distribution and underlying mechanisms, by Khattak JA, Farooqi A, Hussain I, Kumar A, Singh CK, Mailloux BJ, Bostick B, van Geen A. Science of The Total Environment, 806(3):151353. October.


2021 – ‘It is poison, not water, that comes out of the handpumps’ – Unnao, Uttar Pradesh. By Pankaja Srinivasan, Gaon Connection.

2021 – Hydrogeochemistry and Health Risk Assessment of groundwater and surface water in fluoride affected area of Yadadri-Bhuvanagiri District, Telangana State, India. By More S, Dhakate R, Ratnalu GV, Machender G. Environmental Earth Sciences 80, 262.



2021 – Sensitive assessment of groundwater-associated, multi-exposure health hazards in a fluoride-enriched region of West Bengal, India. By Hossain M, Patra PK, Ghosh B, Khatun A, Nayek S. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.

2021 – Impact of geology and anthropogenic activities over the water quality with emphasis on fluoride in water scarce Lalitpur district of Bundelkhand region, India. By Pant N, Rai SP, Singh R, Kumar S, et al. Chemosphere 279:130496.

Excerpt: Fluoride exposure dosage for the infant and children is twice that of adults in the study area, indicating a stronger impact of fluoride concentration in infants and children.

2021 – Fluoride and nitrate in groundwater of rural habitations of semiarid region of northern Rajasthan, India: a hydrogeochemical, multivariate statistical, and human health risk assessment perspective. By Jandu A, Malik A, Dhull SB.  Environ Geochem Health.

Excerpt: Nitrate content of about 86% samples and fluoride content of about 54% exceeded the permissible limit of Bureau of Indian Standards (IS:10,500) as well as World Health Organization standards.

2019 – Concentration of fluoride in groundwater of India: A systematic review, meta-analysis and risk assessment, by Ali S, Fsakhri Y, Golbini M, Thakur SK, et al. Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

2020 – Health risk assessment of co-occurrence of toxic fluoride and arsenic in groundwater of Dharmanagar region, North Tripura (India). Bhattacharya P, Adhikari S, Samal AC, et al. Groundwater for Sustainable Development 11:100430.

Excerpt: The obtained results are highly alarming and thus for reducing threats to human health, the government should immediately take necessary action for supplying safe drinking water for the residents.

2020 – Data on fluoride concentration profile in groundwater of rural habitats in Mahabubnagar district, Telangana, India. By Dasaiah S, Kurakalva RM, Pindi PK. Data in Brief 32:106165.

Fig. 1

2020 – Groundwater quality with special reference to fluoride concentration in the granitic and basaltic contact zone of southern India. By Allam E, Gangula HK, Arukonda R, Muralidhar M. Data in Brief 33:106462.

2018 – New computer models show that more than 100 million people in India are affected by excess fluoride in groundwater. Press Release: EAWAG: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.

2017 – South Asia Groundwater Forum: Regional Challenges and Opportunities for Building Drought and Climate Resilience for Farmers, Cities, and Villages. Hirji, R., Mandal, S., & Pangare, G. (Eds.). This Forum was held was held in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from June 1–3, 2016, and convened by the World Bank in partnership with the Government of India and the International Water Association.

2017 – Hydrogeochemistry of coal mine water of North Karanpura coalfields, India: implication for solute acquisition processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment. By Neogi B, Singh AK, Chaturvedi A. Environmental Earth Sciences 76:489.
TDS, TH, F, SO42- , Fe, Mn, Ni and Al are identified as the major objectionable parameters in these waters for drinking.

2016 – Fluorosis by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, National Health, India.

2012 – The State of Fluoride in India, By the Fluoride Knowledge and Action Group (on FAN site)

2012: Indian Standard Drinking Water – Specification (Second Revision). By the Bureau of Indian Standards.

2012: A study on the high fluoride concentration in the magnesium-rich waters of hard rock aquifer in Krishnagiri district, Tamilnadu, India. By Manikandan S, Chidambaram S, Ramanathan AL, et al. Arabian Journal of Geosciences.

2003: India’s groundwater is flooded with fluoride, by V.K. Joshi, former Director, Geological Survey of India. Down to Earth.

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