World Health Organization | United Nations
Fluoride in water is mostly of geological origin. Waters with high levels of fluoride content are mostly found at the foot of high mountains and in areas where the sea has made geological deposits. Known fluoride belts on land include: one that stretches from Syria through Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Sudan and Kenya, and another that stretches from Turkey through Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, northern Thailand and China. There are similar belts in the Americas and Japan. In these areas fluorosis has been reported.
by World Health Organization
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Cited in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization 90(3): 228–235A.
2022 – WHO: Global oral health status report: towards universal health coverage for oral health by 2030. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN: 978-92-4-006148-4. November 18, 2022.
2022 – WHO: Prevention and treatment of dental caries with mercury-free products and minimal intervention. This is the first of a new series of “briefing notes” on oral health advocating fluoride toothpaste, and other topical interventions, to reduce dental caries. By WHO Noncommunicable diseases. Released March 16, 2022.
2019 – WHO: Inadequate or Excess Fluoride: A Major Public Health Concern.
2017 – UNESCO: Fluoride Removal from Groundwater by Adsorption Technology. The occurrence, adsorbent synthesis, regeneration and disposal. By Abdulai Salifu. Dissertation. Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the Board for Doctorates of Delft University of Technology and of the Academic Board of the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education for the Degree of DOCTOR. Netherlands.
2017 – WHO: Inheriting a Sustainable World? Atlas on Children’s Health and the Environment. World Health Organization.
2016 – WHO: Fluoride and Oral Health, by *O’Mullane DM, Baez RJ, *Jones S, *Lennon MA, *Petersen PE, *Rugg-Gunn AJ, *Whelton H, *Whitford GM. Community Dental Health 33:69-99. January 1, 2016. Note from FAN: those with an asterick are well-know fluoridation promoters.
2015 – WHO: Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization.
2015 – WHO: Long term evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of community milk fluoridation in Bulgaria, by Petersen PE, Kwan S, Ogawa H. Community Dental Health, 32:199-203.
2014 – WHO: Chemicals of public health concern in the African Region and their management: Regional Assessment Report. World Health Organization. July 4.
2014 – WHO: Basic methods for assessment of renal fluoride excretion in community prevention programmes for oral health. World Health Organization.
2012 – WHO: Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 90(3): 228–235A. See also html
2012 – WHO & UNEP: State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals – 2012. See Table 1.4, page 13: Examples of EDCs with low dose effects (in animals).
2011 – WHO: Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Fourth Edition.
2010 – WHO: Inadequate or Excess Fluoride: A Major Public Health Concern. Public Health and Environment, Geneva, Switzerland.
2009 – WHO: Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Edited by J Bánóczy, PE Petersen, AJ Rugg-Gunn. Authored by J Bánóczy, M Edgar, PE Petersen, A Rugg-Gunn. ISBN 978 92 4 154775 8
2008 – WHO: Petersen PE, Kwan S, Zhu L, Zhang BX, Bian BY. 2008. Effective use of fluorides in the People’s Republic of China – A model for WHO Mega Country initiatives. Community Dental Health (Supplement 1) 25, 257–267.
2007 – WHO: Changing use and knowledge of fluoride toothpaste by schoolchildren, parents and schoolteachers in Beijing, China, by Liu M, Zhu L, Zhang B. International Dental Journal 57:187-194.
2006 – WHO: Fluoride in Drinking-Water. By J Fawell, K Bailey, J Chilton, E Dahi, L Fewtrell and Y Magara. Note: See background document for this report.
2006 – WHO: Press Release: New WHO report tackles fluoride in drinking-water.
2005 – WHO: Salt fluoridation – an alternative in automatic prevention of dental caries, by Marthaler TM, Petersen PE. International Dental Journal, 55:351-358.
2005 – WHO: The effective use of fluorides in public health. By S Jones, BA Burt, PE Petersen, MA Lennon. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83:670-676.
2004 – WHO: Fluoride in Drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/96. See 2006 Fluoride in Drinking-Water.
2003 – WHO: The World Oral Health Report 2003. Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century – the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. By Poul Erik Petersen.
2002 – WHO: Fluorides, Environmental Health Criteria 227. International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland.
2002 – WHO: The Bangkok Statement: A pledge to promote the protection of Children’s Environmental Health. On FAN site.
2000 – WHO: Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Second Edition. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
1999 – UNICEF: Fluoride in water: An overview. December 1999
1998 – WHO | IARC: Fluorides (Inorganic, Used in Drinking Water) Group 3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) – Summaries & Evaluations.
1986 – Appropriate Use of Fluorides for Human Health – see also Part 2 of this report. Edited by J.J. Murray.